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Rapid detection and isolation of COVID-19 patients is the only means of reducing hospital transmission. We describe the impact of implementation of on-site SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing on reduction in result turnaround time, isolation duration, pathology test ordering and antibiotic use in patients who do not have COVID-19.
Many factors such as environment, herbicide rate, growth stage at application and days between sequential applications can influence response of a crop to herbicides. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl is a new broad-spectrum, POST herbicide commercialized in U.S. rice in 2018. Field experiments were conducted in 2018 at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) near Colt, AR, and the Rice Research and Extension Center (RREC), near Stuttgart, AR, evaluating crop injury and yield response of three rice cultivars to sequential applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Greenhouse and growth chamber experiments were conducted at the Altheimer Laboratory in Fayetteville, AR, evaluating cultivar responses when florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 30 or 60 g ae ha -1 to rice exposed to different temperature regimes or at various growth stages. Three rice cultivars were used in all experiments: long-grain variety ‘CL111’, medium-grain variety ‘CL272’, and long-grain hybrid cultivar ‘CLXL745’. CL111 exhibited sufficient tolerance to florpyrauxifen-benzyl with only 10% visible injury and no effect on yield. CL272 showed 15% injury 3 wks after the second application in the field experiment when applications were made 14 d apart. Additionally, 12% injury was observed in the greenhouse when florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 30 g ae ha -1, averaged over growth stages at application. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl did not reduce the yield of CL272 in the field, indicating CL272 can recover from florpyrauxifen-benzyl injury. As much as 64% injury was observed for CLXL745 at 3 weeks after application (WAA) when sequential herbicide applications were made 4 d apart. High levels of injury occurred in the growth chamber and greenhouse studies for this cultivar as well. Sequential applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl reduced yields of CLXL745 in nearly all treatments. Data from these experiments suggest CL272 and CLXL745 are sensitive to sequential applications of florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Growers must follow the prescribed guidelines for using florpyrauxifen-benzyl in these cultivars and others like it.
An academic makerspace, home to tools and people dedicated to facilitating and inspiring a making culture, is characterized by openness, creativity, learning, design, and community. This nontraditional learning environment has found an immense increase in popularity and investment in the last decade. Further, makerspaces have been shown to be highly gendered, privileging men's and masculine understandings of making. The spike in popularity warrants deeper analysis, examining the value of these spaces for women and if learning is occurring in these spaces, specifically at higher education institutions. We implemented a phenomenologically based interviewing process to capture the making experiences of 20 women students, recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. By eliciting the narratives of women students, we captured how making, designing, and creating evolved through gendered experiences in the university makerspace. Each interview was transcribed and resulted in around 868 pages of single-spaced text transcriptions. The data were analyzed through multiple cycles of open and axial coding for common themes and patterns, where makerspaces create a culture of learning, facilitate students’ design journey, and form a laboratory for creativity. These themes forwarded the creation of a learning model that showcases how design and learning interact in the makerspace. This work demonstrates that women students are engaging learning and inspiration; developing confidence and resilience; and learning how to work with others and collaborate.
A non-GMO trait called Inzen™ was recently commercialized in grain sorghum to combat weedy grasses, allowing the use of nicosulfuron POST in the crop. Inzen™ grain sorghum carries a double mutation in the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene Val560Ile and Trp574Leu, which potentially results in cross-resistance to a wide assortment of ALS-inhibiting herbicides. To evaluate the scope of cross-resistance to Weed Science Society of America Group 2 herbicides in addition to nicosulfuron, tests were conducted in 2016 and 2017 at the Lon Mann Cotton Research Station near Marianna, AR, the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Fayetteville, AR, and in 2016 at the Pine Tree Research Station near Colt, AR. The tests included ALS-inhibiting herbicides from all five families: sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, pyrimidinylthiobenzoics, triazolinones, and triazolopyrimidines. Treatments were made PRE or POST to grain sorghum at a 1× rate for crops in which each herbicide is labeled. Grain sorghum planted in the PRE trial were Inzen™ and a conventional cultivar. Visible estimates of injury and sorghum heights were recorded at 2 and 4 wk after herbicide application, and yield data were collected at crop maturity. In the PRE trial, no visible injury, sorghum height reduction, or yield loss were observed in plots containing the Inzen™ cultivar. Applications made POST to the Inzen™ grain sorghum caused visible injury, sorghum height reduction, and yield loss of 20%, 13%, and 35%, respectively, only in plots where bispyribac-Na was applied. There was no impact on the crop from other POST-applied ALS-inhibiting herbicides. These results demonstrate that the Inzen™ trait confers cross-resistance to most ALS-inhibiting herbicides and could offer promising new alternatives for weed control and protection from carryover of residual ALS-inhibiting herbicides in grain sorghum.
