Toxoplasma gondii is the aetiological agent of toxoplasmosis and is the most frequent and best known of the parasitic diseases. In the United States, a serological survey from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found that an estimated 23% of adolescents and adults have laboratory evidence of infection with T. gondii. Although toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic or shows self-limited symptoms in adults, in pregnant women infections can cause severe health problems to the fetus if the parasites are transmitted. Also, in immunodeficient patients, chronic infection with T. gondii can reactivate and produce encephalitis, which is frequently lethal. In addition, in veterinary medicine, T. gondii infection is of economic importance due to abortion and neonatal loss in sheep and goats. Recently, the development of vaccines against toxoplasmosis has progressed considerably. The live attenuated S48 strain of Toxoplasma has been broadly used for veterinary purposes. DNA vaccines containing the full-length of SAG1/P30, ROP2 or ROP 1 genes have proved to be a promising candidate to induce protection against toxoplasmosis. Viral vectors have proved to be the best candidates for vaccination in different diseases. A recombinant Herpes virus carrying the ROP2 gene is able to induce protective immunity in cats. In the present work we describe the potential of the MVA ROP2 recombinant vaccinia virus as a vaccine against toxoplasmosis. MVA ROP2 induces antibodies against the ROP2 protein in similar amount and types as the thermo-sensible strain ts-4 of T. gondii, which is able to fully protect mice against challenge with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. Also, the life-span of mice is increased in MVA ROP2 vaccinated animals. We conclude that MVA ROP2 vaccine can possibly generate an immune response, which could be useful in protection against toxoplasmosis.