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Commercialization of 2,4-D–tolerant crops is a major concern for sweetpotato producers because of potential 2,4-D drift that can cause severe crop injury and yield reduction. A field study was initiated in 2014 and repeated in 2015 to assess impacts of reduced rates of 2,4-D, glyphosate, or a combination of 2,4-D with glyphosate on sweetpotato. In one study, 2,4-D and glyphosate were applied alone and in combination at 1/10, 1/100, 1/250, 1/500, 1/750, and 1/1,000 of anticipated field use rates (1.05 kg ha−1 for 2,4-D and 1.12 kg ha−1 for glyphosate) to ‘Beauregard’ sweetpotato at storage root formation (10 days after transplanting [DAP]). In a separate study, all these treatments were applied to ‘Beauregard’ sweetpotato at storage root development (30 DAP). Injury with 2,4-D alone or in combination with glyphosate was generally equal or greater than with glyphosate applied alone at equivalent herbicide rates, indicating that injury is attributable mostly to 2,4-D in the combination. There was a quadratic increase in crop injury and quadratic decrease in crop yield (with respect to most yield grades) with increased rate of 2,4-D applied alone or in combination with glyphosate applied at storage root development. However, neither the results of this relationship nor of the significance of herbicide rate were observed on crop injury or sweetpotato yield when herbicide application occurred at storage root formation, with a few exceptions. In general, crop injury and yield reduction were greatest at the highest rate (1/10×) of 2,4-D applied alone or in combination with glyphosate, although injury observed at lower rates was also a concern after initial observation by sweetpotato producers. However, in some cases, yield reduction of U.S. no.1 and marketable grades was also observed after application of 1/250×, 1/100×, or 1/10× rates of 2,4-D alone or with glyphosate when applied at storage root development.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To assess researchers’ experiences working with community advisory boards (CABs) and how community member/patient stakeholder feedback impacted the research. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Researchers (N = 34) who presented their research to a Mayo Clinic CAB (at MN, AZ, or FL) from 2014-2017 were invited to participate in an interview in-person or by phone averaging 10-15 min. Researchers were asked “In what ways did the feedback you received from the CAB influence your research?” The validated structured 7-item interview included domains assessing potential influence that CABs had on the research: 1) Pre-research (e.g., generated ideas), 2) Infrastructure (e.g., budget preparation), 3) Research design, 4) Implementation (e.g., research recruitment), 5) Analysis, 6) Dissemination, and 7) Post-research (e.g., assist in formulating next steps). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 17 interviews were completed (8 no longer at Mayo, 9 no response). Researchers presented their study to a CAB a mean of 4 years (range 3-5) before the interview. Researchers reported that the CAB had influenced their research in the following domains: 24% in pre-research, 24% infrastructure, 41% study design, 41% implementation, 6% analysis, 24% dissemination, and 18% for post-research activities. The mean total score was = 1.8 (SD = 1.7, range 0-6), of a possible range of 0-7. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Impact of CAB feedback on the research was moderate. Ways to enhance impact could include follow-up with researchers and CAB members.
A major concern of sweetpotato producers is the potential negative effects from herbicide drift or sprayer contamination events when dicamba is applied to nearby dicamba-resistant crops. A field study was initiated in 2014 and repeated in 2015 to assess the effects of reduced rates of N,N-Bis-(3-aminopropyl)methylamine (BAPMA) or diglycloamine (DGA) salt of dicamba, glyphosate, or a combination of these individually in separate trials with glyphosate on sweetpotato. Reduced rates of 1/10, 1/100, 1/250, 1/500, 1/750, and 1/1,000 of the 1× use rate of each dicamba formulation at 0.56 kg ha−1, glyphosate at 1.12 kg ha−1, and a combination of the two at aforementioned rates were applied to ‘Beauregard’ sweetpotato at storage root formation (10 d after transplanting) in one trial and storage root development (30 d after transplanting) in a separate trial. Injury with each salt of dicamba (BAPMA or DGA) applied alone or with glyphosate was generally equal to or greater than glyphosate applied alone at equivalent rates, indicating that injury is most attributable to the dicamba in the combination. There was a quadratic increase in crop injury and a quadratic decrease in crop yield (with respect to most yield grades) observed with an increased herbicide rate of dicamba applied alone or in combination with glyphosate applied at storage root development. However, with a few exceptions, neither this relationship nor the significance of herbicide rate was observed on crop injury or sweetpotato yield when herbicide application occurred at the storage root formation stage. In general, crop injury and yield reduction were greatest at the highest rate (1/10×) of either salt of dicamba applied alone or in combination with glyphosate, although injury observed at lower rates would be cause for concern after initial observation by sweetpotato producers. However, in some cases yield reduction of No.1 and marketable grades was observed following 1/250×, 1/100×, or 1/10× application rates of dicamba alone or with glyphosate when applied at storage root development.