Statistical literacy is essential in clinical and translational science (CTS). Statistical competencies have been published to guide coursework design and selection for graduate students in CTS. Here, we describe common elements of graduate curricula for CTS and identify gaps in the statistical competencies.
We surveyed statistics educators using e-mail solicitation sent through four professional organizations. Respondents rated the degree to which 24 educational statistical competencies were included in required and elective coursework in doctoral-level and master’s-level programs for CTS learners. We report competency results from institutions with Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs), reflecting institutions that have invested in CTS training.
There were 24 CTSA-funded respondents representing 13 doctoral-level programs and 23 master’s-level programs. For doctoral-level programs, competencies covered extensively in required coursework for all doctoral-level programs were basic principles of probability and hypothesis testing, understanding the implications of selecting appropriate statistical methods, and computing appropriate descriptive statistics. The only competency extensively covered in required coursework for all master’s-level programs was understanding the implications of selecting appropriate statistical methods. The least covered competencies included understanding the purpose of meta-analysis and the uses of early stopping rules in clinical trials. Competencies considered to be less fundamental and more specialized tended to be covered less frequently in graduate courses.
While graduate courses in CTS tend to cover many statistical fundamentals, learning gaps exist, particularly for more specialized competencies. Educational material to fill these gaps is necessary for learners pursuing these activities.
Chemostratigraphic units require consistent definitions and unambiguous names. So-called TOCE (Top of Cambrian Excursion) is used as an uppermost Cambrian δ13Ccarb negative excursion although it was proposed without documentation, is ambiguously defined, and variably correlated into four Laurentian trilobite zones. TOCE, a nihilartikel, is regularly substituted to the exclusion of the earlier named, precisely documented and geochronologically older HERB (Hellnmaria-Red Tops Boundary) Event. HERB allows late Cambrian global correlation; its onset is close to the lowest occurrence of the conodont Eoconodontus notchpeakensis at the base of a proposed replacement (Lawsonian Stage) of Cambrian Stage 10. TOCE must be retired from use and abandoned as a synonym of the HERB Event.
According to the stress inoculation hypothesis, successfully navigating life stressors may improve one's ability to cope with subsequent stressors, thereby increasing psychiatric resilience.
Among individuals with no baseline history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD), to determine whether a history of a stressful life event protected participants against the development of PTSD and/or MDD after a natural disaster.
Analyses utilised data from a multiwave, prospective cohort study of adult Chilean primary care attendees (years 2003–2011; n = 1160). At baseline, participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic instrument, and the List of Threatening Experiences, a 12-item questionnaire that measures major stressful life events. During the study (2010), the sixth most powerful earthquake on record struck Chile. One year later (2011), the CIDI was re-administered to assess post-disaster PTSD and/or MDD.
Marginal structural logistic regressions indicated that for every one-unit increase in the number of pre-disaster stressors, the odds of developing post-disaster PTSD or MDD increased (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.08–1.37, and OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.06–1.27 respectively). When categorising pre-disaster stressors, individuals with four or more stressors (compared with no stressors) had higher odds of developing post-disaster PTSD (OR = 2.77, 95% CI 1.52–5.04), and a dose–response relationship between pre-disaster stressors and post-disaster MDD was found.
In contrast to the stress inoculation hypothesis, results indicated that experiencing multiple stressors increased the vulnerability to developing PTSD and/or MDD after a natural disaster. Increased knowledge regarding the individual variations of these disorders is essential to inform targeted mental health interventions after a natural disaster, especially in under-studied populations.
Results of in situ U–Pb dating of calcite spherulites, cone-in-cone (CIC) calcite and calcite fibres from a calcareous concretion of the upper Ediacaran of Finnmark, Arctic Norway, are reported. Calcite spherulites from the innermost layers of the concretion yielded a lower intercept age of 563 ± 70 Ma, which, although imprecise, is within uncertainty of the age of sedimentation based on fossil assemblages. Non-deformed CIC calcite from the bottom part of the concretion yielded an age of 475 ± 25 Ma, which is interpreted as the age of CIC calcite formation during a period of fluid overpressure induced during burial of the sediments. Deformed CIC calcite from the top part of the concretion yielded an age of 418 ± 23 Ma, which overlaps with a known Caledonian tectono-metamorphic event, and indicates a potential post-depositional overprint at this time. Calcite fibres that grew in small fissures along spherulite rims, which are interpreted as a recrystallization feature during deformation and formation of a cleavage, gave an imprecise age of 486 ± 161 Ma. Our results show that U–Pb dating of calcite can provide age constraints for ancient carbonates and syn- to post-depositional processes that operated during burial and metamorphic overprinting.
