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Previous radial distribution work which we have found reported in the literature has invariably been based on film technique. Our work is entirely based on X-ray spectrometer intensity measurements, Radial distribution (RD) patterns for silica gel and η-aluinina are presented and the correlation with accepted structures for these materials demonstrated. The advantages of spectrometer over film technique are discussed. The entire calculation problem has been programed for the IBM 650 computer, A difference technique which appears very sensitive to small structure changes is described and demonstrated for silica-alumina cracking catalysts. A procedure for identifying systematic errors in the RD pattern is presented.
Recent estimates of total pre-weaning piglet mortality range between 16-19% (MLC 2006). With environmental modification using the farrowing crate reaching its potential to decrease mortality, as well as raising serious welfare concerns, a different approach to effectively address piglet survival is needed. Genetic breeding programmes implemented in alternative farrowing systems could prove a viable option.
The quasar 3C273 has been repeatedly observed at radio, mm, IR, optical, UV and X-ray frequencies since December 1983. A complex pattern of continuum variations has been discovered, which can be used to provide model independent physical parameters, and to constrain different models. The main features revealed by our set of observations are:
(i)A flux decrease by 40% in the 2–10 kev flux in 20 days in early 1984 (Courvoisier et al. 1987).
(ii)Differences between the X-ray light curves at 0.5 keV and 2–10 keV.
(iii)A drop in the mm to mid-IR emission by factors 2–4 in early 1986, while the near infrared flux remained stable (Robson et al. 1986).
(iv)A decrease in the ultraviolet intensity of ∼40% in about 6 months in 1987 (Ulrich, Courvoisier and Wamsteker 1988).
(v)Rapid variability in the infrared and optical emission on timescales as short as one day in 1988 (Courvoisier et al. 1988 and Robson, Courvoisier and Bouchet this conference).
The quasar 3C273 varied by up to 100% on timescales as short as one day in the optical and IR domains during February and March 1988. In February the source changed from a behavior characterised by a stable IR flux and slow optical variations to one of recurrent optical and IR flares. Five optical flares, of amplitude up to 30–40% were observed, along with two IR flares, both of which were simultaneous with optical events. The second IR flare on March 9th rose from 46mJy to 66mJy (twice the normal (quiescent) value) in one day. The data and some of their implications are described in Courvoisier et al. (1988).
This paper reports the results of a programme of multifrequency observations of a sample of Blazars concentrating particularly on the millimetre through infrared region. Our observations have demonstrated the need for a new model to explain the spectral behaviour of a major flare in 3C273. This also provides a good description of the variability exhibited by Blazars. We have also shown that the radio through mid-IR synchrotron spectrum of 3C273 is a separate component from the optical/IR.
We investigated relationship between pasture biomass and measures of height and NDVI (normalised difference vegetation index). The pastures were tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica) located in Tasmania, Victoria and in the Northern Tablelands of NSW, Australia. Using the Trimble® GreenSeeker® Handheld active optical sensor (AOS) to measure NDVI, and a rising plate meter, the optimal model to estimate green dry biomass (GDM) during two years was a combination of NDVI and falling plate height index. The combined index was significantly correlated with GDM in each region during winter and spring (r2=0.62–0.77, P<0.001). Regional calibrations provided a smaller error in estimates of green biomass, required for potential application in the field, compared to a single overall calibration. Data collected in a third year will be used to test the accuracy of the models.
NHS England has commissioned intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancers from Newcastle hospitals for patients in North Cumbria. This study assessed whether travel distances affected the decision to travel to Newcastle (to receive intensity-modulated radiotherapy) or Carlisle (to receive conformal radiotherapy).
All patients for whom the multidisciplinary team recommended intensity-modulated radiotherapy between December 2013 and January 2016 were included. Index of multiple deprivation scores and travel distances were calculated. Patients were also asked why they chose their treating centre.
Sixty-nine patients were included in this study. There were no significant differences in travel distance (p = 0.53) or index of multiple deprivation scores (p = 0.47) between patients opting for treatment in Carlisle or Newcastle. However, 29 of the 33 patients gave travel distance as their main reason for not travelling for treatment.
