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New guidelines for peanut allergy prevention in high-risk infants recommend introducing peanut during infancy but do not address breastfeeding or maternal peanut consumption. We assessed the independent and combined association of these factors with peanut sensitization in the general population CHILD birth cohort (N = 2759 mother–child dyads). Mothers reported peanut consumption during pregnancy, timing of first infant peanut consumption, and length of breastfeeding duration. Child peanut sensitization was determined by skin prick testing at 1, 3, and 5 years. Overall, 69% of mothers regularly consumed peanuts and 36% of infants were fed peanut in the first year (20% while breastfeeding and 16% after breastfeeding cessation). Infants who were introduced to peanut early (before 1 year) after breastfeeding cessation had a 66% reduced risk of sensitization at 5 years compared to those who were not (1.9% vs. 5.8% sensitization; aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14–0.68). This risk was further reduced if mothers introduced peanut early while breastfeeding and regularly consumed peanut themselves (0.3% sensitization; aOR 0.07, 0.01–0.25). In longitudinal analyses, these associations were driven by a higher odds of outgrowing early sensitization and a lower odds of late-onset sensitization. There was no apparent benefit (or harm) from maternal peanut consumption without breastfeeding. Taken together, these results suggest the combination of maternal peanut consumption and breastfeeding at the time of peanut introduction during infancy may help to decrease the risk of peanut sensitization. Mechanistic and clinical intervention studies are needed to confirm and understand this “triple exposure” hypothesis.
Cardiac strangulation is a rare and potentially deadly complication of epicardial pacemaker implantation. A young boy presenting with chest pain and tiredness almost 7 years after pacemaker implantation was found to have cardiac strangulation. Literature review revealed 22 cases reported to date with a worrying rise in the number of reports over the past 3 years. Strangulation is associated with implantation of leads at a young age and appears to be related to somatic growth. Serial assessment with chest X-ray and echocardiogram is recommended, at least until full adult growth is attained with further coronary artery imaging reserved for symptoms or suspicious echocardiographic findings. If cardiac strangulation is diagnosed prompt replacement of the offending system is needed.
Pertussis is a highly contagious infectious disease and remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Over the last decade, vaccination has greatly reduced the burden of pertussis. Yet, uncertainty in individual vaccination coverage and ineffective case surveillance systems make it difficult to estimate burden and the related quantity of population-level susceptibility, which determines population risk. These issues are more pronounced in low-income settings where coverage is often overestimated, and case numbers are under-reported. Serological data provide a direct characterisation of the landscape of susceptibility to infection; and can be combined with vaccination coverage and basic theory to estimate rates of exposure to natural infection. Here, we analysed cross-sectional data on seropositivity against pertussis to identify spatial and age patterns of susceptibility in children in Madagascar. A large proportion of individuals surveyed were seronegative; however, there were patterns suggestive of natural infection in all the regions analysed. Improvements in vaccination coverage are needed to help prevent additional burden of pertussis in the country.
Nutrition during the periconceptional period influences postnatal cardiovascular health. We determined whether in vitro embryo culture and transfer, which are manipulations of the nutritional environment during the periconceptional period, dysregulate postnatal blood pressure and blood pressure regulatory mechanisms. Embryos were either transferred to an intermediate recipient ewe (ET) or cultured in vitro in the absence (IVC) or presence of human serum (IVCHS) and a methyl donor (IVCHS+M) for 6 days. Basal blood pressure was recorded at 19–20 weeks after birth. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before and after varying doses of phenylephrine (PE). mRNA expression of signaling molecules involved in blood pressure regulation was measured in the renal artery. Basal MAP did not differ between groups. Baroreflex sensitivity, set point, and upper plateau were also maintained in all groups after PE stimulation. Adrenergic receptors alpha-1A (αAR1A), alpha-1B (αAR1B), and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) mRNA expression were not different from controls in the renal artery. These results suggest there is no programmed effect of ET or IVC on basal blood pressure or the baroreflex control mechanisms in adolescence, but future studies are required to determine the impact of ET and IVC on these mechanisms later in the life course when developmental programming effects may be unmasked by age.
Scientific interest in the therapeutic effects of classical psychedelics has increased in the past two decades. The psychological effects of these substances outside the period of acute intoxication have not been fully characterized. This study aimed to: (1) quantify the effects of psilocybin, ayahuasca, and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on psychological outcomes in the post-acute period; (2) test moderators of these effects; and (3) evaluate adverse effects and risk of bias.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies (single-group pre-post or randomized controlled trials) that involved administration of psilocybin, ayahuasca, or LSD to clinical or non-clinical samples and assessed psychological outcomes ⩾24 h post-administration. Effects were summarized by study design, timepoint, and outcome domain.
