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How did the homesteads and reservations of the Prairies of Western North America influence German colonization, ethnic cleansing and genocide in Eastern Europe? Max Sering, a world-famous agrarian settlement expert, stood on the Great Plains in 1883 and saw Germany's future in Eastern Europe: a grand scheme of frontier settlement. Sering was a key figure in the evolution of Germany's relationship with its eastern frontier, as well as in the overall transformation of the German Right from the Bismarckian 1880s to the Hitlerian 1930s. 'Inner colonization' was the settlement of farmers in threatened borderland areas within the nation's boundaries. Focusing on this phenomenon, Frontiers of Empire complicates the standard thesis of separation between the colonizing country and the colonized space, and blurs the typical boundaries between colonizer and colonized subjects. This title is part of the Flip it Open Programme and may also be available Open Access. Check our website Cambridge Core for details.
Early-life stressful experiences are associated with increased risk of adverse psychological outcomes in later life. However, much less is known about associations between early-life positive experiences, such as participation in cognitively stimulating activities, and late-life mental health. We investigated whether greater engagement in cognitively stimulating activities in early life is associated with lower risk of depression and anxiety in late life.
We surveyed former participants of the St. Louis Baby Tooth study, between 22 June 2021 and 25 March 2022 to collect information on participants' current depression/anxiety symptoms and their early-life activities (N = 2187 responded). A composite activity score was created to represent the early-life activity level by averaging the frequency of self-reported participation in common cognitively stimulating activities in participants' early life (age 6, 12, 18), each rated on a 1 (least frequent) to 5 (most frequent) point scale. Depression/anxiety symptoms were measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7). We used logistic regressions to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of outcome risk associated with frequency of early-life activity.
Each one-point increase in the early-life composite cognitive activity score was associated with an OR of 0.54 (95% CI 0.38–0.77) for late-life depression and an OR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.61–1.43) for late-life anxiety, adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, childhood family structure, and socioeconomic status.
More frequent participation in cognitively stimulating activities during early life was associated with reduced risk of late-life depression.
The UK and USA currently report their highest number of drug-related deaths since records began, with higher rates among individuals experiencing homelessness.
Given that overdose prevention in homeless populations may require unique strategies, we evaluated whether substances implicated in death differed between (a) housed decedents and those experiencing homelessness and (b) between US and UK homeless populations.
We conducted an internationally comparative retrospective cohort study utilising multilevel multinomial regression modelling of coronial/medical examiner-verified drug-related deaths from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2021. UK data were available for England, Wales and Northern Ireland; US data were collated from eight county jurisdictions. Data were available on decedent age, sex, ethnicity, housing status and substances implicated in death.
Homeless individuals accounted for 16.3% of US decedents versus 3.4% in the UK. Opioids were implicated in 66.3 and 50.4% of all studied drug-related deaths in the UK and the USA respectively. UK homeless decedents had a significantly increased risk of having only opioids implicated in death compared with only non-opioids implicated (relative risk ratio RRR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.76–1.98, P < 0.001); conversely, US homeless decedents had a significantly decreased risk (RRR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.29–0.48, P < 0.001). Methamphetamine was implicated in two-thirds (66.7%) of deaths among US homeless decedents compared with 0.4% in the UK.
Both the rate and type of drug-related deaths differ significantly between homeless and housed populations in the UK and USA. The two countries also differ in drugs implicated in death. Targeted programmes for country-specific implicated drug profiles appear warranted.