Quantitatively, travel distance and deprivation does not impact on whether patients accept intensity-modulated radiotherapy. However, patients say distance is a major barrier for access. Future research should explore how to reduce this.
From June 15 to 28, 1991 the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) observed the radio-loud quasar 3C 273. All four CGRO instruments detected radiation from this quasar in their relevant energy range (from 20 keV to 5 GeV). Simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous observations (spanning the time period May 27 – July 25, 1991) by instruments sensitive at other wavelengths have also been obtained. The data from all these observations spanning the frequency range from ∼ 109 Hz to ∼ 1026 Hz were collected and analysed. The resulting energy-density spectrum is shown in the figure below. It shows two maxima, one in the UV, another one at low-energy γ-rays which have nearly the same strength (the corresponding luminosities per decade of frequency for H0 = 60(km/s)/Mpc are 3.2·1046 erg/s and 2.7·1046 erg/s, respectively). A break of the spectrum at low-energy γ-rays is evident. From a detailed analysis a break energy of (2±1.5) MeV could be derived corresponding to a frequency of (4.8±3.6)·1020 Hz. The observed spectral break between X- and γ-rays is ∼ 0.8, much higher than the value of 0.5 predicted by some models. A more detailed paper on this topic is in preparation (Lichti et al.).
We present SCUBA imaging observations of the nearby prototype starburst galaxy M82, in order to study large-scale outflows observed in such galaxies and associated with starburst phenomena. We use (1) deep 450 μm continuum maps to investigate the structure and details of the large-scale outflows and (2) 850 μm linear-polarization maps to investigate the relation between nuclei and halo magnetic fields.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Brief meetings were held to confirm the elections of the incoming Division President, Francoise Genova and Vice President, Ray Norris along with the Organizing Committee which will consist of the incoming Presidents of the 7 Commissions (5,6,14,41,46,50 and 55) plus additional nominated members. The incoming Organizing Committee will thus consist of:
The predominance of coagulase-negative staphylococci as normal skin flora is thought to be a factor in their association with episodes of peritonitis in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We investigated the prevalence of peritonitis-associated strains on the skin of 28 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated organisms. comprising 47% of peritoncal dialysis fluid isolates and 59% of body site isolates. A total of 142 coagulase-negative staphylococci were speciated. tested for their antimicrobial sensitivity and slime production. and identified by phage typing and plasmid-profile analysis. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most commonly identified species from both peritoncal dialysis fluid (73%) and body sites (53%). Multiple antibiotic resistance was common, and the greater proportion of isolates were resistant to methicillin: 63·6% of peritoncal dialysis fluid isolates and 61·7% of body-site isolates.isolates. S. haemolyticus isolates were significantly more resistant to methicillin than other species. By phage typing and plasmid-profile analysis it was shown that peritonitis was rarely caused by skincolonizing strains. In only 3 of 14 patients were peritonitis-associated strains isolated as skin colonizers, and no patients developed peritonitis due to organisms previously isolated as skin colonizers.
Large food portions may be facilitating excess energy intake (EI) and adiposity among adults. The present study aimed to assess the extent to which EI and amounts of foods consumed are influenced by the availability of different-sized food portions. A randomised within-subject cross-over, fully residential design was used, where forty-three (twenty-one men and twenty-two women) normal-weight and overweight adults were randomly allocated to two separate 4 d periods where they were presented with either ‘standard’ or ‘large’ food portions of the same foods and beverages. The main outcome measures were the amount of food (g) and EI (MJ) consumed throughout each study period. Mean EI over 4 d was significantly higher on the large portion condition compared with the standard condition in the total group (59·1 (sd 6·6) v. 52·2 (sd 14·3) MJ; P = 0·020); men and women increased their EI by 17 % (10 (sd 6·5) MJ; P < 0·001) and 10 % (4 (sd 6·5) MJ; P = 0·005) respectively when served the large food portions relative to the standard food portions. The increased intakes were sustained over the 4 d in the large portion condition with little evidence of down-regulation of EI and food intake being made by subjects. Increased food portion size resulted in significant and sustained increases in EI in men and women over 4 d under fully residential conditions. The availability and consumption of larger portions of food may be a significant factor contributing to excess EI and adiposity.