A total of 34 studies (24 unique samples, n = 549, mean longest follow-up = 55.34 weeks) were included. Classical psychedelics showed significant within-group pre-post and between-group placebo-controlled effects on a range of outcomes including targeted symptoms within psychiatric samples, negative and positive affect-related measures, social outcomes, and existential/spiritual outcomes, with large between-group effect in these domains (Hedges' gs = 0.84 to 1.08). Moderator tests suggest some effects may be larger in clinical samples. Evidence of effects on big five personality traits and mindfulness was weak. There was no evidence of post-acute adverse effects.
High risk of bias in several domains, heterogeneity across studies, and indications of publication bias for some models highlight the need for careful, large-scale, placebo-controlled randomized trials.
Investigation of treatments that effectively treat adults with post-traumatic stress disorder from childhood experiences (Ch-PTSD) and are well tolerated by patients is needed to improve outcomes for this population.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two trauma-focused treatments, imagery rescripting (ImRs) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), for treating Ch-PTSD.
We conducted an international, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, recruiting adults with Ch-PTSD from childhood trauma before 16 years of age. Participants were randomised to treatment condition and assessed by blind raters at multiple time points. Participants received up to 12 90-min sessions of either ImRs or EMDR, biweekly.
A total of 155 participants were included in the final intent-to-treat analysis. Drop-out rates were low, at 7.7%. A generalised linear mixed model of repeated measures showed that observer-rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms significantly decreased for both ImRs (d = 1.72) and EMDR (d = 1.73) at the 8-week post-treatment assessment. Similar results were seen with secondary outcome measures and self-reported PTSD symptoms. There were no significant differences between the two treatments on any standardised measure at post-treatment and follow-up.
ImRs and EMDR treatments were found to be effective in treating PTSD symptoms arising from childhood trauma, and in reducing other symptoms such as depression, dissociation and trauma-related cognitions. The low drop-out rates suggest that the treatments were well tolerated by participants. The results from this study provide evidence for the use of trauma-focused treatments for Ch-PTSD.
Research in schizophrenia and pregnancy has traditionally been conducted in small samples. More recently, secondary analysis of routine healthcare data has facilitated access to data on large numbers of women with schizophrenia.
To discuss four scientific advances using data from Canada, Denmark and the UK from population-level health registers and clinical data sources.
Narrative review of research from these three countries to illustrate key advances in the area of schizophrenia and pregnancy.
Health administrative and clinical data from electronic medical records have been used to identify population-level and clinical cohorts of women with schizophrenia, and follow them longitudinally along with their children. These data have demonstrated that fertility rates in women with schizophrenia have increased over time and have enabled documentation of the course of illness in relation with pregnancy, showing the early postpartum as the time of highest risk. As a result of large sample sizes, we have been able to understand the prevalence of and risk factors for rare outcomes that would be difficult to study in clinical research. Advanced pharmaco-epidemiological methods have been used to address confounding in studies of antipsychotic medications in pregnancy, to provide data about the benefits and risks of treatment for women and their care providers.
Use of these data has advanced the field of research in schizophrenia and pregnancy. Future developments in use of electronic health records include access to richer data sources and use of modern technical advances such as machine learning and supporting team science.
While taxonomy segregates anxiety symptoms into diagnoses, patients typically present with multiple diagnoses; this poses major challenges, particularly for youth, where mixed presentation is particularly common. Anxiety comorbidity could reflect multivariate, cross-domain interactions insufficiently emphasized in current taxonomy. We utilize network analytic approaches that model these interactions by characterizing pediatric anxiety as involving distinct, inter-connected, symptom domains. Quantifying this network structure could inform views of pediatric anxiety that shape clinical practice and research.
Participants were 4964 youths (ages 5–17 years) from seven international sites. Participants completed standard symptom inventory assessing severity along distinct domains that follow pediatric anxiety diagnostic categories. We first applied network analytic tools to quantify the anxiety domain network structure. We then examined whether variation in the network structure related to age (3-year longitudinal assessments) and sex, key moderators of pediatric anxiety expression.
The anxiety network featured a highly inter-connected structure; all domains correlated positively but to varying degrees. Anxiety patients and healthy youth differed in severity but demonstrated a comparable network structure. We noted specific sex differences in the network structure; longitudinal data indicated additional structural changes during childhood. Generalized-anxiety and panic symptoms consistently emerged as central domains.
Pediatric anxiety manifests along multiple, inter-connected symptom domains. By quantifying cross-domain associations and related moderation effects, the current study might shape views on the diagnosis, treatment, and study of pediatric anxiety.
