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A compact X-ray energy spectrometer has been developed consisting essentially of a radioisotope X-ray source, a lithium-drifted silicon (or germanium) detector and a small computer. Interchangeable sources enable efficient excitation of K X-rays from Na to U and L X-rays from about Ag to U. Energy resolution of K X-rays from adjacent elements down to Na is possible. Depending on the source and the part of the spectrum examined, the characteristic X-rays from up to about 15 elements can be simultaneously excited and measured, for either qualitative or quantitative multi-element analysis. The computer stores detected spectra and performs simple data processing such as peak recognition, background subtraction, peak integration, ratioing and solution of linear equations.
The analysis reported in this paper is the determination of V, Cr, Fe, Co, W and Mo in tool steels and is intended to illustrate the capabilities of the radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analysis technique, and the instrument, for multi-element analysis of a system having fairly complex interelement effects.
A 100 mCi Pu-238 source was used to excite the K X-rays of V, Cr, Fe, Co and Mb and the L X-rays of W. The count time used was five minutes per sample. Data reduction consisted essentially of peak integration, background subtraction and solution of sixth order linear matrices of a modified Criss-Birks type. The 36 matrix coefficients were determined using six standards, and were then used to analyze seven other analyzed specimens which were treated as unknowns. The measured values of concentration were in very good agreement with the quoted values. An iteration technique was employed to reduce errors in the matrix inversioiis.
Character plays a crucial role in US law. This article explores flaws in how moral character requirements determine who can work in licensed occupations, who can practice law, and who can immigrate to the United States or become a citizen. Section I summarizes psychological research on character, which raises questions about a central legal premise that individuals have a settled disposition capable of accurately predicting their behavior independent of situational influences. Section II examines the role of moral character as an employment credential. Almost a third of the workforce is covered by licensing laws that typically require proof of good character and often unjustly penalize the seventy million Americans with criminal records. Section III examines the idiosyncratic and inconsistent application of moral character requirements for lawyers. Section IV focuses on similar flaws in immigration contexts. Section V identifies reform strategies to improve the fairness of character-related decisions in the law.
A contradiction has existed in the literature as to the conditions favoring formation of “ablation hollows” (“suncups”) on a melting snow surface. Some experiments find that these features grow under direct sunlight and decay in overcast, windy weather; whereas others find just the opposite result, that they grow best under cloudy, windy conditions and decay if exposed to direct sunlight. We find that the hidden variable in past experiments, which acts as a switch to determine which mode of formation can operate, is the absence or abundance of dark insoluble impurities in the snow. Direct sunlight causes ablation hollows to grow in clean snow and to decay in dirty snow (for dirt content below a critical value), because the dirt migrates to the ridges between the hollows, lowering the albedo at the ridges. By contrast, when ablation is dominated by turbulent heat exchange, the presence of dirt favours development of ablation hollows because the dirt migrates to the ridges and insulates them; albedo reduction has a negligible effect on ablation.
This hypothesis is supported by an experiment which showed that the presence of a thin layer of volcanic ash on the snow inhibited formation of ablation hollows under direct sunlight.
Deborah Gordon, Professor of Law and Director of the Center on the Legal Profession at Stanford University.,
Deborah L. Rhode, Professor of Law and Director of the Center on the Legal Profession at Stanford University.
In Johnson, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a voluntary affirmative action plan that the defendant agency (the “Agency”) implemented in response to a significant lack of female workers in its “skilled,” and therefore supervisory and higher-paying, positions. Justice Brennan, for the majority, found that the plan did not violate Title VII even though it allowed the Agency to take into account a job applicant's sex; the Court reasoned that this preference was used to remedy a “manifest” imbalance in job classifications for which women had been traditionally underrepresented and, in doing so, did not “unnecessarily trammel” the rights of male workers or create an absolute bar to their advancement.
Extending approval of race-based affirmative action programs to gender- based programs, the Johnson Court also recognized that treating women “equally” with men did not necessarily mean treating women identically to men. And yet, by accepting that the male applicant in question was “more qualified” than the female, Johnson embraces the notion that merit can be objectively and fairly determined. Professor Deborah Rhode, writing as Justice Rhode, rewrites the decision to highlight and debunk this fundamental misunderstanding and to confront directly how limits on women's traditional employment opportunities are not simply matters of choice.
