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Although behavior therapy reduces tic severity, it is unknown whether it improves co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and functional outcomes for adults with Tourette's disorder (TD). This information is essential for effective treatment planning. This study examined the effects of behavior therapy on psychiatric symptoms and functional outcomes in older adolescents and adults with TD.
A total of 122 individuals with TD or a chronic tic disorder participated in a clinical trial comparing behavior therapy to psychoeducation and supportive therapy. At baseline, posttreatment, and follow-up visits, participants completed assessments of tic severity, co-occurring symptoms (inattention, impulsiveness, hyperactivity, anger, anxiety, depression, obsessions, and compulsions), and psychosocial functioning. We compared changes in tic severity, psychiatric symptoms, and functional outcomes using repeated measure and one-way analysis of variance.
At posttreatment, participants receiving behavior therapy reported greater reductions in obsessions compared to participants in supportive therapy (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.04, p = 0.04). Across treatments, a positive treatment response on the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale was associated with a reduced disruption in family life (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.05, p = 0.02) and improved functioning in a parental role (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.37, p = 0.02). Participants who responded positively to eight sessions of behavior therapy had an improvement in tic severity (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.75, p < 0.001), inattention (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.48, p < 0.02), and functioning (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.39–0.42, p < 0.03–0.04) at the 6-month follow-up.
Behavior therapy has a therapeutic benefit for co-occurring obsessive symptoms in the short-term, and reduces tic severity and disability in adults with TD over time. Additional treatments may be necessary to address co-occurring symptoms and improve functional outcomes.
FFQ, food diaries and 24 h recall methods represent the most commonly used dietary assessment tools in human studies on nutrition and health, but food intake biomarkers are assumed to provide a more objective reflection of intake. Unfortunately, very few of these biomarkers are sufficiently validated. This review provides an overview of food intake biomarker research and highlights present research efforts of the Joint Programming Initiative ‘A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life’ (JPI-HDHL) Food Biomarkers Alliance (FoodBAll). In order to identify novel food intake biomarkers, the focus is on new food metabolomics techniques that allow the quantification of up to thousands of metabolites simultaneously, which may be applied in intervention and observational studies. As biomarkers are often influenced by various other factors than the food under investigation, FoodBAll developed a food intake biomarker quality and validity score aiming to assist the systematic evaluation of novel biomarkers. Moreover, to evaluate the applicability of nutritional biomarkers, studies are presently also focusing on associations between food intake biomarkers and diet-related disease risk. In order to be successful in these metabolomics studies, knowledge about available electronic metabolomics resources is necessary and further developments of these resources are essential. Ultimately, present efforts in this research area aim to advance quality control of traditional dietary assessment methods, advance compliance evaluation in nutritional intervention studies, and increase the significance of observational studies by investigating associations between nutrition and health.
Peer bullying and victimization are a widespread phenomenon among school-age children and can have detrimental effects on the development of children. To examine whether having a close companion during childhood increases or decreases risk of victimization and bullying, this study compared twins to singleton children. A large group of twins (n = 9,909) were included who were compared to their related non-twin siblings (n = 1,534) aged 7–12 from the Netherlands Twin Register, thus creating optimal matching between twins and non-twins. Bullying and victimization were each based on a four-item scale filled out by their teachers. Prevalence rates for either bullying or victimization did not differ between twins and singletons. In total, in the past couple of months, 36% of children bullied peers moderately to severely, and 35% suffered moderately to severely from victimization. Boys were more likely to bully and were more prone to becoming a victim than girls. The most notable finding is that female twin pairs placed together in the same classroom did not bully more often, but were victimized less often, thus pointing to a protective effect of having a close companion in the classroom.
We perform a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of 105 presumably single O dwarf stars in 30 Doradus, located within the Large Magellanic Cloud. We use mid-to-high resolution multi-epoch optical spectroscopic data obtained within the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. Stellar and wind parameters are derived by means of the automatic tool iacob-gbat, which is based on a large grid of fastwind models. We also benefit from the Bayesian tool bonnsai to estimate evolutionary masses. We provide a spectral calibration for the effective temperature of O dwarf stars in the LMC, deal with the mass discrepancy problem and investigate the wind properties of the sample.
