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The 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) increased monthly Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits and expanded SNAP eligibility, yet limited evidence exists on the potential impact of ARRA on dietary intake among at-risk individuals. We aimed to examine pre-/post-ARRA differences in food insecurity (FI) and dietary intake by SNAP participation status.
Boston, MA, USA.
Data were from the longitudinal Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (2007–2015). The US Department of Agriculture ten-item adult module assessed FI. A validated FFQ assessed dietary intake. Diet quality was assessed using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010). Self-reported pre-/post-ARRA household SNAP participation responses were categorized as: sustained (n 249), new (n 95) or discontinued (n 58). We estimated differences in odds of FI and in mean nutrient intakes and AHEI-2010 scores post-ARRA.
Compared with pre-ARRA, OR (95 % CI) of FI post-ARRA were lower for all participants (0·69 (0·51, 0·94)), and within sustained (0·63 (0·43, 0·92)) but not within new (0·94 (0·49, 1·80)) or discontinued (0·63 (0·25, 1·56)) participants. Post-ARRA, total carbohydrate intake was higher, and alcohol intake was lower, for sustained and new participants, and dietary fibre was higher for sustained participants, compared with discontinued participants. Scores for AHEI-2010 and its components did not differ post-ARRA, except for lower alcohol intake for sustained v. discontinued participants.
Post-ARRA, FI decreased for sustained participants and some nutrient intakes were healthier for sustained and new participants. Continuing and expanding SNAP benefits and eligibility likely protects against FI and may improve dietary intake.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study is to use machine Learning techniques to generate maps of epithelium and lumen density in MRI space. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Methods: We prospectively recruited 39 patients undergoing prostatectomy for this institutional review board (IRB) approved study. Patients underwent MP-MRI before prostatectomy on a 3T field strength MRI scanner (General Electric, Waukesha, WI, USA) using an endorectal coil. MP-MRI included field-of-view optimized and constrained undistorted single shot (FOCUS) diffusion weighted imaging with 10 b-values (b=0, 10, 25, 50, 80, 100, 200, 500, 1000, and 2000), dynamic contrast enhanced imaging, and T2-weighted imaging. T2 weighted images were intensity normalized and apparent diffusion coefficient maps were calculated. The dynamic contrast enhanced data was used to calculate the percent change in signal intensity before and after contrast injection. All images were aligned to the T2 weighted image. Robotic prostatectomy was performed 2 weeks after image acquisition. Prostate samples were sliced using a 3D printed slicing jig matching the slice profile of the T2 weighted image. Whole mount samples at 10 μm thickness were taken, hematoxylin and eosin stained, digitized, and annotated by a board certified pathologist. A total of 210 slides were included in this study. Lumen and epithelium were automatically segmented using a custom algorithm written in MATLAB. The algorithm was validated by comparing manual to automatic segmentation on 18 samples. Slides were aligned with the T2 weighted image using a nonlinear control point warping technique. Lumen and epithelium density and the expert annotation were subsequently transformed into MRI space. Co-registration was validated by applying a known warp to tumor masks noted by the pathologist and control point warping the whole mount slide to match the transform. Overlap was measured using a DICE coefficient. A learning curve was generated to determine the optimal number of patients to train the algorithm on. A PLS algorithm was trained on 150 random permutations of patients incrementing from 1 to 29 patients. Slides were stratified such that all slides from a single patient were in the same cohort. Three cohorts were generated, with tumor burden balanced across all cohort. A PLS algorithm was trained on 2 independent training sets (cohorts 1 and 2) and applied to cohort 3. The input vector consisted of MRI values and the target variable was lumen and epithelium density. The algorithm was trained lesion-wise. Trained PiCT models were applied to the test cohort voxel-wise to generate 2 new image contrasts. Mean lesion values were compared between high grade, low grade, and healthy tissue using an ANOVA. An ROC analysis was performed lesion-wise on the test set. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results: The segmentation accuracy validation revealed R=0.99 and R=0.72 (p<0.001) for lumen and epithelium, respectively. The co-registration accuracy revealed a 94.5% overlap. The learning curve stabilized at 10 patients with a root mean square error of 0.14, thus the size of the 2 independent training cohorts was set to 10, leaving 19 for the test cohort. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We present a technique for combining radiology and pathology with machine learning for generating predictive cytological topography (PiCT) maps of cellularity and lumen density prostate. The voxel-wise approach to mapping cellular features generates 2 new interpretable image contrasts, which can potentially increase confidence in diagnosis or guide biopsy and radiation treatment.
