To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Historians and political scientists have noted that appointments of judges to the U.S. Courts of Appeals are not determined by senatorial courtesy alone. What has not been adequately explained is why and when a president defers to a senator's choice rather than seek to control the selection. This article attempts to understand the politics of federal appellate court appointments. The author first identifies a major change in the work of the courts of appeals during the years 1900-1945—the growth in review of the actions of newly created federal regulatory agencies. Then, by examining Justice Department files and presidential correspondence, he discoveres three patterns of appointment emerging in the same period. The patterns vary with presidential perceptions of the role of the federal government and of the courts of appeals' ability to affect accomplishment of administration goals. Appointments during the first years of the presidencies of Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt and during the Harding and Coolidge administrations were dominated by patronage concerns. Those administrations yielded to the recommendations of senators and demonstrated no interest in the policy-making potential of these courts. In the two other patterns the White House played a more active role, with senators more often deferring to the president's selection. Concerns about professionalism dominated selections in Taft's and Hoover's administrations: because they recognized the policy importance of those judgeships but saw the role of government as limited, they sought judicial craftsmen who would make policy only incrementally. Policy concerns dominated selections during Wilson's administration and the latter years of both the Roosevelts' administrations: Justice Department officials screened nominees to determine their policy orientation, because federal appellate court judgeships were perceived as crucial policy positions that could affect the president's ability to implement his reform programs.
Terrorism and natural catastrophes have made disaster preparedness a critical issue. Despite the documented vulnerabilities of children during and following disasters, gaps remain in health care systems regarding pediatric disaster preparedness. This research study examined changes in knowledge acquisition of pediatric disaster preparedness among medical and non-medical personnel at a children’s hospital who completed an online training course of five modules: planning, triage, age-specific care, disaster management, and hospital emergency code response.
A multi-disciplinary team within the Pediatric Disaster Resource and Training Center at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (Los Angeles, California USA) developed an online training course. Available archival course data from July 2009 to August 2012 were analyzed through linear growth curve multi-level modeling, with module total score as the outcome (0 to 100 points), attempt as the Level 1 variable (any module could be repeated), role in the hospital (medical or non-medical) as the Level 2 variable, and attempt by role as the cross-level effect.
A total of 44,115 module attempts by 5,773 course participants (3,686 medical personnel and 2,087 non-medical personnel) were analyzed. The average module total score upon first attempt across all participants ranged from 60.28 to 80.11 points, and participants significantly varied in how they initially scored. On average in the planning, triage, and age-specific care modules: total scores significantly increased per attempt across all participants (average rate of change ranged from 0.59 to 1.84 points) and medical personnel had higher total scores initially and through additional attempts (average difference ranged from 13.25 to 16.24 points). Cross-level effects were significant in the disaster management and hospital emergency code response modules: on average, total scores were initially lower among non-medical personnel compared to medical personnel, but non-medical personnel increased their total scores per attempt by 3.77 points in the disaster management module and 6.40 points in the hospital emergency code response module, while medical personnel did not improve their total scores through additional attempts.
Medical and non-medical hospital personnel alike can acquire knowledge of pediatric disaster preparedness. Key content can be reinforced or improved through successive training in an online course.
PhamPK, BeharSM, BergBM, UppermanJS, NagerAL. Pediatric Online Disaster Preparedness Training for Medical and Non-Medical Personnel: A Multi-Level Modeling AnalysisPrehosp Disaster Med.2018;33(4):349–354.
Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between on-field, objective signs immediately following sport-related concussion and self-reported symptom endorsement within 1 day post injury. Methods: A retrospective case series of 237 concussed high school athletes was performed. On-field signs were evaluated immediately post injury. Self-reported symptoms (2 clusters) were collected within 1 day post injury. A two-step structural equation model and follow-up bivariate regression analyses of significant on-field signs and symptom clusters were performed. Results: Signs of immediate memory, β=0.20, p=.04, and postural instability, β=0.19, p < .01, significantly predicted a greater likelihood of endorsing the cognitive-migraine-fatigue symptom cluster within 1 day post injury. Regarding signs correlated with specific symptoms, immediate memory was associated with symptoms of trouble remembering, χ2=37.92, p < .001, odds ratio (OR)=3.89 (95% confidence interval (CI) [2.47, 6.13]), and concentration difficulties, χ2=10.84, p=.001, OR=2.13 (95% CI [1.37, 3.30]). Postural instability was associated with symptom endorsement of trouble remembering, χ2=12.08, p < .001, OR=1.76 (95% CI [1.29, 2.40]). Conclusions: Certain post-concussion on-field signs exhibited after injury were associated with specific symptom endorsement within 1 day post injury. Based on these associations, individualized education-based interventions and academic accommodations may help reduce unanticipated worry from parents, students, and teachers following a student-athlete’s sport-related concussion, especially in cases of delayed onset symptoms. (JINS, 2018, 24, 476–485)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat. Emergence of AMR occurs naturally, but can also be selected for by antimicrobial exposure in clinical and veterinary medicine. Despite growing worldwide attention to AMR, there are substantial limitations in our understanding of the burden, distribution and determinants of AMR at the population level. We highlight the importance of population-based approaches to assess the association between antimicrobial use and AMR in humans and animals. Such approaches are needed to improve our understanding of the development and spread of AMR in order to inform strategies for the prevention, detection and management of AMR, and to support the sustainable use of antimicrobials in healthcare.
