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Both double-crystal and triple-axis x-ray diffraction techniques have been used to study complex SiGe/Si structures. A novel method for measuring the nucleation activation energy of dislocations in strain relaxed SiGe/Si structures is presented to illustrate the usefulness of these techniques.
A variety of paediatric tracheostomy tubes are available. This article reviews the tubes in current use at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and Evelina London Children's Hospital.
This paper outlines our current preferences, and the particular indications for different tracheostomy tubes, speaking valves and other attachments.
Our preferred types of tubes have undergone significant design changes. This paper also reports further experience with certain tubes that may be useful in particular circumstances. An updated sizing chart is included for reference purposes.
The choice of a paediatric tracheostomy tube remains largely determined by individual clinical requirements. Although we still favour a small range of tubes for use in the majority of our patients, there are circumstances in which other varieties are indicated.
To date, there is a lack of consensus regarding the use of both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-operative assessment of cochlear implant candidates.
Twenty-five patients underwent high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. ‘Control scores’ describing the expected visualisation of specific features by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were established. An independent radiological review of all computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan features was then compared to the control scores and the findings recorded.
Agreement with control scores occurred in 83 per cent (20 out of 24) of computed tomography scans and 91 per cent (21 out of 23) of magnetic resonance imaging scans. Radiological abnormalities were demonstrated in 16 per cent of brain scans and 18 per cent of temporal bone investigations.
Assessment in the paediatric setting constitutes a special situation given the likelihood of congenital temporal bone abnormalities and associated co-morbidities that may be relevant to surgery and prognosis following cochlear implantation. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging contribute valuable information and remain necessary in paediatric cochlear implant pre-operative assessment.
Giardiasis is a treatable disease, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite, Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis). It is one of the most common enteric parasites found globally to cause gastrointestinal disturbances, and infections may result in long-term irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms. It is a common misconception that giardiasis is associated with foreign travel, which results in locally acquired cases in the UK being underdiagnosed. This report highlights the findings from one large Scottish Health Board, arising from a change in testing methodology, which resulted in the screening of all stools submitted for enteric investigations for G. duodenalis. Previous selection criteria were restricted to patients with a travel history to specific regions of the world, or on the basis of certain clinical details. In this report, clinical details were recorded from samples shown to be positive using two methods: an ELISA-based antigen detection assay and microscopy. Clinical details were assessed for a total of 28 laboratory-confirmed positive cases against the original selection criteria. Twenty-six cases (93%) would have been excluded from Giardia testing if the previous selection criteria had been applied. Although nine cases stated foreign travel, only two had been to regions deemed to be ‘high risk’. Therefore, those seven cases that travelled to perceived ‘low-risk’ regions would have been excluded from testing for this reason. This summary highlights the need for significant improvements to the selection criteria for Giardia testing. Laboratories should be encouraged towards the testing of all routinely submitted stools for this neglected pathogen to ensure cases that are acquired locally are properly identified and treated effectively.
Field experiments were conducted in Louisiana and Mississippi from 2011 through 2013 to evaluate crop injury, weed control, and yield in field corn following pyroxasulfone applied PRE and POST. Pyroxasulfone PRE or POST did not injure corn at any evaluation. Barnyardgrass control was not improved with the addition of any POST treatment to pyroxasulfone alone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE; however, all POST treatments increased barnyardgrass control to at least 95% at all evaluations following atrazine PRE. All treatments that contained a PRE followed by POST application controlled browntop millet ≥90% at all evaluations. All POST treatments increased ivyleaf morningglory control to ≥92% following atrazine or pyroxasulfone alone PRE. However, control with atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE was similar or greater 28 d after POST than all treatments that received a POST application. In the absence of a POST treatment, pyroxasulfone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE controlled Palmer amaranth 93 to 96% at all evaluations, but atrazine alone PRE provided 84, 82, and 66% control 7, 14, and 28 d after POST, respectively. All programs that contained a PRE followed by POST herbicide treatment controlled Palmer amaranth >90% at all evaluations. Corn yield following all treatments except atrazine alone PRE and the nontreated were similar and ranged from 10990 to 12330 kg ha−1. This research demonstrated that pyroxasulfone can be a valuable tool for weed management in a corn weed management program.
Recent changes in government policy making and the labour market have created new opportunities for political scientists, provided that we have the skills to respond to them. We argue that changes need to be made in the area of methodology training in order to capitalize on these opportunities. Canadian political scientists should ensure that all our students acquire basic quantitative competencies, in addition to research design and qualitative analysis training, and that those graduate students interested in more sophisticated quantitative methods have the opportunity to develop those skills. We explain how expanding and deepening training in quantitative methods is one strategy for ensuring a role for political science in evidence-based policy making, for expanding labour market options for students, and for keeping apace with disciplinary trends. We caution, however, that special care needs to be taken to ensure that all political scientists have equal opportunities to develop such skills.
