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Residual strain in electrodeposited Li films may affect safety and performance in Li metal battery anodes, so it is important to understand how to detect residual strain in electrodeposited Li and the conditions under which it arises. To explore this Li films, electrodeposited onto Cu metal substrates, were prepared under an applied pressure of either 10 or 1000 kPa and subsequently tested for the presence or absence of residual strain via sin2(ψ) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of Li films required preparation and examination within an inert environment; hence, a Be-dome sample holder was employed during XRD characterization. Results show that the Li film grown under 1000 kPa displayed a detectable presence of in-plane compressive strain (−0.066%), whereas the Li film grown under 10 kPa displayed no detectable in-plane strain. The underlying Cu substrate revealed an in-plane residual strain near zero. Texture analysis via pole figure determination was also performed for both Li and Cu and revealed a mild fiber texture for Li metal and a strong bi-axial texture of the Cu substrate. Experimental details concerning sample preparation, alignment, and analysis of the particularly air-sensitive Li films have also been detailed. This work shows that Li metal exhibits residual strain when electrodeposited under compressive stress and that XRD can be used to quantify that strain.
Until now, no reliable biological markers of risk and relapse in substance-dependent patients have been identified. The yawn-inducing test with apomorphine has been proposed as a marker of the functional status of the dopaminergic system and therefore a predictor of suffering an addiction or predisposition to relapse.
Studying the safety and efficacy of apomorphine test as a predictor of relapse in intranasal cocaine dependent, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR.
We performed the test of apomorphine at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 11/12) of a detoxification program in 33 patients (29 men). The majority of patients relapsed after 22 weeks of follow up (87% relapse). The average yawns in the sample were 10.9 ± 9.3 in the initial test (Apo 1) and 10.2 ± 10.2 in the final test (Apo 2). The 42% of patients relapsed early (before 4 weeks) and 45% late (afther 4 weeks). 58% of the sample (N = 19), which did not fall belatedly filled an average of 8.0 yawns in Apo1 and 8.1 on Apo2 and 42% who did so early (N = 14), 14,8 in Apo1 and 14.6 in Apo2. Therefore there are an increased number of yawns in patients with early relapse. No important side effects were reported.
Patients with early relapse have a higher number of yawns that those falling late or abstainers The apomorphine test is a safe test and it is a readily applicable tool in clinical practice and may be a biological marker of risk.
There are 80.000 patients undergoing replacement opiate programs in Spain, mainly methadone. Gender differences and the ratio of dual diagnosis in this population are unknown.
To describe gender differences in the current therapeutic management of opiate-dependent patients undergoing a replacement therapy program in Spain.
624 patients from 74 centers in Spain were included between September 2008 and February 2009 in an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Patients were ≥ 18 years, had a diagnosis of opiate dependence according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, were currently scheduled in a replacement therapy program in Spain and were given written informed consent.
Only 16% of patients were female. Methadone average doses were significantly higher in man (57,59mg ± (SD 46,77) vs 52,81mg ± (SD 50,81) (p< 0.05)). Most women were caretaken by their partner (56.8% vs 34,2%) and man by their parents (61,6% vs 37,8) p< 0,05.Women were found to have significantly more sexual disorders than men (6% versus 2%; p=0.0316); but less delirium, dementia, amnesic and other cognitive disorders (none versus 6%; p=0.0486); schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (3% versus 13%; p=0.0226); and adaptive disorders (2% versus 9%; 0.0427). No significant differences were found between sexes for other psychiatric comorbidities.
The ratio between men and women was close to 5/1, being bigger than that in the general opiate dependent Spanish population. Dual diagnosis rates vary by gender, but not in the number of diagnosis in Axis I or II. Gender differences must be considered when planning dependence services as women.
In Andalucia (Spain), exist a high prescription of antidepressants, joined to an elevated variability in the choice of it.
To describe associated variables with the prescription of antidepressants in Andalucia. To determinate percentage of depresive disorder in antidepressants users.
Primary Health Care, with Health Centers of Andalusian Community participating.
