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The plasma membranes of cells are thin viscous sheets in which some transmembrane proteins have two-dimensional mobility and some are immobilized. Previous studies have shown that immobile proteins retard the short-time diffusivity of mobile particles through hydrodynamic interactions and that steric effects of immobile proteins reduce the long-time diffusivity in a model that neglects hydrodynamic interactions. We present a rigorous derivation of the long-time diffusivity of a single mobile protein interacting hydrodynamically and thermodynamically with an array of immobile proteins subject to periodic boundary conditions. This method is based on a finite element method (FEM) solution of the probability density of the mobile protein diffusing with a position-dependent mobility determined through a multipole solution of Stokes equations. The simulated long-time diffusivity in square arrays decreases as the spacing in the array approaches the particle size in a manner consistent with a lubrication analysis. In random arrays, steric effects lead to a percolation threshold volume fraction above which long-time diffusion is arrested. The FEM/multipole approach is used to compute the long-time diffusivity far away from this threshold. An approximate analysis of mobile protein diffusion through a network of pores connected by bonds with resistances determined by the FEM/multipole calculations is then used to explore higher immobile area fractions and to evaluate the finite simulation cell size scaling behaviour of diffusion near the percolation threshold. Surprisingly, the ratio of the long-time diffusivity to the spatially averaged short-time diffusivity in these two-dimensional fixed arrays is higher in the presence of hydrodynamic interactions than in their absence. Finally, the implications of this work are discussed, including the possibility of using the methods developed here to investigate more complex diffusive phenomena observed in cell membranes.
Describe the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing organisms and the novel use of a cohorting unit for its control.
A 566-room academic teaching facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Solid-organ transplant recipients.
Infection control bundles were used throughout the time of observation. All KPC cases were intermittently housed in a cohorting unit with dedicated nurses and nursing aids. The rooms used in the cohorting unit had anterooms where clean supplies and linens were placed. Spread of KPC-producing organisms was determined using rectal surveillance cultures on admission and weekly thereafter among all consecutive patients admitted to the involved units. KPC-positive strains underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing.
A total of 8 KPC cases (5 identified by surveillance) were identified from April 2016 to April 2017. After the index patient, 3 patients acquired KPC-producing organisms despite implementation of an infection control bundle. This prompted the use of a cohorting unit, which immediately halted transmission, and the single remaining KPC case was transferred out of the cohorting unit. However, additional KPC cases were identified within 2 months. Once the cohorting unit was reopened, no additional KPC cases occurred. The KPC-positive species identified during this outbreak included Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae complex, and Escherichia coli. blaKPC was identified on at least 2 plasmid backbones.
A complex KPC outbreak involving both clonal and plasmid-mediated dissemination was controlled using weekly surveillances and a cohorting unit.
Manipur, an international border region has the highest incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in India. Nevertheless, there have been no analytical reviews of research article published within this region. In this review, the authors aim to draw the attention of policy makers, medical practitioners and researchers in adopting new strategies to limit the expansion of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) not only in Manipur but also in other international border areas. A systematic search for published literature in last decade was performed based on the keywords ‘Manipur’ and ‘HIV’ using the PubMed. Twenty-six articles were selected and reviewed. There were high incidence of drug resistance (53%), emergence of recombinant virus (32%) and increased incidence of co-infection with hepatitis C virus. The prime cause of the HIV is due to the uses of ‘heroin’ smuggled from the ‘South Asia Golden Triangle’ and complex patterns of cross-border movement for trade and commerce. The drug abuse, social stigma, geographical location and resource limitation and socio-political problem of the region have contributed strongly on spreading and failure of preventively programme of HIV/AIDS. This review will provide vital knowledge for the policy makers and clinicians for sentinel surveillance of AIDS pandemic in Manipur and other international border regions.
The Best Practices in Social and Behavioral Research Course was developed to provide instruction on good clinical practice for social and behavioral trials. This study evaluated the new course.
Participants across 4 universities took the course (n=294) and were sent surveys following course completion and 2 months later. Outcomes included relevance, how engaging the course was, and working differently because of the course. Open-ended questions were posed to understand how work was impacted.