We have previously shown that higher intake of cruciferous vegetables is inversely associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness. To further test the hypothesis that an increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced indicators of structural vascular disease in other areas of the vascular tree, we aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between cruciferous vegetable intake and extensive calcification in the abdominal aorta. Dietary intake was assessed, using a FFQ, in 684 older women from the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study. Cruciferous vegetables included cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower and broccoli. Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) was scored using the Kauppila AAC24 scale on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry lateral spine images and was categorised as ‘not extensive’ (0–5) or ‘extensive’ (≥6). Mean age was 74·9 (sd 2·6) years, median cruciferous vegetable intake was 28·2 (interquartile range 15·0–44·7) g/d and 128/684 (18·7 %) women had extensive AAC scores. Those with higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables (>44·6 g/d) were associated with a 46 % lower odds of having extensive AAC in comparison with those with lower intakes (<15·0 g/d) after adjustment for lifestyle, dietary and CVD risk factors (ORQ4 v. Q1 0·54, 95 % CI 0·30, 0·97, P = 0·036). Total vegetable intake and each of the other vegetable types were not related to extensive AAC (P > 0·05 for all). This study strengthens the hypothesis that higher intake of cruciferous vegetables may protect against vascular calcification.
Prospectively acquired Canadian cerebrospinal fluid samples were used to assess the performance characteristics of three ante-mortem tests commonly used to support diagnoses of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. The utility of the end-point quaking-induced conversion assay as a test for Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease diagnoses was compared to that of immunoassays designed to detect increased amounts of the surrogate markers 14-3-3γ and hTau. The positive predictive values of the end-point quaking-induced conversion, 14-3-3γ, and hTau tests conducted at the Prion Diseases Section of the Public Health Agency of Canada were 96%, 68%, and 66%, respectively.
We acknowledge and pay respect to the people of the Yugambeh Nation on whose Land we work, meet and study. We recognise the significant role the past and future Elders play in the life of the University and the region. We are mindful that within and without the buildings, the Land always was and always will be Aboriginal Land.1
This paper introduces staying-with the traces of inter/intra-subjective experience, with and within place, in mapping-making philosophy in environmental education. Through a conceptualisation of philosophy as concepts or knots in an infinite composition of knowledge, rather than separate knowledges, we use staying-with the traces2 as method, whereby our embodied patterns of human and more than human relationality across place and time may engage with philosophy. This grounding of philosophy foregrounds the diverse onto-epistemologies of posthumanism and indigenist3 ways of knowing, acknowledging tensions and searching for the possibilities of connectivity between them. Through an embodied arts-based walking practice, our approach challenges the perpetuation of reductionist perspectives, including nature/culture binaries, within environmental education. We stay with the traces of bird, meeting, tree, watery and concrete in mutual inseparable relation and becoming.
Identifying the mechanisms linking early experiences, genetic risk factors, and their interaction with later health consequences is central to the development of preventive interventions and identifying potential boundary conditions for their efficacy. In the current investigation of 412 African American adolescents followed across a 20-year period, we examined change in body mass index (BMI) across adolescence as one possible mechanism linking childhood adversity and adult health. We found associations of childhood adversity with objective indicators of young adult health, including a cardiometabolic risk index, a methylomic aging index, and a count of chronic health conditions. Childhood adversities were associated with objective indicators indirectly through their association with gains in BMI across adolescence and early adulthood. We also found evidence of an association of genetic risk with weight gain across adolescence and young adult health, as well as genetic moderation of childhood adversity's effect on gains in BMI, resulting in moderated mediation. These patterns indicated that genetic risk moderated the indirect pathways from childhood adversity to young adult health outcomes and childhood adversity moderated the indirect pathways from genetic risk to young adult health outcomes through effects on weight gain during adolescence and early adulthood.
Implementation of genome-scale sequencing in clinical care has significant challenges: the technology is highly dimensional with many kinds of potential results, results interpretation and delivery require expertise and coordination across multiple medical specialties, clinical utility may be uncertain, and there may be broader familial or societal implications beyond the individual participant. Transdisciplinary consortia and collaborative team science are well poised to address these challenges. However, understanding the complex web of organizational, institutional, physical, environmental, technologic, and other political and societal factors that influence the effectiveness of consortia is understudied. We describe our experience working in the Clinical Sequencing Evidence-Generating Research (CSER) consortium, a multi-institutional translational genomics consortium.
A key aspect of the CSER consortium was the juxtaposition of site-specific measures with the need to identify consensus measures related to clinical utility and to create a core set of harmonized measures. During this harmonization process, we sought to minimize participant burden, accommodate project-specific choices, and use validated measures that allow data sharing.