Patients with severe mental illness have significantly reduced lifespans. Excepting suicide, cardiovascular risk is the biggest cause. The problem is exacerbated by psychotropic medication and poor primary care engagement. Therefore psychiatrists should maximise every opportunity to promote physical health.
We audited physical examination, investigations, and documentation of past medical history (PMH) & assessments in inpatients. We used the Royal College of Psychiatrist's Physical Health in Mental Health Scoping Group 2009 guidelines as our standard.
We audited notes of all 125 patients admitted to four wards at Ladywell unit over two months (01/07/2011- 31/08/2011). We surveyed trainees to identify training and resource needs and facilitate focussed interventions.
Physical Examination: 102/125(82%) received physical examination, 60/125(48%) on admission. Average delay before examination 12 days.
Blood tests/Investigations: 89/125(71%) received blood tests: 50/125(40%) thyroid function, 67/125(54%) liver function, 28/125(22%) glucose, 1/125(0.8%) HbA1c, 38/125(30%) lipid profile. 48/125(38%) had urine drug screening, 55/125(44%) ECG.
Documentation: The following was documented: 102/125(82%) PMH, 82/125(66%) allergies, 90/125(72%) smoking status. The following was scanned into records: 23/55(42%) ECG, 72/125(58%) physical observation chart.
Survey: The trainee survey highlighted need for training updates on physical health and problems in equipment provision.
Physical assessment is inconsistent, neglecting metabolic screening. Admission is a vital window for screening/modifying physical health.
Focussed assessment guidelines should be formulated. Following the survey, teaching led by consultant physicians has been organised on identified topics including metabolic syndrome. Lack of equipment will be addressed by creation of comprehensive equipment lists, to be distributed to ward administrators.
Studies show that vitamin D (vit-D) (25(OH)D), the bioactive metabolite (1,25(OH)2D3) and vit-D receptors (vit-D receptor; protein disulphide isomerase, family A member 3) are expressed throughout the brain, particularly in regions pivotal to learning and memory. This has led to the paradigm that avoiding vit-D deficiency is important to preserve cognitive function. However, presently, it is not clear if the common clinical measure of serum 25(OH)D serves as a robust surrogate marker for central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis or function. Indeed, recent studies report CNS biosynthesis of endogenous 25(OH)D, the CNS expression of the CYP group of enzymes which catalyse conversion to 1,25(OH)2D3 and thereafter, deactivation. Moreover, in the periphery, there is significant ethnic/genetic heterogeneity in vit-D conversion to 1,25(OH)2D3 and there is a paucity of studies which have actually investigated vit-D kinetics across the cerebrovasculature. Compared with peripheral organs, the CNS also has differential expression of receptors that trigger cellular response to 1,25(OH)2D3 metabolites. To holistically consider the putative association of peripheral (blood) abundance of 25(OH)D on cognitive function, herein, we have reviewed population and genetic studies, pre-clinical and clinical intervention studies and moreover have considered potential confounders of vit-D analysis.
A variety of paediatric tracheostomy tubes are available. This article reviews the tubes in current use at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and Evelina London Children's Hospital.
This paper outlines our current preferences, and the particular indications for different tracheostomy tubes, speaking valves and other attachments.
Our preferred types of tubes have undergone significant design changes. This paper also reports further experience with certain tubes that may be useful in particular circumstances. An updated sizing chart is included for reference purposes.
The choice of a paediatric tracheostomy tube remains largely determined by individual clinical requirements. Although we still favour a small range of tubes for use in the majority of our patients, there are circumstances in which other varieties are indicated.
Analysis of historical records of eclipses of the Sun and Moon between 720 BC and AD 1600 gives a measure of the time difference, TT − UT = ΔT. The first derivative in time along a smooth curve fitted to the values of Δ T measures the changes in the length of the day (lod). The average rate of change of the lod is found to be significantly less than that expected on the basis of tidal friction. Fluctuations on a time-scale of centuries to millennia are mainly attributed to the effects of post-glacial uplift and core-mantle coupling.
