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The dynamics of electron-plasma waves is described at arbitrary collisionality by considering the full Coulomb collision operator. The description is based on a Hermite–Laguerre decomposition of the velocity dependence of the electron distribution function. The damping rate, frequency and eigenmode spectrum of electron-plasma waves are found as functions of the collision frequency and wavelength. A comparison is made between the collisionless Landau damping limit, the Lenard–Bernstein and Dougherty collision operators and the electron–ion collision operator, finding large deviations in the damping rates and eigenmode spectra. A purely damped entropy mode, characteristic of a plasma where pitch-angle scattering effects are dominant with respect to collisionless effects, is shown to emerge numerically, and its dispersion relation is analytically derived. It is shown that such a mode is absent when simplified collision operators are used, and that like-particle collisions strongly influence the damping rate of the entropy mode.
According to European Guidelines for Legionnaires’ Disease prevention and control, travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease (TALD) cases are managed differently if classified as sporadic or as part of a cluster and more stringent control measures are deployed after clusters are identified. In this study, we propose to modify the current cluster definition: ‘two or more cases of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) who stayed at, or visited, the same commercial accommodation site 2–10 days before onset of illness and whose onset is within the same 2-year period’ with a new cluster definition, i.e. accommodation sites associated with multiple cases regardless of the time elapsed between them. TALD cases occurred in Italy and in the Balearic Islands between 2005 and 2015 were analysed applying the current European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet) cluster definition. In a sample of selected accommodation sites with multiple cases, a microbiological study was also conducted. Using the new definition, 63 additional sites (16.4% increase) and 225 additional linked cases (19.5% increase) were identified. Legionella pneumophila sg1 was isolated from 90.7% of the selected accommodation sites. The use of the here proposed TALD cluster definition would warrant a full investigation for each new identified case. This approach should therefore increase the number of sites that will require a risk assessment and, in the presence of an increased risk, the adoption of LD control measures to hopefully prevent additional cases.
This study aimed at evaluating short- and long-term effects of housing beef cattle on deep litter (DL) or concrete fully slatted floor (FS) on their welfare. Animal-based measures of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle were used to assess health status and behaviour of bulls. The assessment was carried out in a large commercial farm on 15 batches of bulls (4 DL and 11 FS) 1 month after their receiving day (short-term) and on 12 batches (three DL and nine FS) the week before slaughter (long-term). Signs of better comfort on deep litter in terms of shorter lying down durations (5.1±0.5 v. 6.5±0.4 s; P<0.05) and lower risk of hairless patches (odds ratio=0.09; 95% confidence interval=0.01 to 0.68; P<0.05) were already observed after 1 month. Heavy bulls after a long-term housing on FS showed a higher prevalence of bursitis, hairless patches and lesions/swellings than animals on DL. Bulls on fully slatted floor were at higher risk of early culling (odds ratio=6.44; 95% confidence interval=1.57 to 26.37; P<0.01), mainly due to musculoskeletal system pathologies/lameness. Deep litter proved to be a valid alternative to slatted floor, making animals more confident to interact with powerful movements such as mounting at the end of the finishing period. A negative aspect of the deep litter was the poor cleanliness of the bulls. Compared with the fully slatted floor, there were higher odds ratios for dirty bulls at both, the short- (odds ratio=25.09; 95% confidence interval=8.96 to 70.22; P<0.001) and the long-term housing (odds ratio=276.13; 95% confidence interval=98.21 to 776.38; P<0.001). In order to improve health and welfare of beef cattle finished at a heavy weight, deep litter systems are a promising alternative to fully slatted floors. However, proper management of deep litter is necessary to maintain satisfactory cleanliness of the bulls.
As part of its training activities, SupAgro – Institut des Régions Chaudes (IRC),
an agricultural engineering school in Montpellier, has introduced an applied
training session in metrology for its students. This was undertaken by the CIRAD metrology
platform in partnership with the agrifood technology platform of the Qualisud Joint
Research Unit. The session comprises two hour workshops during which students can apply
the basic notions required for metrological monitoring of the quantities “temperature” and
“weight”. To that end, standard weights, a temperature calibration device comprising a
thermostatically controlled calibration oil bath (uncertainty at k = 2 of 0.14
°C) and a standard
temperature probe with an accuracy of ±0.01 °C
were made available to the technology platform by the CIRAD metrology platform. During
practical work, these COFRAC calibrated instruments are used to check balances and, in
particular, make students aware of the importance of parameters that might influence the
temperature measurement of a thermostatically controlled bath (homogeneity, resolution and
accuracy of the thermometers, measurement repeatability, etc.). To that end, the Qualisud
team specifically adapted a water bath so as to be able to position several temperature
probes at different places in the bath. Students have to acquire an approach that needs to
take into account a particular measuring context. The teaching scenario of the training
session is structured around these metrological checks proposed directly to the students.