Participants rated the course as relevant and engaging (6.4 and 5.8/7 points) and reported working differently (4.7/7 points). Participants with less experience in social and behavioral trials were most likely to report working differently 2 months later.
The course was perceived as relevant and engaging. Participants described actions taken to improve rigor in implementing trials. Future studies with a larger sample and additional participating sites are recommended.
On 27 April 2015, Washington health authorities identified Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with dairy education school field trips held in a barn 20–24 April. Investigation objectives were to determine the magnitude of the outbreak, identify the source of infection, prevent secondary illness transmission and develop recommendations to prevent future outbreaks. Case-finding, hypothesis generating interviews, environmental site visits and a case–control study were conducted. Parents and children were interviewed regarding event activities. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Environmental testing was conducted in the barn; isolates were compared to patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sixty people were ill, 11 (18%) were hospitalised and six (10%) developed haemolytic uremic syndrome. Ill people ranged in age from <1 year to 47 years (median: 7), and 20 (33%) were female. Twenty-seven case-patients and 88 controls were enrolled in the case–control study. Among first-grade students, handwashing (i.e. soap and water, or hand sanitiser) before lunch was protective (adjusted OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.02–0.88, P = 0.04). Barn samples yielded E. coli O157:H7 with PFGE patterns indistinguishable from patient isolates. This investigation provided epidemiological, laboratory and environmental evidence for a large outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infections from exposure to a contaminated barn. The investigation highlights the often overlooked risk of infection through exposure to animal environments as well as the importance of handwashing for disease prevention. Increased education and encouragement of infection prevention measures, such as handwashing, can prevent illness.
This poster presented results from the Large Magellanic Cloud Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey (LMCNISS) for classical and Type II Cepheid variables that were identified in the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) catalogue. Multi-wavelength time-series data for classical Cepheid variables are used to study light-curve structures as a function of period and wavelength. We exploited a sample of ∼1400 classical and ∼80 Type II Cepheid variables to derive Period–Wesenheit relations that combine both optical and near-infrared data. The new Period–Luminosity and Wesenheit relations were used to estimate distances to several Local-Group galaxies (using classical Cepheids) and to Galactic globular clusters (using Type II Cepheids). By appealing to a statistical framework, we found that fundamental-mode classical Cepheid Period–Luminosity relations are non-linear around 10–18 days at optical and near-IR wavelengths. We also suggested that a non-linear relation provides a better constraint on the Cepheid Period–Luminosity relation in Type Ia Supernovæ host galaxies, though it has a negligible effect on the systematic uncertainties affecting the local measurement of the Hubble constant.
Bovine calf scours reported to be caused by multiple aetiologies resulting in heavy mortality in unweaned calves and huge economic loss to the dairy farmers. Among these, cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne zoonoses and one of the important causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea. Poor immune response coupled with primary cryptosporidial infections predispose neonatal calves to multiple secondary infections resulting in their deaths. In the present study, faecal samples from 100 diarrhoeic calves randomly picked up out of 17 outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea in periurban Ludhiana, Punjab in Northern India were subjected to conventional (microscopy, modified Zeihl–Neelsen (mZN) staining) and immunological and molecular techniques (faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR) for detection of primary Cryptosporidium parvum infection as well as other frequently reported concurrent pathogens, viz. rotavirus and coronavirus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria spp. The faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR revealed 35% prevalence of C. parvum in contrast to 25% by mZN staining with a relatively higher prevalence (66·7%) in younger (8–14-day-old) calves. The detection rate of the other enteropathogens associated with C. parvum was 45·71% for C. perfringens followed by Salmonella spp (40·0%), rotavirus (36·0%), coronavirus (16·0%), E. coli (12·0%) and Eimeria spp (4·0%) The sensitivity for detection of C. parvum by ELISA and mZN staining in comparison to PCR was 97·14% and 72·72%, respectively. An important finding of the study was that C. parvum alone was found in only 10% of the diarrhoeic faecal samples, whereas, majority of the samples (90%) showed mixed infections ranging from a combination of two to five agents. This is the first documentary proof of C. parvum and associated pathogens responsible for severe periurban outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea culminating in heavy mortality from Northern India.