Weed-free field experiments were conducted to evaluate soybean injury, growth, and yield following PRE or POST pyroxasulfone application. Soybean was injured 1 and 15% following pyroxasulfone PRE and POST application, respectively, 7 d after treatment (DAT). Injury following PRE and POST application was observed as delayed emergence and leaf necrosis and crinkling, respectively. Injury ranged from 0 to 6% following both application timings 14 and 28 DAT. Soybean was injured 5% or less following 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 g ha−1 of pyroxasulfone. Soybean plant population, height, and yield were not affected by pyroxasulfone application timing. Only 300 g ha−1 of pyroxasulfone reduced soybean plant population to 90% of the nontreated 30 d after PRE. Pyroxasulfone rate did not influence soybean heights and yield. Data indicates that pyroxasulfone can safely be applied to soybean without a detrimental effect on plant growth or yield.
Our institution relocated to a new facility 3.5 miles from our original location in Chicago on June 9, 2012. We describe the tools we developed to prepare, execute, and manage our evacuation and relocation.
Tools developed for the planned evacuation included the following: level of acuity and team composition classification, patient departure checklist, evacuation handoff tool, and a patient tracking system within the electronic health record. Incident Command structure was utilized.
Monthly census tracking exercises were held beginning 12 months before the evacuation. Simulation drills began 6 months before the evacuation. The entire evacuation took less than 14 hours and there were no safety issues. A total of 127 patients were transported to the new facility: 45 patients were moved via the Neonatal/Pediatric Critical Care Transport Team, and the rest were moved with various team configurations.
Documents developed for a planned evacuation can be used for any planned or unplanned evacuation. We believe the tools we used to prepare, execute, and manage our evacuation and relocation would assist any health care facility to be better prepared to safely and efficiently evacuate patients in the event of a disaster, or to create surge capacity, and relocate them to another facility. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:479–486)
Surface velocity and deformation, radar sounding, and aerial photography data are used to describe the flow of Ross Ice Shelf around Crary Ice Rise. A continuous band of crevasses around the ice rise now allows the complete boundary to be mapped for the first time. The dynamics of three distinctly different areas of ice flow are studied. Just up-stream of the ice rise, there is a region of ice rumples dominated by intense longitudinal compression (0.01 a−1) and lateral tension. On the south-west side of the ice rise, intense shear (0.03 a−1) dominates, with the boundary layer of affected ice-shelf motion extending over 20 km from the ice-rise edge into the ice shelf. North-west of the ice rise, a crevasse-free block of ice, 40 km × 7 km, appears to have separated from the main ice rise and is now moving with the ice shelf. We refer to such moving blocks of ice as rafts. The separation of this raft is calculated to have occurred 20 ± 10 years ago. Other possible rafts are identified, including one on the south-west side of the ice rise which appears to be in the process of separating. Mechanisms for the formation of rafts are discussed.
Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.
A standard heavy ion nuclear structure facility has been used to detect several long-lived radioisotopes by counting the accelerated ions. The problem of eliminating strong isobaric background beams has been solved by combining the energy loss dispersion through a uniform Al foil stack with the high momentum resolution of an Enge split-pole magnetic spectrograph. Radioisotope concentrations in the following ranges have been measured: 14C/12C = 10–12 to 10–13, 26Al/27Al = 10–10 to 10–12, 32Si/Si = 10–8 to 10–14, 36Cl/Cl = 10–8 to 10–11.
Nearly a decade ago, “yellow giants” were introduced as a new class of low-amplitude radial-velocity variable stars. In this report we discuss new results for 12 spectral type K and early-M giants based on long-term monitoring using both the hydrogen-fluoride and iodine-cell techniques. We compare these results with those of published data for 3 additional stars (ϒ Cephei, β Geminorum, and β Ophiuchi), and discuss possible implications for the underlying physical mechanism(s).