Across the southeastern United States, pyridine carboxylic acid herbicides are widely used for broadleaf weed control in permanent grass pastures. This family of herbicides has proved very successful for controlling most broadleaf weeds commonly present in southeastern pastures and hayfields. In the southern United States, producers have expressed concern when overseeding legume species into warm-season perennial sods following application of commonly used pyridine carboxylic acid herbicides, as legumes are generally highly sensitive to this herbicide family. Field experiments were established to evaluate two herbicide treatment programs (residual vs nonresidual) on crimson clover overseeded into bermudagrass sod. The residual herbicide program included aminopyralid plus 2,4-D (0.09 + 0.7 kg ae ha–1), and the nonresidual program included triclopyr plus fluroxypyr (0.63 + 0.21 kg ae ha–1) plus 2,4-D (1.12 kg ae ha–1). Herbicide programs were applied at two key timings: in spring (May) and early summer (June). Spring applications were also evaluated when used in single vs repeated annual application. Our results did not indicate soil residual herbicide issues for crimson clover planted in the fall following spring or early-summer application of aminopyralid + 2,4-D at either location. Additionally, there were no cumulative negative impacts on crimson clover following 2 yr of spring herbicide application. Crimson clover cover, however, strongly decreased as grass and weed cover increased––an event that may be related to greater interspecific competition at higher levels of grass and weed cover. Soil fertility, weather, and competition from resident annual grasses and weeds strongly influenced productivity, suggesting that changes in pasture dynamics had a greater influence on clover productivity than did herbicide treatment or timing of application.
There is growing evidence that intakes of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), HFCS-sweetened soda, fruit drinks and apple juice – a high-fructose 100 % juice – are associated with asthma, possibly because of the high fructose:glucose ratios and underlying fructose malabsorption, which may contribute to enteral formation of pro-inflammatory advanced glycation end products, which bind receptors that are mediators of asthma. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess associations between intakes of these beverages and asthma risk, with data from the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Diet soda and orange juice – a 100 % juice with a 1:1 fructose:glucose ratio – were included for comparison. Increasing intake of any combination of HFCS-sweetened soda, fruit drinks and apple juice was significantly associated with progressively higher asthma risk, plateauing at 5–7 times/week v. never/seldom, independent of potential confounders (hazard ratio 1·91, P<0·001). About once a day consumers of HFCS-sweetened soda had a 49 % higher risk (P<0·011), moderate apple juice consumers (2–4 times/week) had a 61 % higher risk (P<0·007) and moderate fruit drink consumers had a 58 % higher risk (P<0·009), as compared with never/seldom consumers. There were no associations with diet soda/orange juice. These associations are possibly because of the high fructose:glucose ratios, and fructose malabsorption. Recommendations to reduce consumption may be inadequate to address asthma risk, as associations are evident even with moderate intake of these beverages, including apple juice – a 100 % juice. The juice reductions in the US Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in 2009, and the plateauing/decreasing asthma prevalence (2010–2013), particularly among non-Hispanic black children, may be related. Further research regarding the consequences of fructose malabsorption is needed.
Access to transition-related medical interventions (TRMIs) for transgender veterans has been the subject of substantial public interest and debate. To better inform these important conversations, the current study investigated whether undergoing hormone or surgical transition intervention(s) relates to the frequency of recent suicidal ideation (SI) and symptoms of depression in transgender veterans.
This study included a cross-sectional, national sample of 206 self-identified transgender veterans. They self-reported basic demographics, TRMI history, recent SI, and symptoms of depression through an online survey.
Significantly lower levels of SI experienced in the past year and 2-weeks were seen in veterans with a history of both hormone intervention and surgery on both the chest and genitals in comparison with those who endorsed a history of no medical intervention, history of hormone therapy but no surgical intervention, and those with a history of hormone therapy and surgery on either (but not both) the chest or genitals when controlling for sample demographics (e.g., gender identity and annual income). Indirect effect analyses indicated that lower depressive symptoms experienced in the last 2-weeks mediated the relationship between the history of surgery on both chest and genitals and SI in the last 2-weeks.