Identifying platforms to ensure swift communication between teams and management of materials and data were essential to our harmonization efforts. Funding agencies can help consortia by clarifying key study design elements across projects during the proposal preparation phase and by providing a framework for data sharing data across participating projects.
In summary, time and resources must be devoted to developing and implementing collaborative practices as preparatory work at the beginning of project timelines to improve the effectiveness of research consortia.
The present study addresses the empirical basis for alerting health professionals to potential risk factors for excessive gambling. On the basis of international and Swiss literature on gambling, an explanatory model for the development of gambling problems is developed.
This work is based on the hypothesis that the prediction rule for excessive gambling, based on a sample of the general population and for different types of frequent gambling preferences, differs from the prediction rule for disordered gambling in patients, seeking psychiatric treatment. The goal of this study is, therefore, to contribute to an early identification of disordered gambling behaviour in the general population, as well as in the target group of patients seeking psychiatric treatment.
Various sources of information were analysed separately, in order to develop and test a prediction rule for excessive gambling, namely the 2002 Swiss Health Survey, which is a survey of the general population, involving 19'706 participants, as well as the data of psychiatric patients of Lausanne/Geneva, recruited consecutively from 1996 to 2004 at the Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Lausanne. This patient population comprised a total of 886 patients. Further data from the Centre for Excessive Gambling are presented, covering 105 patients.
Results show that indicators of depressive behaviour as well as smoking are good candidates for the early identification of gambling problems. On the basis of these data it is safe to assume that signs of depressive behaviour should encourage health professionals to enquire about gambling problems.
Excessive gambling touch between 1 and 3% of the adult population (Shaffer et al. 1999).
Studies of treatment-seeking gamblers establish a relationship between gambling and suicide. We investigated clinical characteristics in excessive gamblers of a Swiss University Hospital(CHUV).
The aim of this study is to compare gamblers with prior suicide attempts (GPSA) with gamblers without prior suicide attempts (Non-GPSA) and with the international literature.
- GPSA are confronted with a higher problem load than Non-GPSA.
- GPSA lack social networks and family support as compared to Non-GPSA.
Patients treated for gambling disorders typically show a high level of co-morbidity. Bourget, Data are based on medical files of our treatment center. Among our consecutively admitted patients (2002-2006), we identified pathological gamblers who reported prior suicide attempts directly or not directly linked with gambling.
Results and discussion
– GPSA were more likely to be women, separated or divorced, referred by the forensic network.
– GPSA were more likely to be disabled and had a history of alcohol abuse. GPSA showed no difference with respect to age at intake or employment status as compared to NON-GPSA.
Further research is needed to find out whether the higher proportion of women with prior suicide attempts is due to the fact that men are more likely to complete suicide.
L’Association Santé Mentale en Afrique de l’Ouest est née d’une collaboration avec l’ONG Béninoise « Saint-Camille ». Cette association fondée par Grégoire Ahongbonon œuvre depuis près de 30 ans, en Côte d’Ivoire et au Bénin pour soustraire les malades psychiatriques au sort qui leur est le plus souvent réservé en l’absence de soins : l’errance pathologique dans les métropoles du continent et l’enchaînement physique à des arbres ou des murs à l’écart des villages dans les campagnes. La maladie mentale reste en effet un sujet tabou dans ces sociétés marquées par des croyances séculaires autour de la sorcellerie et de l’envoûtement. L’action de l’ONG Saint-Camille s’inscrit aussi dans un contexte de pénurie de structures soignantes (un seul hôpital psychiatrique au Bénin par exemple). On peut ainsi regretter la quasi-absence de politiques de développement de réseaux de soins psychiatriques en Afrique de l’Ouest, tant du point de vu des gouvernements que des grandes ONG médicales internationales, pour qui la psychiatrie n’est pas une priorité. Aujourd’hui ce sont plus de 20 000 malades qui ont été accueillis dans les 8 centres de soins d’ONG St-Camille en Côte d’Ivoire et au Bénin, et qui ont pu être réinsérés dans leurs familles, au prix d’une lutte incessante contre les représentations de la maladie mentale encore en cours dans cette partie du monde. L’association Santé Mentale en Afrique de l’Ouest, organisée autour de soignants du centre hospitalier Le Mas Careiron à Uzès (30) est engagée dans un partenariat avec l’ONG Saint-Camille et développe les actions suivantes :
– soutien financier envers ses partenaires africains pour l’achat de médicaments psychotropes ;
– aide à la formation en santé mentale ;
– organisation de missions de bénévolat en santé mentale en Afrique de l’Ouest ;
– organisation de rencontres et débats autour du thème de la santé mentale en Afrique.