Noonan syndrome is a multi-system genetic disorder and patients may suffer from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Previous studies have identified electrocardiographic features that may support a diagnosis of Noonan syndrome. In this two-centre retrospective study, we analysed typical Noonan syndrome-related electrocardiographic features in 30 patients with Noonan syndrome with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and compared these with the electrocardiographic features in 15 children with sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Typical Noonan syndrome-related electrocardiographic features are a negative aVF, small left precordial R-waves, large right precordial S-waves, and abnormal Q-wave. We also analysed electrocardiographic features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: ST-segment abnormalities and T-wave abnormalities. A negative aVF was seen in 83% of patients with Noonan syndrome-related hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in contrast to 27% of patients with primary sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (p < 0.001). An extreme QRS axis in the north-west was seen only in patients with Noonan syndrome-related hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This QRS axis deviation is likely to be determined by the Noonan syndrome-related hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and not by the type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There were no differences between the two groups in the frequency of large right precordial S-waves and small R-waves in the left precordial leads V5 and V6. However, an abnormal R/S ratio was more often seen in patients with Noonan syndrome-related hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (p < 0.001). Pathologic Q-waves were seen statistically more frequently in patients with sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (p = 0.009). The occurrence of ST-segment and T-wave pathology did not statistically differ between the two groups. Electrography can be of use in differentiating sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from Noonan syndrome-related hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Understanding the interplay between psychosocial factors and polygenic risk scores (PRS) may help elucidate the biopsychosocial etiology of high alcohol consumption (HAC). This study examined the psychosocial moderators of HAC, determined by polygenic risk in a 10-year longitudinal study of US military veterans. We hypothesized that positive psychosocial traits (e.g. social support, personality traits, optimism, gratitude) may buffer risk of HAC in veterans with greater polygenic liability for alcohol consumption (AC).
Data were analyzed from 1323 European-American US veterans who participated in the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, a 10-year, nationally representative longitudinal study of US military veterans. PRS reflecting genome-wide risk for AC (AUDIT-C) was derived from a Million Veteran Program genome-wide association study (N = 200 680).
Among the total sample, 328 (weighted 24.8%) had persistent HAC, 131 (weighted 9.9%) had new-onset HAC, 44 (weighted 3.3%) had remitted HAC, and 820 (weighted 62.0%) had no/low AC over the 10-year study period. AUDIT-C PRS was positively associated with persistent HAC relative to no/low AC [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23–1.67] and remitted HAC (RRR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.07–2.50). Among veterans with higher AUDIT-C PRS, greater baseline levels of agreeableness and greater dispositional gratitude were inversely associated with persistent HAC.
AUDIT-C PRS was prospectively associated with persistent HAC over a 10-year period, and agreeableness and dispositional gratitude moderated this association. Clinical interventions designed to target these modifiable psychological traits may help mitigate risk of persistent HAC in veterans with greater polygenic liability for persistent HAC.
The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery (WCPCCS) will be held in Washington DC, USA, from Saturday, 26 August, 2023 to Friday, 1 September, 2023, inclusive. The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery will be the largest and most comprehensive scientific meeting dedicated to paediatric and congenital cardiac care ever held. At the time of the writing of this manuscript, The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery has 5,037 registered attendees (and rising) from 117 countries, a truly diverse and international faculty of over 925 individuals from 89 countries, over 2,000 individual abstracts and poster presenters from 101 countries, and a Best Abstract Competition featuring 153 oral abstracts from 34 countries. For information about the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, please visit the following website: [www.WCPCCS2023.org]. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the activities related to global health and advocacy that will occur at the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery.
Acknowledging the need for urgent change, we wanted to take the opportunity to bring a common voice to the global community and issue the Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action on Addressing the Global Burden of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases. A copy of this Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is provided in the Appendix of this manuscript. This Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is an initiative aimed at increasing awareness of the global burden, promoting the development of sustainable care systems, and improving access to high quality and equitable healthcare for children with heart disease as well as adults with congenital heart disease worldwide.
The processes for securing funds to build and operate ALMA are presented in this chapter for Europe, Japan, and the United States, the latter being the most problematic, requiring the intervention of a US Senator. The existential threat posed by a cost overrun and how that was resolved is described.
The lengthy planning of the Millimeter Array is set out in this chapter, leading to the proposal to the NSF for its detailed technical development and construction. The proposal's review and plan for design and development are presented.
The construction of ALMA on its remote site is described in this chapter. The relationship between ALMA and the local indigenous communities is presented. The narrative ends with the inauguration ceremony.
The first chapter presents the discovery of the galactic interstellar medium of gas and dust. The discovery of interstellar carbon monoxide is described and the implication thereof for the study of the formation of stars is explained. The race to maintain primacy in the burgeoning new field of interstellar molecular spectroscopy leads to a proposal for the United States to build a 25 m diameter telescope.
This chapter begins with the demise of the 25 Meter Telescope proposal. The subsequent actions of the US millimeter astronomy community and the National Science Foundation lead to the formation of a committee to advise on the next steps. The Barrett Report has several recommendations, the most significant of which is the development of a large millimeter wavelength array. The first concept for such an array, also the first concept for ALMA, is presented.