It is well known that comorbidity is the rule, not the exception, for categorically defined psychiatric disorders, and this is also the case for internalizing disorders of depression and anxiety. This theoretical review paper addresses the ubiquity of comorbidity among internalizing disorders. Our central thesis is that progress in understanding this co-occurrence can be made by employing latent dimensional structural models that organize psychopathology as well as vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms and by connecting the multiple levels of risk and psychopathology outcomes together. Different vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms are hypothesized to predict different levels of the structural model of psychopathology. We review the present state of knowledge based on concurrent and developmental sequential comorbidity patterns among common discrete psychiatric disorders in youth, and then we advocate for the use of more recent bifactor dimensional models of psychopathology (e.g., p factor; Caspi et al., 2014) that can help to explain the co-occurrence among internalizing symptoms. In support of this relatively novel conceptual perspective, we review six exemplar vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms, including executive function, information processing biases, cognitive vulnerabilities, positive and negative affectivity aspects of temperament, and autonomic dysregulation, along with the developmental occurrence of stressors in different domains, to show how these vulnerabilities can predict the general latent psychopathology factor, a unique latent internalizing dimension, as well as specific symptom syndrome manifestations.
Magnetic fields are likely to be an efficient mechanism which can affect evolved intermediate mass stars (i.e. post-AGB stars and planetary nebulae) in different ways such as via the shaping of their envelope. However, observational probes for the presence of those fields are still scarce. I will present a summary of the works, including those from our group, on the detection and measurement of magnetic fields in various evolved objects.
New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration data sets extend an additional 2000 yr, from 0–26 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision, and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically-dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0–10.5 cal kyr BP. Beyond 10.5 cal kyr BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific 14C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5–26.0 cal kyr BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the 14C age to calculate the underlying calibration curve (Buck and Blackwell, this issue). The marine data sets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring data sets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al. (this issue).
The first meeting of the IntCal04 working group took place at Queen's University Belfast from April 15 to 17, 2002. The participants are listed as co-authors of this report. The meeting considered criteria for the acceptance of data into the next official calibration dataset, the importance of including reliable estimates of uncertainty in both the radiocarbon ages and the cal ages, and potential methods for combining datasets. This preliminary report summarizes the criteria that were discussed, but does not yet give specific recommendations for inclusion or exclusion of individual datasets.
Multimodality, the study of the interaction of language with other semiotic resources such as images and sound resources, has significant implications for computer assisted language learning (CALL) with regards to understanding the impact of digital environments on language teaching and learning. In this paper, we explore recent manifestations of CALL in 3-D virtual worlds, illustrated by the example of Second Life. The multimodal analyses of a conventional face-to-face lesson and three language learning activities in Second Life highlight some of the affordances and challenges presented by 3-D virtual environments. The results suggest that while multimodal resources integrate naturally to facilitate language teaching and learning in an orderly, structured and goal-orientated manner in classroom lessons, the often uncoordinated use (or absence) of avatars’ gaze, facial expression, body posture, gesture, as well as the unclear proxemics and use of space pose problems for effective communication in a 3-D virtual world. In addition, a “technology-oriented” register, alongside traditional instructional and regulative genres and registers, is introduced to help students cope with the demands of learning a language in a 3-D virtual environment. The study raises the issue of the relative effectiveness of 3-D virtual worlds for language teaching and learning. In doing so, a digital approach to multimodal research is proposed in order to address the complexity of multimodal learning environments and the various challenges for CALL.
Patients with a severe mental illness (SMI) are more likely to experience
victimisation than the general population.
To examine the prevalence of victimisation in people with SMI, and the
relationship between symptoms, treatment facility and indices of
substance use/misuse and perpetration, in comparison with the general
Victimisation was assessed among both randomly selected patients with SMI
(n = 216) and the general population
Compared with the general population, a high prevalence of violent
victimisation was found among the SMI group (22.7% v.
8.5%). Compared with out-patients and patients in a sheltered housing
facility, in-patients were most often victimised (violent crimes: 35.3%;
property crimes: 47.1%). Risk factors among the SMI group for violent
victimisation included young age and disorganisation, and risk factors
for property crimes included being an in-patient, disorganisation and
cannabis use. The SMI group were most often assaulted by someone they
Caregivers should be aware that patients with SMI are at risk of violent
victimisation. Interventions need to be developed to reduce this
Enhancing performance through dietary measures is constantly sought as some supplements have shown modest performance enhancement in rodents and human subjects. To evaluate a proprietary dietary supplement, a study was undertaken to assess the effect of diet and exercise on blood physiological parameters during a tracking American Fox Hound field championship. Ten dogs were assigned to two different groups. Group A received a commercial kibble and Group B received the same diet with the addition of a supplement added to the dietary premix for 4 weeks before the field event. Blood was collected at rest, immediately following days 1 and 2 of the event and 48 h after day 2. Blood chemistry, complete blood cell counts and cortisol concentrations were analysed. Competition performance was also documented for all dogs using a points system for tracking events. Many chemistry parameters and blood cell counts changed significantly due to exercise. Differences between the dietary groups showed that Group B had significantly lower aspartate aminotransferase on days 1 and 2 of exercise and lower creatine kinase on day 2. Based on tracking scores, dogs in Group B out-performed dogs in Group A. This study suggests that endurance hunting dogs develop changes in serum markers of musculoskeletal integrity that might be mitigated by the addition of the supplement, resulting in better performance. Although intriguing, follow-up controlled studies are needed to ensure that the enhanced performance was not biased due to lack of randomisation.