Antigenic variation in malaria was discovered in Plasmodium knowlesi studies involving longitudinal infections of rhesus macaques (M. mulatta). The variant proteins, known as the P. knowlesi Schizont Infected Cell Agglutination (SICA) antigens and the P. falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) antigens, expressed by the SICAvar and var multigene families, respectively, have been studied for over 30 years. Expression of the SICA antigens in P. knowlesi requires a splenic component, and specific antibodies are necessary for variant antigen switch events in vivo. Outstanding questions revolve around the role of the spleen and the mechanisms by which the expression of these variant antigen families are regulated. Importantly, the longitudinal dynamics and molecular mechanisms that govern variant antigen expression can be studied with P. knowlesi infection of its mammalian and vector hosts. Synchronous infections can be initiated with established clones and studied at multi-omic levels, with the benefit of computational tools from systems biology that permit the integration of datasets and the design of explanatory, predictive mathematical models. Here we provide an historical account of this topic, while highlighting the potential for maximizing the use of P. knowlesi – macaque model systems and summarizing exciting new progress in this area of research.
Background: Insular cortex involvement as a part of epileptogenic zone is often suspected in the context of operculo-insular semiology and can be confirmed by routine interrogation of the insula with stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG). However the safety and efficacy of insular resections remains unclear. Methods: We reviewed all the patients who underwent insular resection for drug-resistant epilepsy, from 2002 – 2016, in the Calgary Epilepsy Program. Details of the comprehensive pre-surgical evaluation, surgery performed, complications and seizure outcome at the latest follow-up were collected. Results: Fifteen patients (8 males, 7 females) with age range 3 – 41 years were identified. MRI was normal in 9 patients. The decision to resect the Insula was made based on clinical semiology and structural and functional imaging in 6 patients and on SEEG findings in 9 patients. Insular resection was total in 11 and partial in 4 patients. Four (26%) patients had transient hemiparesis and 1 patient had permanent mild upper extremity weakness following total resection. After a mean follow-up period of 45.6 months (range 2 – 150 months), 40% of the patients are seizure free. Conclusions: Insular cortex resections for drug resistant epilepsy can be performed safely and may contribute to additional effectiveness in seizure outcomes in patients with challenging extra-temporal epilepsy.
Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.
We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.
We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).
Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
Cotton–wheat (CW) is an important cropping system in South Asia. Wheat yields under a conventional CW system are generally lower compared to a rice–wheat system due to delayed seeding. Relay seeding of wheat can help timely sowing, capturing residual soil moisture of last irrigation to cotton, and increase the productivity and profitability of CW system. The field experiment included two Bt-cotton genotypes having different canopy cover (RCH 776 and MRC 7017), two types of relay seeders (RSs) for cotton planted at 67.5-cm and 101-cm row spacing and four types of relay seeding methods (manual broadcast, strip rotor (SR) and zero-till double disc and conventional till). Relay planting of wheat allowed one additional boll picking, which increased seed cotton yield by 12% compared with conventional tillage wheat. Cotton genotypes and RSs had no effect on emergence and yield of wheat. The RSs with SR and zero till double disc furrow openers performed better in terms of wheat emergence and grain yield compared to zero-till tine openers. Under relay seeding, wheat sowing was advanced by 31 days, which increased grain yield by 18.8% compared with conventional tillage practice. Net returns from the CW system with relay seeding of wheat were higher by US$ 311 to 425 ha−1 compared with the conventional CW system.
Background: Exploration of the insular cortex is now commonly considered in patients with refractory epilepsy requiring invasive EEG investigations. The safety and yield of routine insular exploration is uncertain. Methods: All patients (pediatric and adult) who had invasive EEG (iEEG) with insular depth electrode placement, either through SEEG or open implantation, were reviewed. Ictal insular involvement was characterized as primary, secondary or not involved. Results of insular resections were recorded. Results: A total of 173 patients had iEEG of which 26 included insular electrodes (SEEG-18, Open - 8). No complications of placement were identified. Insular involvement was seen in 20 (76%) patients. Primary ictal involvement was identified in 9 (33 %) patients, while secondary spread was noted in 11 (42 %) patients. Six patients went on to have resections including the insular cortex of which 5 patients achieved good seizure control (Engle class I/II). Conclusions: Insular depth electrode placement is a safe and effective adjunct to invasive EEG investigations. Ictal involvement of the insular cortex was commonly identified in our series leading to inclusion of the insula in cortical resections with good seizure control, which may not have been considered without iEEG evidence.