To date, there is a lack of consensus regarding the use of both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-operative assessment of cochlear implant candidates.
Twenty-five patients underwent high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. ‘Control scores’ describing the expected visualisation of specific features by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were established. An independent radiological review of all computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan features was then compared to the control scores and the findings recorded.
Agreement with control scores occurred in 83 per cent (20 out of 24) of computed tomography scans and 91 per cent (21 out of 23) of magnetic resonance imaging scans. Radiological abnormalities were demonstrated in 16 per cent of brain scans and 18 per cent of temporal bone investigations.
Assessment in the paediatric setting constitutes a special situation given the likelihood of congenital temporal bone abnormalities and associated co-morbidities that may be relevant to surgery and prognosis following cochlear implantation. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging contribute valuable information and remain necessary in paediatric cochlear implant pre-operative assessment.
Giardiasis is a treatable disease, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite, Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis). It is one of the most common enteric parasites found globally to cause gastrointestinal disturbances, and infections may result in long-term irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms. It is a common misconception that giardiasis is associated with foreign travel, which results in locally acquired cases in the UK being underdiagnosed. This report highlights the findings from one large Scottish Health Board, arising from a change in testing methodology, which resulted in the screening of all stools submitted for enteric investigations for G. duodenalis. Previous selection criteria were restricted to patients with a travel history to specific regions of the world, or on the basis of certain clinical details. In this report, clinical details were recorded from samples shown to be positive using two methods: an ELISA-based antigen detection assay and microscopy. Clinical details were assessed for a total of 28 laboratory-confirmed positive cases against the original selection criteria. Twenty-six cases (93%) would have been excluded from Giardia testing if the previous selection criteria had been applied. Although nine cases stated foreign travel, only two had been to regions deemed to be ‘high risk’. Therefore, those seven cases that travelled to perceived ‘low-risk’ regions would have been excluded from testing for this reason. This summary highlights the need for significant improvements to the selection criteria for Giardia testing. Laboratories should be encouraged towards the testing of all routinely submitted stools for this neglected pathogen to ensure cases that are acquired locally are properly identified and treated effectively.
Field experiments were conducted in Louisiana and Mississippi from 2011 through 2013 to evaluate crop injury, weed control, and yield in field corn following pyroxasulfone applied PRE and POST. Pyroxasulfone PRE or POST did not injure corn at any evaluation. Barnyardgrass control was not improved with the addition of any POST treatment to pyroxasulfone alone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE; however, all POST treatments increased barnyardgrass control to at least 95% at all evaluations following atrazine PRE. All treatments that contained a PRE followed by POST application controlled browntop millet ≥90% at all evaluations. All POST treatments increased ivyleaf morningglory control to ≥92% following atrazine or pyroxasulfone alone PRE. However, control with atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE was similar or greater 28 d after POST than all treatments that received a POST application. In the absence of a POST treatment, pyroxasulfone or atrazine plus pyroxasulfone PRE controlled Palmer amaranth 93 to 96% at all evaluations, but atrazine alone PRE provided 84, 82, and 66% control 7, 14, and 28 d after POST, respectively. All programs that contained a PRE followed by POST herbicide treatment controlled Palmer amaranth >90% at all evaluations. Corn yield following all treatments except atrazine alone PRE and the nontreated were similar and ranged from 10990 to 12330 kg ha−1. This research demonstrated that pyroxasulfone can be a valuable tool for weed management in a corn weed management program.
Recent changes in government policy making and the labour market have created new opportunities for political scientists, provided that we have the skills to respond to them. We argue that changes need to be made in the area of methodology training in order to capitalize on these opportunities. Canadian political scientists should ensure that all our students acquire basic quantitative competencies, in addition to research design and qualitative analysis training, and that those graduate students interested in more sophisticated quantitative methods have the opportunity to develop those skills. We explain how expanding and deepening training in quantitative methods is one strategy for ensuring a role for political science in evidence-based policy making, for expanding labour market options for students, and for keeping apace with disciplinary trends. We caution, however, that special care needs to be taken to ensure that all political scientists have equal opportunities to develop such skills.