Field studies were conducted in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee during 2010 and 2011 to determine the effect of glufosinate application rate on LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton. Glufosinate was applied in a single application (three-leaf cotton) or sequential application (three-leaf followed by eight-leaf cotton) at 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4 kg ai ha−1. Glufosinate application rate did not affect visual injury or growth parameters measured in LibertyLink cotton. No differences in LibertyLink cotton yield were observed because of glufosinate application rate; however, LibertyLink cotton treated with glufosinate yielded slightly more cotton than the nontreated check. Visual estimates of injury to WideStrike cotton increased with each increase in glufosinate application rate. However, the injury was transient, and by 28 d after the eight-leaf application, no differences in injury were observed. WideStrike cotton growth was adversely affected during the growing season following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and greater; however, cotton height and total nodes were unaffected by glufosinate application rate at the end of the season. WideStrike cotton maturity was delayed, and yields were reduced following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and above. Fiber quality of LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton was unaffected by glufosinate application rate. These data indicate that glufosinate may be applied to WideStrike cotton at rates of 0.6 kg ha−1 without inhibiting cotton growth, development, or yield. Given the lack of injury or yield reduction following glufosinate application to LibertyLink cotton, these cultivars possess robust resistance to glufosinate. Growers are urged to be cautious when increasing glufosinate application rates to increase control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in WideStrike cotton. However, glufosinate application rates may be increased to maximum labeled rates when making applications to LibertyLink cotton without fear of reducing cotton growth, development, or yield.
Johnsongrass populations that are resistant to 5-enolpyruvyl-3-shikimate synthase (EPSPS)–, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)–, or acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides are increasingly common throughout the midsouth. Three trials were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 in Fayetteville, AR and Alexandria, LA to evaluate strategies with and without ALS- and ACCase inhibitors for management of rhizomatous johnsongrass in the absence of glyphosate. Fluometuron or fluometuron plus pyrithiobac applied PRE followed by (fb) EPOST, MPOST, and LAYBY tank mixtures containing multiple effective mechanisms of action (MOA) controlled johnsongrass at least 90%. Simplifying the program by removing a herbicide or eliminating an application timing reduced control, and increased vegetative and sexual reproduction of johnsongrass. To manage severe infestations or escapes glufosinate plus clethodim fb glufosinate plus clethodim or clethodim plus pyrithiobac fb clethodim) effectively controlled 15-cm johnsongrass. However, johnsongrass control was reduced when ALS and ACCase inhibitors were tank mixed, especially for the second POST application, compared to ACCase inhibitors alone. Effective herbicide programs are available to growers to control johnsongrass in the absence of glyphosate, but the use of PRE herbicides followed by multiple applications of POST herbicides is critical for successful management.
Four field experiments were conducted in Louisiana and Mississippi in 2009 and 2010 to evaluate POST herbicides treatments with tembotrione applied alone or as a prepackaged mixture with thiencarbazone for weed control in corn. Treatments included tembotrione at 92 g ai ha−1, thiencarbazone : tembotrione at 15 : 76 g ai ha−1, atrazine at 2,240 g ai ha−1, glufosinate at 450 g ai ha−1, glyphosate at 860 g ae ha−1, and coapplications of tembotrione or thiencarbazone : tembotrione with atrazine, glufosinate, or glyphosate. All treatments were applied to 26-cm corn in the V4 growth stage. Treatments containing thiencarbazone : tembotrione and those with tembotrione controlled barnyardgrass, browntop millet, entireleaf morningglory, hophornbeam copperleaf, johnsongrass, Palmer amaranth, and velvetleaf 85 to 96% and 43 to 97% 28 d after treatment and at corn harvest, respectively. Corn yield ranged from 9,200 to 10,420 kg ha−1 and was greater than the nontreated control following all herbicide treatments, except atrazine alone. Results indicated that thiencarbazone : tembotrione or tembotrione POST is an option for weed management in corn, and applications of thiencarbazone : tembotrione would be strongly encouraged where rhizomatous johnsongrass is problematic.
Background: There are no disease modifying agents for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Pathologically, AD is associated with the misfolding of two peptides: beta-amyloid (plaques) and tau (tangles). Methods: Using large-scale computer simulations, we modelled the misfolding of both beta-amyloid and tau, identifying a common conformational motif (CCM; i.e. an abnormal peptide shape), present in both beta-amyloid and tau, that promotes their misfolding. We screened a library of 11.8 million compounds against this in silico model of protein misfolding, identifying three novel molecular classes of putative therapeutics as anti-protein misfolding agents. We synthesized approximately 400 new chemical entity drug-like molecules in each of these three classes (i.e. 1200 potential drug candidates). These were comprehensively screened in a battery of five in vitro protein oligomerization assays. Selected compounds were next evaluated in the APP/PS1 doubly transgenic mouse model of AD. Results: Two new classes of molecules were identified with the ability to block the oligomerization of both beta-amyloid and tau. These compounds are drug-like with good pharmacokinetic properties and are brain-penetrant. They exhibit excellent efficacy in transgenic mouse models. Conclusion: Computer aided drug design has enabled the discovery of novel drug-like molecules able to inhibit both tau and beta-amyloid misfolding.