The training session takes place each year with 2nd year students on the SAADS 2/IAAS
course “Sustainable Agriculture and Agrifood Systems in the South” at SupAgro
An unusually long-lasting community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) occurred in the inhabitants of a town in northern Italy from 2005 to 2008. Overall, 43 cases were diagnosed including five deaths. Hundreds of water samples were collected for Legionella isolation but only two clinical samples were obtained. Clinical strains were ST23 as were environmental isolates detected in most Legionella-positive patients' homes and those from a public fountain. Although no Legionella was found in the municipal water mains, a continuous chlorination was applied in 2008. This action resulted in a halving of cases, although incidence remained tenfold higher than the Italian average incidence until the end of 2013, when it dropped to the expected rate. Retrospective analyses of prevalent wind direction suggested that a hidden cooling tower could have been the main cause of this uncommon outbreak, highlighting the importance of implementation of cooling tower registers in supporting LD investigations.
Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to ‘scan the horizon’ to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.
A significant fraction (~ 30%) of the gamma-ray sources detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is still of unknown origin, being not yet associated with counterparts at lower energies. Many unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs) could be blazars, the largest identified population of extragalactic gamma-ray sources and the rarest class of active galactic nuclei. In particular, it has been found that blazars occupy a defined region in WISE three dimensional color space, well separated from that occupied by other sources in which thermal emission prevails. For farther sources with weaker IR emission, additional informations can be obtained combining WISE data with X-ray or radio emission. Alternatively, the low-frequency radio emission can be used for identifying potential gamma-ray candidate blazars. However, optical spectroscopic observations represent the tell-tale tool to confirm the exact nature of these sources. To this end, an extensive observational campaign has been performed with several optical telescopes, aimed at pinpointing the exact nature of gamma-ray candidate blazars selected with the different selection methods mentioned above. The results of this campaign lead to the discovery of 60 new gamma-ray blazars, thus confirming the effectiveness of these selection criteria.
Exoplanetary transit observations were carried out for the first time with all the three telescopes at the San Pedro Mártir National Astronomical Observatory in Baja California, Mexico.
We present preliminary results on WASP-39 and WASP-43, two Hot Jupiters known for the presence of a highly-inflated radius. Using the defocused photometry technique, we observed these systems, achieving photometric precision of ± 3–5mmag peak-to-valley. The preliminary fit of their lightcurves shows physical and orbital parameters consistent with published results.
Context: we present a study of the central 200 pc of NGC 6951, in the optical and NIR, taken with the Gemini North Telescope integral field spectrographs, with resolution of ~ 0”.1 Methods: we used a set of image processing techniques, as the filtering of high spatial and spectral frequencies, Richardson-Lucy deconvolution and PCA Tomography (Steiner et al.2009) to map the distribution and kinematics of the emission lines. Results: we found a thick molecular disk, with the ionization cone highly misaligned.
The Dutch and modified Hald source attribution models were adapted to Italian Salmonella data to attribute human infections caused by the top 30 serotypes between 2002 and 2010 to four putative sources (Gallus gallus, turkeys, pigs, ruminants), at the points of animal reservoir (farm), exposure (food), and both combined. Attribution estimates were thus compared between different models, time periods and sampling points. All models identified pigs as the main source of human salmonellosis in Italy, accounting for 43–60% of infections, followed by G. gallus (18–34%). Attributions to turkeys and ruminants were minor. An increasing temporal trend in attributions to pigs and a decreasing one in those to G. gallus was also observed. Although the outcomes of the two models applied at farm and food levels essentially agree, they can be refined once more information becomes available, providing valuable insights about potential targets along the production chain.
We present an overview of top internet technologies that can be used to build webtools and rich internet applications for astronomy. The aim is to simplify the data handling, reduction and access, in particular of optical/infrared images collected by traditional, automatic or robotic telescopes. These tools are particularly suitable for real-time management of GRB afterglow observations. Using these technologies we are developing a web-based images database management system. We present available features and discuss further improvements to the mentioned system.
For over a decade, the structure of the inner “hole” in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.
We present preliminary results of a detailed study of the accretion, stellar, and wind properties of transitional disks (TDs) carried out with the X-Shooter spectrograph. Combining new and archival spectra, we collected a sample of more than 20 TDs from different nearby star-forming regions. Our sample includes objects with both small (<5-15 AU) and large (>20–30 AU) known inner hole size from the literature (either from mm-observations or IR SED fitting). We check their stellar parameters (Teff, L*, AV, M*) and derive their accretion properties (Lacc, Ṁacc) in a self-consistent way, which makes use of the wide wavelength coverage of X-Shooter, and study their wind properties by mean of different forbidden emission lines analysis.
The health of people with chronic medical conditions is particularly vulnerable to the disruptions caused by public health disasters, especially when there is massive damage to the medical infrastructure. Government agencies and national organizations recommend that people with chronic illness prepare for disasters by stockpiling extra supplies of medications.
