The risk for many chronic diseases appears to be mediated in part by birth weight. Among Aboriginal Canadians, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease risk is disproportionately high, largely because of elevated diabetes prevalence. The relationships between birth weight (and other potential risk factors) and diabetes, hypertension, proteinuria and overweight/obesity were explored in 1439 rural Albertans (Canada), of whom 67.3% were Aboriginal. At voluntary outreach screening programs, demographic and clinical data were measured and recalled birth weights recorded. Statistical modeling using logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationships. In the final adjusted models, associations remained for low birth weight and proteinuria [odds ratio (OR) 2.36; 95% CI 1.24–4.49], as well as for high birth weight and overweight/obesity (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.00–2.53). These findings emphasize the need to strive for healthy pregnancies, with appropriate weight gains in these and other disadvantaged populations around the world.