JOHNSON: FACTS AND DOCTRINE
Diane Joyce was the first woman at the Agency to hold a road maintenance position, a prerequisite to the dispatcher job at the center of the dispute in this case. At the time Joyce applied to be dispatcher, the Agency had never employed a woman in that position or in any of its 238 “skilled craft” positions.
One of Joyce's review panels included two Agency employees who had sexually harassed Joyce in the past. Although this panel recommended promoting Petitioner Paul Johnson over Joyce, the Agency Director decided to promote Joyce instead. In response, Johnson filed a complaint alleging that he had been denied a promotion on the basis of sex in violation of Title VII.
The district court found that Johnson was “more qualified” for the dispatcher position than Joyce and that Joyce's gender was the “determining factor in her selection”; it further held that the Agency's plan violated Steelworkers v.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
The unprecedented combination of spatial resolution and stability achieved by the Solar Oscillations Investigation/Michelson Doppler Imager on SOHO has opened up new opportunities for the analysis of solar surface oscillations of high spatial frequencies. In this regime the oscillations are essentially plane waves, amenable to the techniques of ring-diagram analysis of their three-dimensional power spectra. This approach holds the promise of measuring fluid motions and possibly magnetic fields in spatially-resolved structures within the uppermost levels of the convective envelope, a region unresolved by the global modes. Atmospheric g-modes trapped above the photosphere may also be detectable. We review the first results of plane-wave analysis of various types of SOI data and comparisons with the analyses of comparable ground-based datasets.
The Medium-l Program of the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board SOHO provides continuous observations of oscillation modes of angular degree, l, from 0 to ∼ 300. The initial results show that the noise in the Medium-l oscillation power spectrum is substantially lower than in ground-based measurements. This enables us to detect lower amplitude modes and, thus, to extend the range of measured mode frequencies. The MDI observations also reveal the asymmetry of oscillation spectral lines. The line asymmetries agree with the theory of mode excitation by acoustic sources localized in the upper convective boundary layer. The sound-speed profile inferred from the mean frequencies gives evidence for a sharp variation at the edge of the energy-generating core. In a thin layer just beneath the convection zone, helium appears to be less abundant than predicted by theory. Inverting the multiplet frequency splittings from MDI, we detect significant rotational shear in this thin layer.
Control of fire was a hallmark of developing human cognition and an essential technology for the colonisation of cooler latitudes. In Europe, the earliest evidence comes from recent work at the site of Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Río Quípar in south-eastern Spain. Charred and calcined bone and thermally altered chert were recovered from a deep, 0.8-million-year-old sedimentary deposit. A combination of analyses indicated that these had been heated to 400–600°C, compatible with burning. Inspection of the sediment and hydroxyapatite also suggests combustion and degradation of the bone. The results provide new insight into Early Palaeolithic use of fire and its significance for human evolution.
Benchmarks for antimicrobial consumption measured in antimicrobial days are beginning to emerge. The relationship between the traditional measure of days of therapy and antimicrobial days is unclear. We observed a high intermethod correlation (R2=0.99): antimicrobial days were 1.9-fold lower than days of therapy across agents. Individual institutions should correlate these measures.
We have carried out a deep, multi-color imaging study of Holmberg II (Ho II) and several other nearby LSB dwarf galaxies for which detailed HI maps exist. The formation of the HI holes in these galaxies has been attributed to multiple supernovae (SNe) occurring within windblown shells around young, massive star clusters. To search for evidence of the clusters, we have compared optical images with the HI maps and measured magnitudes and colors of objects in and around the HI holes.
Although the SN scenario requires that detectable star clusters should often be present in the centers of the HI holes, our observations have in most cases failed to reveal these clusters at the expected magnitudes. In fact, many of the HI holes are located in regions of very low optical surface brightness, which show no evidence of recent star formation.