A wide range of chronic illnesses has long been documented among veterans of the US armed forces. Veterans with chronic illness could be at great risk of complications due to disaster-related medication disruptions; however, the prevalence of personal medication preparedness among chronically ill veterans is not currently known.
Data was used from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey on 28,167 respondents who reported taking daily medications. After adjusting for differences in age, health status, and other characteristics, calculations were made of the percentage of respondents who had a two-week supply of emergency medications and, among respondents without a supply, the percentage who said they could obtain one. Veteran men, veteran women, nonveteran men, and nonveteran women were compared.
Medication supplies among veteran men (81.9%) were higher than among nonveteran women (74.8%; P < .0001) and veteran women (81.1%; P = 0.014). Among respondents without medication supplies, 67.2% of nonveteran men said that they could obtain a two-week supply, compared with 60.1% of nonveteran women (P = .012).
Among adults in California with chronic illness, veteran men are more likely to have personal emergency medication supplies than are veteran and nonveteran women. Veteran men may be more likely to be prepared because of their training to work in combat zones and other emergency situations, which perhaps engenders in them a culture of preparedness or self-reliance. It is also possible that people who choose to enlist in the military are different from the general population in ways that make them more likely to be better prepared for emergencies.
Veterans in California have a relatively high level of emergency medication preparedness. Given the health complications that can result from disaster-related medication disruptions, this is a promising finding. Disasters are a national concern, however, and the personal preparedness of veterans in all parts of the nation should be assessed; these findings could serve as a useful reference point for such work in the future.
HeslinK, GinJ, AfableM, RicciK, DobalianA. Personal Medication Preparedness Among Veteran and Nonveteran Men and Women in the California Population. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013; 28(4):1-8.
This study focused upon one critical condition, acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI), and the treatment patterns used before and after a training program designed to teach hospital personnel the most current methods of treating acute respiratory insufficiency. The study was a methodological investigation in which a means for collecting and analyzing data concerning the treatment of an acute health problem was developed, implemented, and assessed. It was also an attempt to evaluate the quality of treatment of ARI in a set of hospitals and to assess the extent to which a training program was able to affect the quality of treatment. Thirdly, the study was an epidemiological investigation of the extent to which ARI exists in hospital critical care units.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is a polypeptide found in two forms: basic and acidic. The basic form is produced by many more types of cells than the acidic form, although both bind to the same receptor. These proteins act on a variety of mesodermally and ectodermally derived cells, including chondrocytes, glial cells, myoblasts, endothelial cells, cornea and lens epithelia, adrenal cortical cells, ovarian granulosa cells, periosteal fibroblasts, and osteoblasts. Basic FGF was chosen for the present study for a variety of reasons. First, it has significant cross-species homology, with 98.7% correlation between human and both bovine and avian FGF. Less conservation has been observed in the acidic form. In addition, the basic form has been shown to be 30- to 100-fold more potent, depending on the target tissue.
Tissue response to any synthetic implant—whether vascular device, dental implant, orthopaedic device, or any other implant that is in contact with soft connective tissue or mineralized tissue—has been found to correlate with the composition, surface chemistry, and surface microgeometry of the implant material.
We report Raman study of highly strained single InAs−In0.53Ga0.47As quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on InP substrates with the well thickness between 4 and 15 monolayers. We have used Raman spectroscopy to characterize quality, disorder and strain of these structures which are of considerable interest for long wavelength optical communications.
In the Raman spectra we have observed an intense narrow line corresponding to the GaAslike LO mode of In0.53Ga0.47As cap layer and a narrow peak due to the LO phonon mode of the InAs layer. These dominant and sharp features characterize the high homogeneity of our samples. In addition to these features we have observed the appearance of distinct peaks with the increase of the InAs layer thickness. In our opinion the presence of these modes is indicative of a slight deterioration of the structural perfection of the sample with the increase of the well thickness. Our investigation shows the ability of Raman spectroscopy to describe these systems and the good quality of our structures.
Bioabsorbable synthetic polymers have been studied for their possible application in absorbable internal fracture fixation devices. The current study examines the biological response of intramedullary bone to PLLA (poly-L-lactic acid). PLLA degrades at a rate sufficiently slow to be useful for fracture fixation and undergoes hydrolytic deesterification to form metabolites normally found in the body. Nevertheless, the lactic-acid-rich degradation products have the potential to significantly lower the local pH in a closed space surrounded by bone. It is hypothesized that this acidity may tend to cause abnormal bone resorption and/or demineralization.
Modal Dispersion Phase Matching appears to be currently much better adapted to parametric mixing in polymeric material waveguides than Quasi Phase Matching. For second harmonic generation at telecommunication wavelengths, using organic materials should allow better performance than with ferroelectric crystals. Promising results are expected in view of theoretical expectations and continuously improving experimental past and current results.