We present a Newtonian, one-dimensional, differential analysis for capillary breakup rheometry (CBR) to determine the surface tension to viscosity ratio
. Our local differential analysis does not require specific assumptions for the axial force to preclude its measurement. Our analysis indicates that measuring gradients in filament curvature is necessary to accurately determine
when axial force is not measured. CBR experiments were performed on five silicone oils (
), three sample volumes, and three strains to evaluate the operating range of the differential analysis and compare its performance to that of a standard integral method from literature. We investigate the role of filament asymmetry, caused mainly by gravity, on the performance of the differential method for the range of conditions studied. Experimental and analytical details for resolving gradients of curvature are also given.
The contribution of protected areas to biodiversity conservation is well attested but many taxa in many regions remain dependent on the unprotected wider landscape. To develop conservation plans for large mammals such as the Endangered pygmy hippopotamus Choeropsis liberiensis of West Africa's Upper Guinea Forests it is critical to understand the importance of unprotected land. Despite being a conservation priority, little is known about the habitat associations of this species, or its distribution across its range. Through a combination of field surveys, species distribution models and community questionnaires we investigated the use of unprotected areas by the pygmy hippopotamus in the Sierra Leone–Liberia border region. We found signs of the species in 128 of 525 1-km2 cells surveyed. Our analysis suggested that the species is reasonably widespread in this region and is associated with major rivers. It occurred close to, but rarely within, large areas of intact forest, and 80.4% of pygmy hippopotamus signs were recorded outside protected areas. The expansion of the protected area network in this area is unrealistic in Sierra Leone and to some extent in Liberia, mainly because of anthropogenic pressure and the overlap of proposed protected areas with mining and logging concessions. Thus pygmy hippopotamus conservation activities in the region need to include programmes on community lands while maintaining a robust network of protected forests. Community-based conservation of the pygmy hippopotamus may prove valuable for other threatened and endemic species that are not confined to protected areas in this region.
1. The theory of Integral Equations, which is an important branch of the wider theory of Functionals, has been developed by mathematicians during the past 60 years. Many valuable applications of these equations have been made in various branches of applied mathematics, including economics, biology, and especially physics. It is believed, too, that they may not be entirely void of interest to the actuary. In this paper, therefore, a brief discussion of integral equations is given, and various problems involving their use are considered. It may be that some of these problems will be thought artificial, or trivial, or both. The writer would request, however, that the examples be regarded as illustrative only. If any of them should suggest new and more important problems to actuaries, or if the methods developed herein should prove of value in the solution of present problems, the purpose of this paper will be achieved.
A point estimate may provide, in logic or in practice, an unsatisfactory answer to some problems, and the additional requirement then arises for estimating limits within which a parameter is thought to lie. An elementary example of such an ‘interval estimate’ occurred in Example 2(c) of § 1, and we may recall the custom of quoting the measurement of a physical constant in such a form as g = 32 ± 2 units—which is an assertion, made according to some convention, that the true value of the quantity g lies between 30 and 34 units. We consider below some of the criteria which have been suggested for interval estimation, some methods of satisfying them, and a few of the results to which they lead.
Aquarium release is a vector for introducing nonnative species that threatens the ecological integrity of aquatic systems. Following coastal invasions by released aquarium strains of Caulerpa taxifolia, aquarists began using the macroalgal genus Chaetomorpha. Use of Chaetomorpha now exceeds 50% of U.S. aquarium hobbyists we surveyed. Aquarium strains of this macroalgal genus possess broad environmental tolerances, demonstrate high nutrient uptake and growth rates, and reproduce by fragmentation. Although these characteristics make Chaetomorpha a desirable aquarium inhabitant, they may also promote invasive tendencies if the alga is introduced into a natural ecosystem. We sought to proactively mitigate this potential invasion risk by testing algal disposal techniques that serve as responsible alternatives to releasing viable individuals. We tested methods used by aquarium hobbyists—boiling, microwaving, freezing, desiccation, and exposure to freshwater. We determined the minimum durations that these techniques must be used in order to induce mortality in three aquarium purchases of Chaetomorpha. We found that boiling for at least 1 min, microwaving for at least 15 s, or freezing for at least 24 h were sufficient to induce 100% mortality in 1-cm-long fragments and clumps up to 1.5 g. Desiccation required more than 24 h when exposed to air and 6 d for samples kept in closed containers. Freshwater exposure was effective at 6 d. These results indicate that disposal of excess or unwanted Chaetomorpha via garbage (if destined for a landfill) or indoor plumbing (e.g., sinks and toilets) represent safe alternatives to release. Disposal of algal tissue, shipping water, or tank water containing small algal fragments down stormwater drains, however, could introduce this hardy species into favorable conditions that could result in detrimental biological invasions.
