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Dietary intake of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA in developed countries is low compared with recommendations. Fish is naturally rich in LC n-3 PUFA, but is also a dietary source of heavy metals and organic pollutants. We investigated whether the recommendation for LC n-3 PUFA could be reached through fish consumption, without exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake of methylmercury (MeHg) and the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of dioxin-like compounds. Also, the contribution of margarines enriched with LC n-3 PUFA was assessed.
Published nutrient and contaminant data were used in a probabilistic model to calculate the simultaneous nutrient and contaminant intake for different fish consumption scenarios.
The Belgian recommendation for EPA + DHA (0·3 % of total energy intake) can be reached by consuming fatty fish a minimum of twice a week, or by varying between lean and fatty fish a minimum of three times a week. At this fish consumption level, MeHg intake is not an issue of toxicological concern. The intake of dioxin-like compounds approximates the TWI when consuming fatty fish more than twice a week, this being a potential toxicological risk because other food items also contribute to the weekly intake of dioxin-like compounds. Use of margarine enriched with LC n-3 PUFA can help to increase LC n-3 intake, on average by 159 mg/d.
Combination of regular fish consumption (twice a week) with important contribution of fatty fish species, in combination with regular consumption of margarine enriched with EPA + DHA, can be advised to achieve the recommendation for LC n-3 intake.
To validate food photographs for food portion size estimation of frequently consumed dishes, to be used in a 24-hour recall food consumption study of pregnant women in a rural environment in Burkina Faso. This food intake study is part of an intervention evaluating the efficacy of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes.
Women of childbearing age (15–45 years).
A food photograph album containing four photographs of food portions per food item was compiled for eight selected food items. Subjects were presented two food items each in the morning and two in the afternoon. These foods were weighed to the exact weight of a food depicted in one of the photographs and were in the same receptacles. The next day another fieldworker presented the food photographs to the subjects to test their ability to choose the correct photograph.
The correct photograph out of the four proposed was chosen in 55% of 1028 estimations. For each food, proportions of underestimating and overestimating participants were balanced, except for rice and couscous. On a group level, mean differences between served and estimated portion sizes were between −8.4% and 6.3%. Subjects who attended school were almost twice as likely to choose the correct photograph. The portion size served (small vs. largest sizes) had a significant influence on the portion estimation ability.
The results from this study indicate that in a West African rural setting, food photographs can be a valuable tool for the quantification of food portion size on group level.
In 2003, Sidmar commissioned the renewed blast furnace A at
the Ghent works. It will operate together with the existing blast furnace B
to provide an ironmaking capacity of 4.5 million t/year under optimal
circumstances. The furnace was designed and constructed under an engineering
contract with Paul Wurth and by a joint Sidmar engineering and project team.
This will be the fifth campaign of blast furnace A. This paper describes
the relining operations.
A certain number of changes have been made on the occasion of the relining of blast
furnace B at Ghent. They oncern the design of the furnace and the improvement of its
cooling system, the repair of the hot blast stoves, the replacement of part of the
control equipment and the installation of new measuring devices. Environmental controls
and improved working conditions were also at the origin of some changes. The result
of this operation is a fine new furnace equipped with the latest measuring
and control systems.