Results indicate the potential protective effect that TRMI may have on symptoms of depression and SI in transgender veterans, particularly when both genitals and chest are affirmed with one's gender identity. Implications for policymakers, providers, and researchers are discussed.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Childhood obesity has increased rapidly in Mexico, along with changes in the food environment. However, little is known about the dietary patterns (DP) of Mexican children. We aimed to characterize the DP of schoolchildren and to analyse their associations with sociodemographic factors.
Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary and sociodemographic information was obtained, including a single 24 h recall, socio-economic status (SES), geographic region, area of residence and ethnicity. DP were defined with cluster analysis (using k-means). Multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for the survey design, were used to assess associations between DP and sociodemographic variables.
2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2012).
Schoolchildren (n 2751) aged 5–11 years who participated in ENSANUT-2012.
Four DP were identified: ‘Traditional’, ‘Industrialized’, ‘Varied’ and ‘Modern’. Reported energy intake (mean (sd)) was lowest in the ‘Traditional’ and highest in the ‘Industrialized’ DP (7037 (3707) kJ/d (1682 (886) kcal/d) v. 8427 (3753) kJ/d (2014 (897) kcal/d), respectively, P<0·05). Significant differences in fat and fibre intakes were seen across DP. Non-indigenous v. indigenous children were 22·0 times (95 % CI 5·1, 93·6) more likely to have a ‘Modern’ rather than ‘Traditional’ DP. Relative likelihood of having an ‘Industrialized’ rather than ‘Traditional’ DP was 6·2 (95 % CI 3·9, 9·9) among schoolchildren from high SES v. low SES.
Among Mexican schoolchildren, DP were associated with sociodemographic variables. Non-indigenous children were significantly more likely to consume a ‘Modern’ than a ‘Traditional’ DP. Children with higher SES were more likely to have an ‘Industrialized’ pattern. It is necessary to consider dietary characteristics in the different sociodemographic strata when dietary interventions are designed.
With the proposed ban on antibiotic growth promoters it is becoming increasingly important to provide diets to young pigs which enhance the long term health. Alternative strategies to promote health include organic acids, herbal products and natural antioxidants. These products have various proposed modes of action including improved liver function, removal of reactive oxygen species and the enhancement of the immune function. The objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of a commercial herbal mixture and Lycopene on the performance and immune function of weaned pigs.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
The current project seeks to integrate literatures on personality risk for antisocial behavior (ASB) by examining how callous–unemotional traits relate to (a) the development of disinhibited traits and (b) the association between disinhibited traits and ASB. In Study 1, using a nationally representative sample of youth (N > 7,000), we examined whether conduct problems and lack of guilt assessed during ages 4–10 years predicted levels of and changes in disinhibited traits over the course of adolescence, and moderated associations between these traits and ASB. High levels of childhood conduct problems were associated with higher levels of impulsivity, sensation seeking, and ASB in early adolescence, whereas lack of guilt was associated with lower levels of sensation seeking. Neither conduct problems nor lack of guilt significantly predicted changes in impulsivity or sensation seeking, and associations among changes in sensation seeking, impulsivity, and ASB were also consistent across levels of conduct problems and lack of guilt. In Study 2, using a cross-sectional sample of adolescents (N = 970), we tested whether callous–unemotional traits moderated associations between disinhibited traits and ASB. Consistent with the results of Study 1, associations between disinhibited personality and ASB were consistent across a continuous range of callous–unemotional traits.
Cortisol is the primary output of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and is central to the biological stress response, with wide-ranging effects on psychiatric health. Despite well-studied biological pathways of glucocorticoid function, little attention has been paid to the role of genetic variation. Conventional salivary, urinary and serum measures are strongly influenced by diurnal variation and transient reactivity. Recently developed technology can be used to measure cortisol accumulation over several months in hair, thus indexing chronic HPA function.
In a socio-economically diverse sample of 1070 twins/multiples (ages 7.80–19.47 years) from the Texas Twin Project, we estimated effects of sex, age and socio-economic status (SES) on hair concentrations of cortisol and its inactive metabolite, cortisone, along with their interactions with genetic and environmental factors. This is the first genetic study of hair neuroendocrine concentrations and the largest twin study of neuroendocrine concentrations in any tissue type.