Subjects od the study
Patients older than 18 years old, users of antidepressants. The inclusion in the study will require informed consent by the patient.
Variables to measure
Sociodemographics; Familiars and Personals precedents of mental disorders; number and duration of episodes in which it has taken antidepressants; Hamilton anxiety-depression index; Beck‘s depression index; Diagnosis of depressive disorder or another with need of antidepressant treatment; Comorbility ; Origin of the presciption. Variables in relation with the prescriptor will be mesurement.
It is calculated by accepting a signification level of 95%, and a percentage of depresive disorder over antidepressants users unknowed (p = q = 50%). A sample size of 770 patients is estimated, including losses.
Determinations will be carried out through descriptive statistics; frequency distribution, dispersion and central tendency measurements. A measurement of possible associations between variables through contrast of hypothesis test will also be calculated. So, Pearson's chi-square test for qualitatives variables and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for quantitatives. The study will be finished studig association between potentials variables existing in antidepressants users and depression diagnosis through model of binary logistic regression.
Un échec de traitement peut entraîner diverses conséquences à la fois pour le patient souffrant de schizophrénie mais aussi en terme de santé publique (arrêt du traitement, hospitalisation, addiction, arrestation/incarcération) [1–3]. Cette étude a comparé en vraie vie, les délais avant échec au traitement des patients souffrant de schizophrénie ayant des antécédents d’incarcération, traités soit par palmitate de paliperidone (PP) ou par des antipsychotiques oraux (APO).
Paliperidone Research In Demonstrating Effectiveness (PRIDE) est une étude en ouvert, prospective, randomisée, d’une durée de 15 mois, comparant le PP une fois par mois aux APO chez des sujets atteints de schizophrénie, avec des antécédents d’incarcération (NCT01157351). Les sujets ont été randomisés (1:1) en deux groupes :
– PP à doses flexibles (78–234 mg) administrées une fois par mois ou à ;
– l’un des 7 APO couramment prescrits par l’investigateur.
Le critère de jugement principal était le délai avant échec du traitement (défini comme arrestation/incarcération, hospitalisation, suicide, arrêt du traitement ou supplémentation par manque d’efficacité ou mauvaise tolérance et/ou besoin d’intensifier les soins psychiatriques) évalué par la méthode de Kaplan-Meier.
Un total de 450 sujets ont été inclus (sexe masculin = 86,3 %). Le délai avant échec du traitement était significativement plus long avec le PP par rapport aux APO (médiane = 416 vs 226 jours avant arrêt du traitement ou supplémentation ; Rapport de risque [IC95 %] = 1,43 [1,09, 1,88] ; p = 0,011). Les taux d’échecs du traitement étaient de 39,8 % avec le PP et de 53,7 % avec les APO. Des résultats similaires ont été observés pour le délai avant hospitalisation ou arrestation/incarcération (médiane ≥ 450 vs 274 jours ; rapport de risque [IC95 %] = 1,43 [1,06, 1,93] ; p = 0,019). Les événements indésirables les plus fréquents (PP vs APO, ≥ 10 %) étaient : douleur au site d’injection (18,6 % vs 0 %) ; insomnie (16,8 % vs 11,5 %) ; prise de poids (11,9 % vs 6,0 %) ; akathisie (11,1 % vs 6,9 %) ; anxiété (10,6 % vs 7,3 %).
Le traitement mensuel par PP injectable retarde significativement le délai de survenue d’un large éventail de conséquences négatives de la schizophrénie en vie réelle.
Suicide is one of the most frequent causes of death. In 1993, Bleuler emphasized its importance in his “Suicidal behavior is the most serious symptom of schizophrenia”. Since then, various studies have confirmed importance of suicide in schizophrenia, and today it's clear that his research and knowledge is one of the great challenges of psychiatry.
- Establish clinical-socio-demographic profile and risk factors for psychotic people with autolytic behaviors.
- Determine frequency of suicides in psychotic disorders in our area of care.
Material and methods
Retrospective study(3 years evolution) that includes psychotic patients(diagnosed according DSM IV-TR) admitted to the HCU of Valladolid. With data provided by hospital medical records, analyzed socio-demographic variables and clinics. Study consists of two groups:group of cases(those patients who have suicidal behavior) and control group (those that haven't autolytic gesture during the study period). Statistical evaluation was performed with SPSS.
- The sample includes 191 patients:41(21%) have attempted suicide.
- Of them:73% are males;88% singles;51% have basic studies;61% we re unemployed;37% were 31-40 aged;54% started disease 21-30 aged and 63.5% are schizophrenic.
- Considering statistical study we find that suicidal patient profile is male(p = 0.039),diagnosed with schizophrenia(p = 0.033),with previous suicide attempts(p = 0.009)and lack of social support(p = 0.007).
- 21% of hospitalized psychotic patients have presented some autolytic attempt.
- Profile of suicidal psychotic patient is a male, single, 21-40 aged, primary education, unemployed, with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia, particularly paranoid, with ten years evolution,without acceptable social support, number of revenues higher than non-suicidal psychotic and a personal history of previous autolytic attempts.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in subjects with cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment and dementia). It is also widely known that there are many cognitive differences between men and women. The aim of this study is to describe the neuropsychiatric profile of elderly subjects visited in a dementia unit and to estimate the gender differences in this sample.
We conducted a retrospective study in a sample of outpatients visited for the first time in a specialized dementia unit during 2008. The clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were compiled through a structured interview and neuropsychiatric tests. Yesavage scale was used for depression assessment and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated using NPI-Q test.
144 subjects were analyzed, 72.2% were women (n=104) and 27.8% were men (n=40). Mean age at diagnosis was 79.15 +/− 6.58 years. Mean score in Yesavage was higher in women (4.34) than in men (3.9) although not statistically significant. Male subjects showed greater anxiety and aggressiveness than women (p< 0.05) analyzed with NPI-Q. Prior to the first assessment interview 73.6% of the subjects had used psychiatric drugs: women were found to take more SSRI (12,5% vs 5%) while men were using more benzodiazepines (22,5% vs 14,4%) although not statistically significant.
We have found that anxiety and aggressiveness defines male neuropsychiatric profile in our sample. More results pointed towards other different features defining genders although not statistically significant. Further studies, with larger samples and more exhaustive assessment, are needed to determine sex differences in subjects with cognitive impairment.
Drug substance abuse has been related with chronic insomnia and other sleep disorders that are thought to interfere in detoxification treatment and relapse induction. These disorders can persist after drug detoxification.
To describe sleep disorders refered by drug dependents patients in an inpatient detoxification unit.
We prospectively studied drug dependents patients admitted to our Detoxification Unit from January 2005 to March 2009. The first night, patients were asked to complete an 11-item questionnaire measure designed to assess the relationship between sleep disorders and drug use. Responses ranged from 1 to 7. The questionnaire measured the following:
a) insomnia before hospitalization;
b) patients’ beliefs about the relationship between insomnia and drug use;
c) insomnia in previous detoxifications;
d) patients’ worry about insomnia;
e) treatment of sleep disorder with benzodiazepines.
The study sample included 150 patients (75.3% men). 39% of the patients suffered from alcohol abuse, 34.67% from cocaine abuse, 22.67% from opiod abuse, 21% from cannabis abuse, 18% from benzodiazepine abuse, and 12.67% of patients were polydrug users.Lifetime prevalence of sleep disorders was 68.1%. 64% had suffered insomnia the months previous to detoxification. 80.1% of patients’ refered sleep disorders in relationship with substance abuse. 69.4% were worried about insomnia during detoxification. 75.4% of patients took benzodiazepines without prescription.
Sleep disorders in patients with drug abuse are frequent. A high prevalence of patients having worries about insomnia during the detoxification treatment and believing in a relationship between their sleep disorders and the drug abuse was found.
Depersonalization (DP) is a common and complex clinical phenomenon in neurology and psychiatry. It is defined as an experience in which the individual feels a sense of unreality and detachment from him/herself. Prevalence and clinical correlates of dissociative symptoms in general, and DP in particular have been associated to panic disorder (Hunter et al., 2004). Moreover, DP has been associated with certain personality traits, specifically “harm-avoidant” temperament dimension, immature defenses, and overconnection and disconnection cognitive schemata (Simeon et al., 2002).
To investigate the prevalence of DP syndrome in panic disorder and its relationship with personality.
One-hundred-four consecutive adult patients with panic disorder were assessed with the Semi- Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Axis I and II. All participants were evaluated with the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (Sierra and Berrios, 2000) and the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory. The severity of panic disorder was measured with the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale.
Seventeen patients (16.3%) had a DP syndrome. There were not socio-demographic differences between both groups with and without DP syndrome. Patients with DP syndrome showed a higher score in “self-transcendence” character dimension (p< .001), higher prevalence of personality disorders (p=.007) and greater severity of panic disorder (p=.007). A logistic regression analysis showed that severity of panic disorder (p=.031) and higher “self-transcendence” personality dimension (p=.019) predicts DP syndrome in panic disorder patients. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed the goodness-of-fit of the model.
The study confirms the association of DP syndrome with panic disorder and their relationship with “self-transcendence” personality dimension.
UPD is a regional referral hospital psychiatric care unit, endowed with multidisciplinary equipment. It provides care to people with light/moderate/severe intellectual incapacity coexisting with mental disease and/or severe behavioral disorders. It offers attention to patients who need a protected therapeutical environment for correcting behavior disorders. It was opened in September 2008.
Description of:therapeutic goals, inclusion/exclusion criteria, admission protocol and psychotherapeutic/pharmacological interventions.
Analysis of inpatients's sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and preliminary assessment of therapy goals.
Retrospective study(13-month) of patients admitted to UPD of Leon Hospital from its inception to date. Data are collected from medical histories.
47 referrals have been received,5 of them have been rejected not to fulfill criteria. We’ve 16 patients on waiting list.32 incomes have been realized and 22 discharges have occurred.
19 of the incomes correspond to Mild,6 to Moderate,6 to Severe and 1 to Profound mental Retardation.
Regarding co-morbidity:22 patients presented serious behavioral disorder. From this group, 2 met criteria for autistic disorder, 5 had schizophrenia or unspecific psychotic disorders, 5 presented Personality Disorder and one ADHD.
10 patients did’nt present any important behavioral disturbance. From this group 2 were diagnosed with OCD,3 presented problems due to Alcohol and Substance-related Disorders,3 had Psychotic Disorders, one met criteria for Impulse Control Disorder and one presented Mood Disorder.
Before admission, 12 patients resided in specific handicappeds center, 5 intermittently at selected centers and in family, and 15 lived with family.
Psychotherapeutic intervention and treatment were useful in most cases. It was particularly helpful in treatment of behavioral disturbances. Now we must determine effectiveness in maintenance of improvement when they return to their community.
Two studies to date have been published regarding the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients. The unadjusted prevalence rates reported were 30% and 32%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of 142 bipolar patients from Spain.
Bipolar patients (ICD-10 criteria) from 11 centres in Spain were assessed cross-sectionally for metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP ATP III criteria.
The mean age was 47.3 (SD 14.5), 51.1% were male. On average, patients were receiving 2.8 (SD 1.3) drugs for the treatment of their bipolar disorder. Ninety-one percent were receiving mood stabilizers, 63.4% antipsychotics and 29.6 antidepressants. Eighty-seven percent of the antipsychotics prescribed were atypicals. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our sample was 24.6% Fifty-seven percent of the sample met the criterion for abdominal obesity, 37.4% for met the criterion for hypertriglyceridemia, 36.4% for low HDL-cholesterol, 25.2% for high blood pressure and 12.5% for high fasting glucose. No statistically significant difference was found between with and without the metabolic syndrome for gender, illness status (acute versus in remission), CGI-S-BP scores and number of medications used. Patients taking tow mood stabilizers had significantly higher metabolic syndrome rates than patients taking one mood stabilizer and than patients without mood stabilizer treatment (40% versus 17.8% and 11.1% respectively, p .02).
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients is high. It appears to be higher than that estimated for the Spanish general population.
We set up a study to analyze quality of life and social adaptation in a group of women suffering from fibromyalgia.
Patient inclusion from 1st March to 30th June 2010. An especially designed questionnaire was used for the study, together with Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF36), Family Apgar questionnaire, Duke-UNC Functional Social Support (Duke-UNC 11) questionnaire, and Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale (SASS). SPSS was used for statistical analysis.
Following explanation of purpose of our study and confidentiality agreement, 35 women voluntarily joined our study. Mean age was 52.2 years standard deviation (SD) 7.17. 82,9% had children (mean 2.03 and SD 0.94); 85.7% of patients acknowledged coping with fibromyalgia “badly” or “very badly”; 60% acknowledged that their illness affected their families “severely” or “critically”; 94.3% acknowledged their quality of life affected “much” or “very much”; and 85.7% of patients had their social relationships “much” or “very much” affected. 82.9% of our group of patients was under psychiatric treatment. SF36 scored an average of 27.85 on the physical functioning subscale (SD 19.93); physical role 6.42 (SD 18.53); pain 16.64 (SD 13.7); social functioning 32.14 (SD 21.92); mental health 33.14 (SD 19.0); emotional role 15.23 (SD 30.61); vitality 16.28 (SD 18.60) and general health perception 16.71 (SD 14.54). Family Apgar scored 7.34 (SD 2.53). Duke-UNC 11 scored 35.17 (SD 11.34). Finally, SASS scored 31.32 (SD 7.59).
In view of the results, women suffering from fibromyalgia showed severe changes in all parameters analyzed, social adaptation being very much impaired.
Characterizing the profile of schizophrenic patients with high hospitalization rates seems relevant. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics of patients with schizophrenia hospitalized at Acute Care Units, and identify clinical profiles associated to relapse.
Observational retrospective study (case-control). Hospitalized patients diagnosed for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder for more than 2 years. Data related to the previous 3 years and current hospitalization were recorded: sociodemographics, diagnosis, CGI, reason for current/previous hospitalizations, life events, drug abuse, therapy prior and during hospitalization and compliance.
Preliminary results from 1607 patients are presented: cases are patients with no hospitalization (No-HOSP) in the previous 3 years (N=508); controls are those who had some hospitalization (HOSP) during that period (N=1099). HOSP patients were significantly younger than No-HOSP (p<0.0001). 41% of HOSP and 28.4% of No-HOSP patients showed No-Low family support (p<0.0001). 55.9% of HOSP and 50.2% of No-HOSP patients showed some drug abuse close to current hospitalization (p<0.05). The most frequent factor for current hospitalization was relapse due to non-compliance in both HOSP (66.2%) and No-HOSP (59.4%; p=0.0092). Through artificial intelligence methods, fourteen variables are identified as related to relapse (Number of previous antipsychotics, Time of evolution, CGI, Age, Gender, Educational Level, Family support, Compliance, Heroine, Cocaine or Cannabis abuse, Stressing events, Diagnosis, Number of previous hospitalizations), which have permitted to develop a predictive model for relapse (PRECOG Project).
The main factor for hospitalization was non-compliance. Age, family support, drug abuse seem to be also related to hospitalization.
Despite of the evidence of high psychopathological disorders in patients with ATSCI, few data are available on their psychiatric morbidity prior to the injury.
Identify psychiatric morbidity pre-post ATSCI in a sample of patients admitted in the Spinal Injuries Unit of the Vall d’ Hebron University Hospital in Barcelona (Spain).
Material and methods
54 patients with ATSCI patients were admitted between 1st. October 2009 and 1st. October 2010. SPSS (version 16.1) was used to analyze the data.
Seventy-six percent of the inpatients with ATSCI (41 cases) were evaluated by the psychiatrist and constitute the study sample. Twenty-seven (66%) were male and 14 (33%) female. The average age of the sample was 41 years with younger males (p < 0.05).
Reasons for ATSCI in males were traffic accident (26%), accidental falls and sports accidents (both 18.5%). In women were suicidal attempt by precipitation, fall accident (28.6% both) and traffic accident (21.4%).
41% of men versus 14% of women had a history of substance misuse (p < 0.01) while 64% of women versus the 14.8% of males had a prior psychiatric disorder (p < 0.01). 72.5% of men with ATSCI caused by traffic accident had used substances prior to the accident, those association was not found for women.
91% of patients underwent psychopharmacological intervention.
ATSCI patients exhibit high psychiatric morbidity and require specialized assessment. The high incidence of substance use associated with road traffic injuries suggests the need to identify risk groups in order to establish effective preventive measures.
Investigation of the occurrence of psychotic symptoms in non-psychiatric population may help to identify population at risk of psychosis. The aim of our study was to find out lifetime and current prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the general population of the Czech Republic. Study sample consisted of a stratified population. All participants were administered the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire and the data on psychiatric treatment and diagnosis according to the M.I.N.I. were recorded. In total, 3244 subjects responded (48.1% males and 51.9% females). The most frequently reported symptom was paranoia (7.7%), followed by hypomania (6.2%), strange experiences (5.2%), thought insertion (3.8%), and hallucinations (1.7%). Lifetime prevalence of minimum 1 psychotic symptom was 17.9%. The highest proportion of responders reported only one symptom (13.5%). Significantly more males than females experienced paranoia (p=0.002). In the subset of individuals with a history of at least one psychotic symptom, 70.6% never visited a psychiatrist, 78.9% did not meet diagnostic criteria of psychotic disorder according to the M.I.N.I., and 67.0% failed to have any psychiatric diagnosis at all. The results suggest a high frequency of psychotic experience among the ethnically homogeneous Czech population. Only the longitudinal follow-up could confirm whether the symptomatic subjects are at risk of development of psychotic disorder. More likely, our findings support a hypothesis of the presence of psychiatric symptoms in the general population as a continuum of psychotic spectrum, from normality and sanity through unique psychotic experiences to fully expressed illness.
We aimed to study the relationship between impulsivity and the addiction severity in 3 groups of outpatients attending our clinic, through the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and the standarized, semistructured interview EuropAsi.
174 outpatients were analized (82.6% men, 113 cocaine-dependent as main drug (mean age 32.71 y.o. (31.45–33.96)), 43 cocaine and heroin-dependent (mean age 36.68 y.o. (33.52–39.85)) and 18 heroin dependent (mean age 37.94 (32.71–41.50)). 26.3% were cannabis-dependent and 10.9% abused of Cannabis. Statistical analysis used was the Kruskal-Wallis Test.
Differences in motor impulsivity were found between the 2 groups with cocaine dependency and the only heroin-dependent (mean = 20.59, ST ± 7.7 and mean = 17.11, ST ± 7.3, respectively; W: .019). EuropASI, showed intergroup differences in the medical, use of alcohol and legal areas. In the medical area the most affected were the heroin dependent group (mean score = .40), followed by cocaine and heroin group (mean score = .27) and the cocaine-dependent (Mean = .10). In the use of alcohol area the most affected were the cocaine group (Mean = .16) followed by the cocaine and heroin-dependent (mean = .11) and heroin dependent (Mean = .06). In the legal area the most affected were the the cocaine and heroin-dependent (Mean =.22) followed by heroin-dependent (Mean = .09) and cocaine-dependent (Mean = .07).
Patients suffering from stimulant dependency alone or together with heroin dependency show different impulsivity levels. The addiction severity varies depending on the substance of abuse. Treatment programs should be designed attending patients’ needs.
Toxoplasma is considered as one of the most promising candidates of infectious agent that might trigger psychotic disorder in predisposed subjects or modulate the course of the disease. A clinical pattern has not been established yet in Toxoplasma infected schizophrenia patients. Psychopathological, cognitive and treatment response features of Toxoplasma seropositive and seronegative individuals suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorder has been studied in China, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Germany, Turkey, United States and other countries to determine whether schizophrenia and Toxoplasma infection co-morbidity modifies clinical presentation and illness course. Prague Psychiatric Centre project consisted of 251 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder consecutively admitted to between 2000 and 2010. Toxoplasma-infected patients spent more days in hospital during their last admission compared to Toxoplasma-free patients (p = 0.003; mean difference 32.9 days). Schizophrenia started approximately one year earlier in Toxoplasma-infected men and about 3 years later in Toxoplasma-infected women than in Toxoplasma-free patients, which corresponds to gender related toxoplasmosis incidence curves in the Czech Republic. All infected patients scored higher in the Positive Subscale of Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). The PANSS scores and composite PANSS scores also correlated negatively with the concentration of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies indicating the increase of psychopathology with infection duration. Our findings support the hypothesis that toxoplasmosis may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
Fibromyalgia seems to be associated with various forms of psychopathology, particularly major affective disorders.
To evaluate associated psychopathology in a series of women with diagnosis of fibromyalgia.
Patient inclusion from 1st March to 30th June 2010. Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) was used for evaluation. SPSS was used for statistical analysis of data and results.
A total of 34 women voluntarily joined our study. Mean age was 52.2 years (standard deviation (SD) 7.17). 11.4% were singled, 74.3% married or unmarried couples, 8.6% were divorced, and 5.7% were widowers. 74.3% of women lived with their couple and/or children whereas 8.6% lived by their own, and 8.6% with their parents. Results obtained with SCL-90-R showed:
Our patients with fibromyalgia scored higher in somatization, obsession-compulsion, depression, and anxiety. In view of the results, there is an important association between fibromyalgia and various forms of psychopathology.
The main aim of this study was to analyze the association between a set of neurobiological/clinical factors and impulsivity in patients suffering from bulimia nervosa, as well as the capability of this factors to predict the severity of impulsivity.
The Impulsive Behaviors Scale (IBS), the Diagnostic Interview for Bordeline Patients - Revised (DIB-R), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MMCI-II) and the Family Environment Scale (FES) were applied to 70 female patients with DSM-IV BN (purging subtype). Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of norepinephrine (NE), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxi-indol-acetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA), homovallinic acid (HVA), and morning serum cortisol levels before and after the administration of 1 mg of dexamethasone were determined.
Impulsivity was associated to lower levels of urinary 5-HT and 5-HIAA, borderline features, and lower family expressed emotion.
The consideration of impulsivity as a core clinical feature in patients with bulimia nervosa could lead us to identify clinical subtypes of patients, with specific clinical profiles and specific treatment needs.
The aim of this study was to asses the impact of different psychological and/or biological effects in the recovery from surgery.
The sample was composed of 42 patients waiting for a surgical intervention. Patients with cognitive impairment were removed from the sample. Prior to surgical intervention (48 to 72 hours), patients were administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (Millon, 1986) and salivary cortisol were measured 24 hours before surgery. Following surgical intervention, recovery was coded as good or poor accordingly to Moix et als criteria (1995). Dietary intake, resting and sleeping hours, as well as the existence of fever, perceived pain and related surgery complications were daily registered and controlled for.
The cortisol values were increased in patients with high score in Histrionic Scale (t = 2.10, p = 0.043). There was a significant relation between personality, cortisol and recovery. the patients with low score in Dependent Scale (t = 2.33, p = 0.029), Histrionic Scale ( t = 2.51, p = 0.020), Alcohol Dependence Scale (t = 2.01, p = 0.049), Drug Dependence Scale (t = 2.08, p = 0.050) and cortisol show better recovery from surgery.
The results of this study indicate that psychological factors and levels of cortisol may have a critical rol in post-operatory recovery. Taking these data into account, it seems necessary to assess psychopathology on a regular basis in all the patients waiting for surgically interventions.