Division XII consists of Commissions that formerly were organized under the Executive Committee, that concern astronomers across a wide range of scientific sub-disciplines and provide interactions with scientists in a wider community, including governmental organizations, outside the IAU.
The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between the portion sizes of food groups consumed with measures of adiposity using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of British adults. Seven-day weighed dietary records, physical activity diaries and anthropometric measurements were used. Foods eaten were assigned to thirty different food groups and analyses were undertaken separately for men and women. The median daily portion size of each food group consumed was calculated. The potential misreporting of dietary energy intake (EI) was identified using the following equation: EI − estimated energy requirements × 100 = percentage of under-reporting (UR) of energy needs. Multinomial logistic regression (adjusted for age, social class, physical activity level and UR) was used to determine the portion sizes of food groups most strongly associated with obesity status. Few positive associations between the portion sizes of food groups consumed and obesity status were found. However, UR was prevalent, with a median UR of predicted energy needs of 34 and 33 % in men and women, respectively. After the adjustment was made for UR, more associations between the food groups and obesity status became apparent in both sexes. The present study suggests that the true effect of increased portion size of foods on obesity status may be masked by high levels of UR. Alternatively, these data may indicate that an increased risk of obesity is not associated with specific foods/food groups but rather with an overall increase in the range of foods and food groups being consumed.
The current estimate of live-born piglet pre-weaning mortality in UK outdoor systems is 11% (MLC, 2006), representing a major welfare and economic concern. The majority of deaths occur in the first few days of life when the piglets are at their most vulnerable. Selecting for high survival in piglets, may allow breeding of animals better able to survive and better suited to alternative and less restrictive systems than the farrowing crate. The aim was to develop and measure behavioural and physiological indicators of neonatal survival, and to determine treatment effects in populations of piglets selected for high survival and control lines farrowing in an outdoor system.
To assess tracking of energy and nutrient intakes between adolescence and young adulthood.
Longitudinal study of a random sample of adolescents (aged 15 years at baseline). The extent of tracking of dietary intakes (assessed by diet history) was investigated using weighted kappa statistics (κ).
Northern Ireland population survey.
Adolescents who participated in the Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland at age 15 years, and subsequently at young adulthood aged between 20 and 25 years (n = 245 males, n = 231 females).
Despite overall increases in height and weight (both P < 0.001), increases in body mass index in males (P < 0.001) and body fatness in females (P < 0.001), median reported intakes of energy (kJ kg− 1 day− 1), carbohydrate (g day− 1) and fat (g day− 1) decreased (all P < 0.001) over time. Expressed as nutrient densities (per MJ), diets at young adulthood were overall richer in thiamin, vitamin B6, total folate (all P < 0.001), vitamin C (P < 0.01) and vitamin D (P < 0.05). Whereas the nutrient density of the males' diets decreased over time for calcium (P < 0.05) and vitamin A (P < 0.001), iron and riboflavin densities increased in the females' diet (P < 0.001). Tracking of energy (MJ day− 1) and nutrient intakes (expressed per MJ day− 1) at the individual level was only poor to fair (all κ < 0.25), indicating substantial drift of subjects between the low, medium and high classes of intake with increasing age.
These data suggest that individual dietary patterns exhibited at 15 years of age are unlikely to be predictive of dietary intakes at young adulthood.
Pre-weaning piglet mortality is currently 11.8% of piglets born alive in indoor units (MLC, 2005) and is a major welfare concern and a continuing production problem within the pig industry. The farrowing crate was implemented with some success to decrease the amount of crushing of piglets (Edwards & Fraser, 1997). However, this system is restrictive, limits the behaviour and compromises the welfare of the sow (Jarvis et al., 2001). There is growing pressure to abolish this technology in favour of less restrictive systems. It is therefore vital to identify behavioural and physiological characteristics relating to piglet survival, which can then be influential in alternative systems. Important factors in relation to piglet survival include birth weight, birth order, and adequate thermoregulation (Tuchscherer et al. 2001). The aim of this study was to identify additional behavioural and physiological indicators, which could predict piglet survival.