Weed-free field experiments were conducted to evaluate soybean injury, growth, and yield following PRE or POST pyroxasulfone application. Soybean was injured 1 and 15% following pyroxasulfone PRE and POST application, respectively, 7 d after treatment (DAT). Injury following PRE and POST application was observed as delayed emergence and leaf necrosis and crinkling, respectively. Injury ranged from 0 to 6% following both application timings 14 and 28 DAT. Soybean was injured 5% or less following 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 g ha−1 of pyroxasulfone. Soybean plant population, height, and yield were not affected by pyroxasulfone application timing. Only 300 g ha−1 of pyroxasulfone reduced soybean plant population to 90% of the nontreated 30 d after PRE. Pyroxasulfone rate did not influence soybean heights and yield. Data indicates that pyroxasulfone can safely be applied to soybean without a detrimental effect on plant growth or yield.
Our institution relocated to a new facility 3.5 miles from our original location in Chicago on June 9, 2012. We describe the tools we developed to prepare, execute, and manage our evacuation and relocation.
Tools developed for the planned evacuation included the following: level of acuity and team composition classification, patient departure checklist, evacuation handoff tool, and a patient tracking system within the electronic health record. Incident Command structure was utilized.
Monthly census tracking exercises were held beginning 12 months before the evacuation. Simulation drills began 6 months before the evacuation. The entire evacuation took less than 14 hours and there were no safety issues. A total of 127 patients were transported to the new facility: 45 patients were moved via the Neonatal/Pediatric Critical Care Transport Team, and the rest were moved with various team configurations.
Documents developed for a planned evacuation can be used for any planned or unplanned evacuation. We believe the tools we used to prepare, execute, and manage our evacuation and relocation would assist any health care facility to be better prepared to safely and efficiently evacuate patients in the event of a disaster, or to create surge capacity, and relocate them to another facility. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:479–486)
Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.
Johnsongrass populations that are resistant to 5-enolpyruvyl-3-shikimate synthase (EPSPS)–, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)–, or acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides are increasingly common throughout the midsouth. Three trials were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 in Fayetteville, AR and Alexandria, LA to evaluate strategies with and without ALS- and ACCase inhibitors for management of rhizomatous johnsongrass in the absence of glyphosate. Fluometuron or fluometuron plus pyrithiobac applied PRE followed by (fb) EPOST, MPOST, and LAYBY tank mixtures containing multiple effective mechanisms of action (MOA) controlled johnsongrass at least 90%. Simplifying the program by removing a herbicide or eliminating an application timing reduced control, and increased vegetative and sexual reproduction of johnsongrass. To manage severe infestations or escapes glufosinate plus clethodim fb glufosinate plus clethodim or clethodim plus pyrithiobac fb clethodim) effectively controlled 15-cm johnsongrass. However, johnsongrass control was reduced when ALS and ACCase inhibitors were tank mixed, especially for the second POST application, compared to ACCase inhibitors alone. Effective herbicide programs are available to growers to control johnsongrass in the absence of glyphosate, but the use of PRE herbicides followed by multiple applications of POST herbicides is critical for successful management.
Field studies were conducted in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee during 2010 and 2011 to determine the effect of glufosinate application rate on LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton. Glufosinate was applied in a single application (three-leaf cotton) or sequential application (three-leaf followed by eight-leaf cotton) at 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4 kg ai ha−1. Glufosinate application rate did not affect visual injury or growth parameters measured in LibertyLink cotton. No differences in LibertyLink cotton yield were observed because of glufosinate application rate; however, LibertyLink cotton treated with glufosinate yielded slightly more cotton than the nontreated check. Visual estimates of injury to WideStrike cotton increased with each increase in glufosinate application rate. However, the injury was transient, and by 28 d after the eight-leaf application, no differences in injury were observed. WideStrike cotton growth was adversely affected during the growing season following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and greater; however, cotton height and total nodes were unaffected by glufosinate application rate at the end of the season. WideStrike cotton maturity was delayed, and yields were reduced following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and above. Fiber quality of LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton was unaffected by glufosinate application rate. These data indicate that glufosinate may be applied to WideStrike cotton at rates of 0.6 kg ha−1 without inhibiting cotton growth, development, or yield. Given the lack of injury or yield reduction following glufosinate application to LibertyLink cotton, these cultivars possess robust resistance to glufosinate. Growers are urged to be cautious when increasing glufosinate application rates to increase control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in WideStrike cotton. However, glufosinate application rates may be increased to maximum labeled rates when making applications to LibertyLink cotton without fear of reducing cotton growth, development, or yield.