We present preliminary results of grating observations of YY Mensae and V824 Arae by Chandra and XMM-Newton. Spectral features are presented in the context of the emission measure distributions, the coronal abundances, and plasma electron densities. In particular, we observe a coronal N/C enhancement in YY Men believed to reflect the photospheric composition (CN cycle). Finally, we interpret line broadening in YY Men as Doppler thermal broadening in its very hot corona.
Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite is currently affecting humans in Southeast Asia. Malaysia has reported the most number of cases and P. knowlesi is the predominant species occurring in humans. The vectors of P. knowlesi belong to the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles mosquitoes. These are generally described as forest-dwelling mosquitoes. With deforestation and changes in land-use, some species have become predominant in farms and villages. However, knowledge on the distribution of these vectors in the country is sparse. From a public health point of view it is important to know the vectors, so that risk factors towards knowlesi malaria can be identified and control measures instituted where possible. Here, we review what is known about the knowlesi malaria vectors and ascertain the gaps in knowledge, so that future studies could concentrate on this paucity of data in-order to address this zoonotic problem.
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
Aspiration pneumonia is an important cause of death in head and neck cancer patients. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonia in head and neck cancer patients.
Hospital death records from 12 years (2000–2012) were reviewed to obtain the number of deaths. Treatment details and cause of death were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for aspiration pneumonia.
The records revealed that aspiration pneumonia was the cause of death in 51 out of 85 patients. Primary tumour site (oropharynx and hypopharynx, odds ratio 3.3; 95 per cent confidence interval 1.17–9.4, p = 0.02) and advanced tumour stage (odds ratio 4.2, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.16–15.61, p = 0.02) had significant negative impacts on aspiration pneumonia related mortality.
Advanced pharyngeal cancer patients are at an increased risk of aspiration pneumonia related death. Investigations for the early detection of this condition are recommended in these high-risk patients.
Risk for depression is expressed across multiple levels of analysis. For example, parental depression and cognitive vulnerability are known markers of depression risk, but no study has examined their interactive effects on children's cortisol reactivity, a likely mediator of early depression risk. We examined relations across these different levels of vulnerability using cross-sectional and longitudinal methods in two community samples of children. Children were assessed for cognitive vulnerability using self-reports (Study 1; n = 244) and tasks tapping memory and attentional bias (Study 2; n = 205), and their parents were assessed for depression history using structured clinical interviews. In both samples, children participated in standardized stress tasks and cortisol reactivity was assessed. Cross-sectionally and longitudinally, parental depression history and child cognitive vulnerability interacted to predict children's cortisol reactivity; associations between parent depression and elevated child cortisol activity were found when children also showed elevated depressotypic attributions as well as attentional and memory biases. Findings indicate that models of children's emerging depression risk may benefit from the examination of the interactive effects of multiple sources of vulnerability across levels of analysis.
In this contribution, we report the synthesis and characterization of NixFe3-xO4 and CoxFe3-xO4 redox nanomaterials using sol-gel method. These materials will be used to produce solar fuels such as H2 or syngas from H2O and/or CO2 via solar thermochemical cycles (STCs). For the sol-gel synthesis of ferrites, the Ni, Co, Fe precursor salts were dissolved in ethanol and propylene oxide (PO) was added dropwise to the well mixed solution as a gelation agent to achieve gel formation. Freshly synthesized gels were aged, dried, and calcined by heating them to 600°C in air. The calcined powders were characterized by powder x-ray diffractometer (XRD), BET surface area, as well as scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Their suitability to be used in STCs for the production of solar fuels was assessed by performing several reduction/re-oxidation cycles using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA).