Available primary structural information suggests that the FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) from parasitic and free-living nematodes are different, and that free-living forms may not represent appropriate models for the study of the neurochemistry of parasitic forms in the laboratory. However, here we report the isolation and unequivocal identification of AF2 (originally isolated from the parasite, Ascaris suum) from acidified alcoholic extracts of the free-living species, Panagrellus redivivus. While reverse-phase HPLC analysis of extracts revealed FMRFamide-immunoreactivity to be highly heterogeneous, AF2 was the predominant FMRFamide-immunoreactive peptide present (at least 26 pmol/g wet weight of worms). This peptide was also the major immunoreactant identified by an antiserum raised to the conserved C- terminal hexapeptide amide of mammalian pancreatic polypeptide (PP), which has been used previously to isolate neuropeptide F (NPF). These observations were confirmed by radioimmunoassay and chromatographic fractionation of an acidified alcoholic extract of A. suum heads. The FMRFamide-related peptides present in a nematode extract may be highly dependent on the extraction medium employed, and these data would suggest that this complement of neuropeptides may not be as different between parasitic and free-living nematodes as initial studies have suggested. Finally, all of the evidence suggests that NPF is not present in nematodes and that the PP-immunoreactant previously demonstrated immunochemically is probably AF2.