Evidence indicates that Antarctic minke whales (AMWs) in the Ross Sea affect the foraging behaviour, especially diet, of sympatric Adélie penguins (ADPEs) by, we hypothesize, influencing the availability of prey they have in common, mainly crystal krill. To further investigate this interaction, we undertook a study in McMurdo Sound during 2012–2013 and 2014–2015 using telemetry and biologging of whales and penguins, shore-based observations and quantification of the preyscape. The 3D distribution and density of prey were assessed using a remotely operated vehicle deployed along and to the interior of the fast-ice edge where AMWs and ADPEs focused their foraging. Acoustic surveys of prey and foraging behaviour of predators indicate that prey remained abundant under the fast ice, becoming successively available to air-breathing predators only as the fast ice retreated. Over both seasons, the ADPE diet included less krill and more Antarctic silverfish once AMWs became abundant, but the penguins' foraging behaviour (i.e. time spent foraging, dive depth, distance from colony) did not change. In addition, over time, krill abundance decreased in the upper water column near the ice edge, consistent with the hypothesis (and previously gathered information) that AMW and ADPE foraging contributed to an alteration of prey availability.
Classical stewardship efforts have targeted immunocompetent patients; however, appropriate use of antimicrobials in the immunocompromised host has become a target of interest. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common and significant complications after solid-organ transplant (SOT). The treatment of CMV requires a dual approach of antiviral drug therapy and reduction of immunosuppression for optimal outcomes. This dual approach to CMV management increases complexity and requires individualization of therapy to balance antiviral efficacy with the risk of allograft rejection. In this review, we focus on the development and implementation of CMV stewardship initiatives, as a component of antimicrobial stewardship in the immunocompromised host, to optimize the management of prevention and treatment of CMV in SOT recipients. These initiatives have the potential not only to improve judicious use of antivirals and prevent resistance but also to improve patient and graft survival given the interconnection between CMV infection and allograft function.
Field studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Arkansas to evaluate the injury caused by herbicides on soybean canopy formation and yield. Fomesafen, acifluorfen, S-metolachlor + fomesafen, and S-metolachlor + fomesafen + chlorimuron alone and in combination with glufosinate were applied to glufosinate-resistant soybean at the V2 growth stage. Soybean injury resulting from these labeled herbicide treatments ranged from 9% to 25% at 2 wk after application. This level of injury resulted in a 4-, 5-, 6-, and 6-d delay in soybean reaching 80% groundcover following fomesafen, acifluorfen, S-metolachlor + fomesafen, and S-metolachlor + fomesafen + chlorimuron, respectively. There was a 2-d delay in soybean reaching a canopy volume of 15,000 cm3 following each of the four herbicide treatments. The addition of glufosinate to the herbicide applications resulted in longer delays in canopy formation with every herbicide treatment except glufosinate + fomesafen. Fomesafen, acifluorfen, S-metolachlor + fomesafen, and S-metolachlor + fomesafen + chlorimuron, each applied with glufosinate, delayed soybean from reaching 80% groundcover by 2, 7, 8, and 9 d, respectively, and delayed the number of days for soybean to reach a canopy volume of 15,000 cm3 by 2, 3, 2, and 2 d, respectively. No yield loss occurred with any herbicide application. A delay in percent groundcover in soybean allows sunlight to reach the soil surface for longer periods throughout the growing season, possibly promoting late-season weed germination and the need for an additional POST herbicide application.
The aim of this fixed-dose study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dasotraline in the treatment of patients with binge-eating disorder (BED).
Patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria for BED were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with fixed doses of dasotraline (4 and 6 mg/d), or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in number of binge-eating (BE) days per week at week 12. Secondary efficacy endpoints included week 12 change on the BE CGI-Severity Scale (BE-CGI-S) and the Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale Modified for BE (YBOCS-BE).