During disasters, the needs of victims outstrip available resources. Rapid assessment of patients must be performed; however, language barriers can be an impediment to efficient patient assessment, especially if interpreter resources are limited. Dependency on interpretive services requiring technology such a telephones, cell phones, and video conferencing may be inefficient, as they may be unavailable during disaster conditions. A low-tech, portable tool that aids in communication with non-English speakers would be beneficial. The medical emergency communication (MEC) book, developed at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, has the potential to be a useful tool in this capacity.
The goal of this pilot study was to compare the accuracy of a newly developed disaster-focused medical history obtained from Spanish-speaking patients or caregivers using the MEC book, compared to a control group with whom no book was used. Our hypothesis was that use of the MEC book improves accuracy of medical history taking between English-only speaking health care workers and Spanish-speaking patients better than a monolingual clinician trying to take a medical history without it. We anticipated a higher overall score in the group of subjects whose histories were taken using the MEC book than in the control group. Patient satisfaction with the MEC book also was measured. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1-6)
Renewable energy can provide a host of benefits to society. In addition to the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, governments have enacted renewable energy (RE) policies to meet a number of objectives including the creation of local environmental and health benefits; facilitation of energy access, particularly for rural areas; advancement of energy security goals by diversifying the portfolio of energy technologies and resources; and improving social and economic development through potential employment opportunities. Energy access and social and economic development have been the primary drivers in developing countries whereas ensuring a secure energy supply and environmental concerns have been most important in developed countries.
An increasing number and variety of RE policies–motivated by a variety of factors–have driven substantial growth of RE technologies in recent years. Government policies have played a crucial role in accelerating the deployment of RE technologies. At the same time, not all RE policies have proven effective and efficient in rapidly or substantially increasing RE deployment. The focus of policies is broadening from a concentration almost entirely on RE electricity to include RE heating and cooling and transportation.
RE policies have promoted an increase in RE capacity installations by helping to overcome various barriers. Barriers specific to RE policymaking (e.g., a lack of information and awareness), to implementation (e.g., a lack of an educated and trained workforce to match developing RE technologies) and to financing (e.g., market failures) may further impede deployment of RE.
OVERVIEW. Substance use disorders cover a range of problems associated with using and abusing psychoactive substances such as alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, benzodiazepines, as well as a variety of other substances taken to affect thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Interventions may include a “mix” of approaches, both modern and indigenous, including assessment and diagnosis, self-help intervention, outpatient, diversion and restorative justice approaches, residential care, and harm-reduction tactics. In this chapter, various substance use disorder concepts, the history of substance use disorder practice and research, substance use disorder recovery theories, legal and professional issues related to substance use disorders, as well as issues for further research and scholarship in Africa are examined. Cultural issues that affect and influence the use and treatment of substances use disorders within the African context are also explored.
By the end of the chapter, the reader should be able to:
Define key concepts relevant to substance use disorders.
Outline core African indigenous and modern practices used to treat or counsel clients with substance use disorders.
Discuss the rationale of major recovery theories and psychosocial theories relating to substance use disorder counseling.
Discuss legal and professional issues related to substance use disorders within the African context.
Identify prospective areas of research that would advance the knowledge of substance use disorder intervention and scholarship within the African context.
The kinetics of charge capture by deep donors in AlxGa1-xAs have been measured. The time dependence indicates that a single energy cannot be used to describe the trap. A model assuming thermally activated capture into a resonance in the conduction band with a range of energies gives excellent fits to the data and provides a measure of the energy range for the trap. This model is consistent with the large lattice relaxation model for DX centers. The increase of the activation energy for capture as the Al mole fraction is decreased contradicts the model which attributes the decay of the persistent photoconductivity to tunneling through the heterojunction barrier in modulationdoped structures.
Epitaxial single crystal (001) chalcopyrite-structure ZnGeAs2 and single crystal (100) zinc blende-structure (ZnGeAs2)xGe1−x alloys have been grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on (100) GaAs. Selected area electron diffraction was used to determine the crystal structure for several Zn:Ge molar flow ratios. Bulk chemical composition was determined by electron microprobe and correlated to crystal lattice constants obtained from x-ray diffraction. Due to the lattice mismatch between chalcopyrite-structure ZnGeAs2 and the GaAs substrate, the epitaxy is elastically strained, compressing the a-lattice constant and elongating the c-lattice constant. Optical absorption and transmission spectroscopy indicate the zinc-blende-structure material has an indirect band gap of approximately 0.6 eV, whereas the chalcopyrite ZnGeAs2 has a direct band gap of 1.15 eV. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy reveals significant Zn diffusion into the GaAs substrate if the Zn:Ge molar flow ratio exceeds the ratio required for stoichiometric chalcopyrite-structure crystal growth.