Actually, the suicidal risk in people with gambling problems is insufficiently evaluated; this risk is all the more hard to specify within a population which underreports gambling behaviour and associated co-morbidities. Estimations of suicidal behaviour vary between studies, suicide attempts were observed in 4% to 40% of gamblers studied. Suicidal thoughts were reported for 25% to 92% of people with gambling problems. 64% of gamblers that committed suicide did neither inform family or friends nor health professionals about their suicidal intents. In the context of a pilot study, we wish to study suicidal behaviour in people with gambling problems.
The goal of the study consists in the early identification of gambling problems associated with suicidal behaviour. A short intervention, specifically targeted towards the prevention of suicide will be compared with the current treatment for gambling problems. Gambling and suicidal behaviour will be monitored over 6 meetings during 12 months.
Results and discussion
On the basis of this study, we wish to develop a blended E-Learning tool for professionals in psychiatry and primary health care that help to detect and treat people with gambling and suicidal behaviour.
Early-life exposure to adverse environmental cues during critical windows of time in the prenatal and/or early postnatal life period could predispose the individual for somatic andmental diseases. This especially holds for stress-related disorders such as depression in which HPA-axis dysregulation plays a pathophysiological role. This is in line with the ‘fetal (or developmental) programming-hypothesis’ which has been tested in numerous preclinical experimental. We tested this hypothesis in humans in a prospective longitudinal study in which maternal emotional state was measured during each pregnancy trimester and after pregnancy. When the offspring was 14-15 years old, HPA-axis function was measured through establishing a saliva day-time cortisol profile. Severity of depressive symptoms was measured with the Children's Depression Inventory. Repeated measurements regression analysis and ordinary least-squares regression analyses indicated that maternal anxiety at 12-22 weeks of pregnancy was in female and male offspring associated with a diurnal cortisol profile that was attenuated due to elevated cortisol secretion in the evening. Moreover, in female adolescents this flattened cortisol curve was associated with depressive symptoms. Our results indicate that maternal anxiety during pregnancy enhances neurobiological vulnerability to depressive symptoms, possibly by altering (or ‘programming") foetal physiology. If our results can be replicated in future research they may lead to a re-orientation of the target of primary prevention and treatment of depressive symptoms. Preliminary results of a study on the association between prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety and cortisol stress responsivity during inoculation in the four month old will be presented.
Les effets cliniques de l’intoxication alcoolique aiguë seraient liés à une modulation des systèmes de neurotransmission du GABA et du glutamate. Les caractéristiques longitudinales de cette modulation et l’impact de la dose d’éthanol absorbée restent mal connus. Nous avons voulu étudier in vivo les effets aigus de l’éthanol sur les niveaux de GABA et de glutamate du cortex préfrontal en spectroscopie par résonance magnétique (SRM).
Matériel et méthodes
Après une première acquisition de SRM (zone préfrontale), trois groupes de rats Wistar mâles (363 ± 27 g) ont reçu par voie intrapéritonéale (IP) :
– éthanol 1 g/kg (n = 6) ;
– éthanol 2 g/kg (n = 8) ;
– sérum physiologique (n = 5).
Des acquisitions répétées de SRM ont été réalisées jusque 300 minutes post-injection. Une cinétique de l’éthanolémie a également été réalisée dans des groupes similaires de rats Wistar. Après alcoolisation par voie IP, des prélèvements sanguins successifs ont été réalisés jusque 180 minutes pour le groupe 1 g/kg (n = 6) et 300 minutes pour le groupe 2 g/kg (n = 14). Pour la SRM, des analyses statistiques inter- et intragroupes ont été effectuées à l’aide d’un modèle linéaire mixte visant à étudier la variation des taux de GABA et glutamate.
La cinétique de l’éthanolémie était superposable à celle de la cinétique cérébrale. En SRM, une diminution significative du GABA, de 11,4 % ± 3,8 % (p < 0,0059) dans le groupe 1 g/kg et du glutamate de 13,8 % ± 2,6 % dans le groupe 2 g/kg (p < 0,0001) ont été observées, sans modification significative dans les autres groupes. La variation du ratio GABA/glutamate s’est montrée différente entre les deux groupes éthanol avec une augmentation dans le groupe 2 g/kg et une diminution dans le groupe 1 g/kg (p < 0,01).
La dose d’éthanol détermine les variations des niveaux de GABA et de glutamate du cortex préfrontal, pouvant expliquer les différents effets cliniques induits par l’alcool selon la dose.