At week 12, treatment with dasotraline was associated with significant improvement in number of BE days per week on the dose of 6 mg/d (N = 162) vs placebo (N = 162; −3.47 vs −2.92; P = .0045), but not 4 mg/d (N = 161; −3.21). Improvement vs placebo was observed for dasotraline 6 and 4 mg/d, respectively, on the BE-CGI-S (effect size [ES]: 0.37 and 0.27) and on the YBOCS-BE total score (ES: 0.43 and 0.29). The most common adverse events on dasotraline were insomnia, dry mouth, headache, decreased appetite, nausea, and anxiety. Changes in blood pressure and pulse were minimal.
Treatment with dasotraline 6 mg/d (but not 4 mg/d) was associated with significantly greater reduction in BE days per week. Both doses of dasotraline were generally safe and well-tolerated and resulted in global improvement on the BE-CGI-S, as well as improvement in BE related obsessional thoughts and compulsive behaviors on the YBOCS-BE. These results confirm the findings of a previous flexible dose study.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of (−)-OSU6162 in doses up to 30 mg b.i.d. in patients suffering from mental fatigue following stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI).
This 4 + 4 weeks double-blind randomised cross-over study included 30 patients afflicted with mental fatigue following a stroke or head trauma occurring at least 12 months earlier. Efficacy was assessed using the Mental Fatigue Scale (MFS), the Self-rating Scale for Affective Syndromes [Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS)], the Frenchay Activity Index (FAI), and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Safety was evaluated by recording spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs).
There were significant differences on the patients’ total FAI scores (p = 0.0097), the subscale FAI outdoor scores (p = 0.0243), and on the trail making test (TMT-B) (p = 0.0325) in favour of (−)-OSU6162 treatment. Principal component analysis showed a clear overall positive treatment effect in 10 of 28 patients; those who responded best to treatment had their greatest improvements on the MFS. Reported AEs were mild or moderate in severity and did not differ between the (−)-OSU6162 and the placebo period.
The most obvious beneficial effects of (−)-OSU6162 were on the patients’ activity level, illustrated by the improvement on the FAI scale. Moreover, a subgroup of patients showed substantial improvements on the MFS. Based on these observed therapeutic effects, in conjunction with the good tolerability of (−)-OSU6162, this compound may offer promise for treating at least part of the symptomatology in patients suffering from stroke- or TBI-induced mental fatigue.
Across international contexts, people with serious mental illnesses (SMI) experience marked reductions in life expectancy at birth. The intersection of ethnicity and social deprivation on life expectancy in SMI is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of ethnicity and area-level deprivation on life expectancy at birth in SMI, defined as schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders and depression, using data from London, UK.
Abridged life tables to calculate life expectancy at birth, in a cohort with clinician-ascribed ICD-10 schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders or depression, managed in secondary mental healthcare. Life expectancy in the study population with SMI was compared with life expectancy in the general population and with those residing in the most deprived areas in England.
Irrespective of ethnicity, people with SMI experienced marked reductions in life expectancy at birth compared with the general population; from 14.5 years loss in men with schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders, to 13.2 years in women. Similar reductions were noted for people with depression. Across all diagnoses, life expectancy at birth in people with SMI was lower than the general population residing in the most deprived areas in England.
Irrespective of ethnicity, reductions in life expectancy at birth among people with SMI are worse than the general population residing in the most deprived areas in England. This trend in people with SMI is similar to groups who experience extreme social exclusion and marginalisation. Evidence-based interventions to tackle this mortality gap need to take this into account.
Identifying the mechanisms linking early experiences, genetic risk factors, and their interaction with later health consequences is central to the development of preventive interventions and identifying potential boundary conditions for their efficacy. In the current investigation of 412 African American adolescents followed across a 20-year period, we examined change in body mass index (BMI) across adolescence as one possible mechanism linking childhood adversity and adult health. We found associations of childhood adversity with objective indicators of young adult health, including a cardiometabolic risk index, a methylomic aging index, and a count of chronic health conditions. Childhood adversities were associated with objective indicators indirectly through their association with gains in BMI across adolescence and early adulthood. We also found evidence of an association of genetic risk with weight gain across adolescence and young adult health, as well as genetic moderation of childhood adversity's effect on gains in BMI, resulting in moderated mediation. These patterns indicated that genetic risk moderated the indirect pathways from childhood adversity to young adult health outcomes and childhood adversity moderated the indirect pathways from genetic risk to young adult health outcomes through effects on weight gain during adolescence and early adulthood.