The aim of this study was to establish reference interval for biochemical parameters in blood of alpacas on the basis of large population of clinically healthy animals, and to determine the influence of sex, age and season on nitrogen and lipid metabolites, enzymes, electrolytes, vitamins and minerals in blood of alpacas. Blood samples were collected from 311 alpacas (61 males and 201 females >6 months of age and 49 crias (21 males and 28 females) ⩽6 months of age). Selected farms were located in Central Europe (Czech Republic and Germany). We determined 24 biochemical parameters from blood serum. We performed the comparison of results by the sex of animals and for the older group also the comparison of the results with regard to the season, respectively, to the feeding period. We found no highly significant difference (P<0.01) between males and females with the exception of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cholesterol. We found 15 significantly different parameters between the group of crias 6 months of age and the older alpacas. Based on our findings we suggest for most parameters to use different reference intervals (especially ALP, cholesterol, total protein, globulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), GGT and phosphorus) for the two above-mentioned age groups. Another important finding is the differences between some parameters in older group of alpacas in summer/winter feeding period. Animals in the summer feeding period have higher values of parameters related to fat mobilization (β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA) and liver metabolism (bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase). The winter period with increased feeding of supplements with higher amount of fat, vitamins and minerals is characteristic by increased values of cholesterol, triglycerides, vitamins A and E, and some minerals (K, Ca, Mg and Cl) in blood serum. Clinical laboratory diagnosis of metabolic disturbances may be improved with use of age-based reference values and with consideration of seasonal differences.