Glucocorticoid concentrations increased with age for females, but not males. Genetic factors accounted for approximately half of the variation in cortisol and cortisone. Shared environmental effects dissipated over adolescence. Higher SES was related to shallower increases in cortisol with age. SES was unrelated to cortisone, and did not significantly moderate genetic effects on either cortisol or cortisone.
Genetic factors account for sizable proportions of glucocorticoid variation across the entire age range examined, whereas shared environmental influences are modest, and only apparent at earlier ages. Chronic glucocorticoid output appears to be more consistently related to biological sex, age and genotype than to experiential factors that cluster within nuclear families.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
Formaldehyde is an excellent molecule for studying isotopic abundances. It is easily observed in several connected transitions, allowing an analysis of excitation differences among species. With formaldehyde, one can also measure the same ratio using millimeter emission lines and centimeter absorption lines, which can often be interpreted more directly. A comparison of the results from the millimeter and centimeter lines can give an idea of the uncertainties in the analysis of millimeter emission lines.
To assess the relative validity of a semi-quantitative, web-based FFQ completed by female pregnancy planners in the Danish ‘Snart Forældre’ study.
We validated a web-based FFQ based on the FFQ used in the Danish National Birth Cohort against a 4 d food diary (FD) and assessed the relative validity of intakes of foods and nutrients. We compared means and medians of intakes, and calculated Pearson correlation coefficients and de-attenuated coefficients to assess agreement between the two methods. We also calculated the proportion correctly classified based on the same or adjacent quintile of intake and the proportion of grossly misclassified (extreme quintiles).
Participants (n 128) in the ‘Snart Forældre’ study who had completed the web-based FFQ were invited to participate in the validation study.
Participants in the ‘Snart Forældre’ study, in total ninety-seven women aged 20–42 years.
Reported intakes of dairy products, vegetables and potatoes were higher in the FFQ compared with the FD, whereas reported intakes of fruit, meat, sugar and beverages were lower in the FFQ than in the FD. Overall the de-attenuated correlation coefficients were acceptable, ranging from 0·33 for energy to 0·93 for vitamin D. The majority of the women were classified in the same or adjacent quintile and few women were misclassified (extreme quintiles).
The web-based FFQ performs well for ranking women of reproductive age according to high or low intake of foods and nutrients and, thus, provides a solid basis for investigating associations between diet and fertility.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
High soft drink consumption has been linked with asthma. Anecdotal evidence links high-fructose corn syrup with asthma. The receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has emerged as a mediator of asthma. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) assess the correlation between intake of beverages containing excess free fructose (EFF beverages) and asthma in children; and (ii) epidemiologically test the mechanistic hypothesis that intake of high EFF beverages, such as apple juice or beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup, is associated with increased risk of asthma. This hypothesis is based on the possible effect of increases in the in situ intestinal formation of advanced glycation end products (enFruAGE) with EFF, which may be absorbed and play a role in RAGE-mediated asthma.
We examined cross-sectional associations between beverage intake and self-reported current or history of asthma. Exposure variables were EFF beverages, including apple juice (AJ), non-diet soft drinks (ndSD) and fruit drinks (FD). Orange juice (OJ), not an EFF beverage, was included as a comparison. Rao–Scott χ2 analysis was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI and total energy intake.
Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006, a nationally representative survey.
US children (n 1961) aged 2–9 years with complete responses on the dietary frequency questionnaire.
Intakes of EFF beverages were significantly associated with asthma in 2–9-year-olds. Adjusted odds of asthma in children consuming EFF beverages ≥5 times/week was more than five times that in children consuming these beverages ≤1 time/month (OR=5·29, P=0·012). Children consuming AJ ≥5 times/week v. ≤1 time/month, adjusted for the other beverages, were more than twice as likely to have asthma (OR=2·43, P=0·035). In contrast, there was a tendency for OJ to be protective.
These results support the hypothesis that intake of high EFF beverages, including AJ and beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup, is associated with asthma in children aged 2–9 years. Results support the mechanistic hypothesis that enFruAGE may be an overlooked contributor to asthma in children. Longitudinal studies are needed to provide evidence of causal association.