The role of magnetic field in late type stars such as proto-planetary and planetary nebulae (PPNe/PNe), is poorly known from an observational point of view. We present submillimetric observations realized with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) which unveil the dust continuum polarization in the envelopes of two well known PPNe: CRL 618 and OH 231.8+4.2. Assuming the current grain alignment theory, we were then able to trace the geometry of the magnetic field.
We present the results of the search for candidate Planetary Nebulae interacting with the interstellar medium (PN–ISM) in the framework of the INT Photometric Hα Survey (IPHAS) and located in the right ascension range 18–20 h. The detection capability of this new Northern survey, in terms of depth and imaging resolution, has allowed us to overcome the detection problem generally associated to the low surface brightness inherent to PNe-ISM. We discuss the detection of 21 IPHAS PN–ISM candidates. Thus, different stages of interaction were observed, implying various morphologies i.e. from the unaffected to totally disrupted shapes. The majority of the sources belong to the so-called WZO2 stage which main characteristic is a brightening of the nebula's shell in the direction of motion. The new findings are encouraging as they would be a first step into the reduction of the scarcity of observational data and they would provide new insights into the physical processes occurring in the rather evolved PNe.
A functional promoter polymorphism of the nitric oxide synthase 1 gene first exon 1f variable number tandem repeat (NOS1 ex1f-VNTR) is associated with impulsivity and related psychopathology. Facets of impulsivity are strongly associated with personality traits; maladaptive impulsivity with neuroticism; and adaptive impulsivity with extraversion. Both high neuroticism and low extraversion predict anxiety and depressive symptoms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the NOS1 ex1f-VNTR genotype and possible interaction with environmental factors on personality, anxiety, and depressiveness in a population-representative sample. Short allele carriers had higher neuroticism and anxiety than individuals with the long/long (l/l) genotype. Male short/short homozygotes also had higher extraversion. In the face of environmental adversity, females with a short allele had higher scores of neuroticism, anxiety, and depressiveness compared to the l/l genotype. Males were more sensitive to environmental conditions when they had the l/l genotype and low extraversion. In conclusion, the NOS1 ex1f-VNTR influences personality and emotional regulation dependent on gender and environment. Together with previous findings on the effect of the NOS1 genotype on impulse control, these data suggest that NOS1 should be considered another plasticity gene, because its variants are associated with different coping strategies.
The goal of this study was to propose a systematic classification of relevant personal factors for describing the background of an individual's life and way of living. The German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention constituted an ICF working group consisting of members from Medical Advisory Boards of Statutory Health Insurances (n = 6) and other institutions (n = 12) in 2009. A two-tier consensus building approach was utilised to construct and document the personal factors, with an initial team of experts compiling the personal factors and a second group of experts, who had not participated in developing the initial proposal, validating the process. The consensus process resulted in personal factors classified into 72 categories and arranged in six chapters as follows: general factors normally unchangeable (chapter 1); a person's inherent physical and mental constitution (chapters 2 and 3); more modifiable factors, such as attitudes, basic skills and behaviour patterns (chapter 4); life situation and socioeconomic/sociocultural factors (chapter 5); and other health factors e.g., prior interventions (chapter 6). We believe the personal factors from this effort to be a good basis for a wider global dialogue on their operationalisation.
To explore associations between household food security and home gardening, use of soya and pressure cooker ownership in low-income households affected by HIV/AIDS in Aurangabad, India.
Cross-sectional pilot study which assessed household food security using the validated US Department of Agriculture's food security core-module questionnaire. Questions were added to explore household environment, education, occupation, home gardening, use of soya and pressure cooker ownership. Households with very low v. low food security were compared using logistic regression analysis, controlling for confounding by socio-economic status.
Aurangabad is an urban setting situated in a primarily agricultural dependent area. The study was carried out in 2008, at the peak of the global food crisis.
Adult caregivers of children affiliated with the Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Aurangabad.
All except for one of 133 households were identified as food insecure (99·2 %). Of these households, 35·6 % had to cut size or skip a meal in the past 30 d. Households that cut meal size due to cooking fuel shortages were more likely to have very low food security (OR = 4·67; 95 % CI 1·62, 13·44) compared with households having no cooking fuel shortages. Owning a pressure cooker was shown to be protective against very low food security after controlling for confounding by socio-economic status (OR = 0·27; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·64).
Only pressure cooker ownership showed a protective association with low household food security. Pressure cookers save household fuel costs. Therefore, future interventions should explore pressure cookers as a sustainable means of improving household food security.