It is estimated that 80% of the world population trusts traditional medicine. A large number of Americans use infusions of Bocconia frutescens L. leaves to treat cough and gastrointestinal disorders. However, phytochemical studies reveal that this plant contains alkaloids and other potentially harmful substances. This study aimed to evaluate the teratogenic effects of B. frutescens L. in an experimental model. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered lyophilized B. frutescens L. extract at 300 mg/kg/day or vehicle by orogastric route during the organogenesis period (gestation days 7–13), and external and internal congenital malformations were analyzed on the progeny on gestational day 20. Bocconia frutescens L. produced a significant increase in the number of different malformations, relative to the control group. We conclude that the consumption of B. frutescens L. during pregnancy at a dose equivalent to that consumed by humans increases the risk of teratogenic effects.