A brief summary is given of a program which is currently being carried out with the McMath telescope of the Kitt Peak National Observatory in order to study high-degree (l ≳ 150) solar p-mode oscillations. This program uses a 244 x 248 pixel CID camera and the main spectrograph of the McMath telescope to obtain velocity-time maps of the oscillations which can be converted into two-dimensional (kh – ω) power spectra of the oscillations. Several different regions of the solar spectrum have been used in order to study the oscillations at different elevations in the solar atmosphere. The program concentrates on eastward- and westward-propagating sectoral harmonic waves so that measurements can be made of the absolute rotational velocities of the solar photospheric and shallow sub-photospheric layers. Some preliminary results from this program are now available. First, we have been unable to confirm the existence of a radial gradient in the equatorial rotational velocity as was previously suggested. Second, we have indeed been able to confirm the presence of p-mode waves in the solar chromosphere as was first suggested by Rhodes et al. (1977). Third, we have been able to demonstrate differences in photospheric and chromospheric power spectra.
Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide with radiographically confirmed pneumonia a key disease burden indicator. This is usually determined by a radiology panel which is assumed to be the best available standard; however, this assumption may introduce bias into pneumonia incidence estimates. To improve estimates of radiographic pneumonia incidence, we applied Bayesian latent class modelling (BLCM) to a large database of hospitalized patients with acute lower respiratory tract illness in Sa Kaeo and Nakhon Phanom provinces, Thailand from 2005 to 2010 with chest radiographs read by both a radiology panel and a clinician. We compared these estimates to those from conventional analysis. For children aged <5 years, estimated radiographically confirmed pneumonia incidence by BLCM was 2394/100 000 person-years (95% credible interval 2185–2574) vs. 1736/100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval 1706–1766) from conventional analysis. For persons aged ⩾5 years, estimated radiographically confirmed pneumonia incidence was similar between BLCM and conventional analysis (235 vs. 215/100 000 person-years). BLCM suggests the incidence of radiographically confirmed pneumonia in young children is substantially larger than estimated from the conventional approach using radiology panels as the reference standard.
The multicomponent Dry Creek site, located in the Nenana Valley, central Alaska, is arguably one of the most important archaeological sites in Beringia. Original work in the 1970s identified two separate cultural layers, called Components 1 and 2, thought to date to the terminal Pleistocene and suggesting that the site was visited by Upper Paleolithic huntergatherers between about 13,000 and 12,000 calendar years before present (cal B.P.). The oldest of these became the typeassemblage for the Nenana complex. Recently, some have questioned the geoarchaeological integrity of the site's early deposits, suggesting that the separated cultural layers resulted from natural postdepositional disturbances. In 2011, we revisited Dry Creek to independently assess the site's age and formation. Here we present our findings and reaffirm original interpretations of clear separation of two terminal Pleistocene cultural occupations. For the first time, we report direct radiocarbon dates on cultural features associated with both occupation zones, one dating to 13,485-13,305 and the other to 11,060-10,590 cal B.P.
Throughout the tropics, developing countries and territories are highly dependent on nearshore marine resources for food and income, however information on the sustainability and proper management of these fisheries is lacking. In Pohnpei, Micronesia, the sustainability of a coral reef finfishery was assessed by comparing coral reef fish demand to coral reef biocapacity using a marine ecological footprint (MEF) analysis. Based on geo-referenced satellite and aerial imagery, Pohnpei and surrounding atolls have 184.2 km2 of coral reef habitat with a sustainable finfish yield of 573–1118 t yr−1, however total harvest was estimated at 4068 t yr−1, exceeding biocapacity by 360–710%. The MEF was supported by observed impacts to coral reef resources, including (1) long-term declines in fish spawning aggregation density, (2) reductions in mean size, age and fecundity of key commercial species, (3) reliance on undersized fish, and (4) decadal declines in mean size and abundance of fishes of iconic value and critical to ecosystem maintenance. The commercial fishery was responsible for 68% of finfish catch volume, while reef fish consumption, at 93 kg person−1 yr−1, was among the highest in the region. To sustainably meet current demand, up to 833 km2 of additional reef area would be required. The study illustrates the MEF, at least rudimentarily, reflects biological reality on local reefs and represents a valuable analytical tool in a marine policymaker's toolbox.
Form-finding describes the process of finding a stable equilibrium shape for a structure under a specific set of loading for a set of boundary conditions. Both physical (experimental) and numerical (computational) form-finding methods have been employed by structural engineers and architects for the design of shape-resistant structures: structures whose behavior depends mostly on their global spatial configuration and less on the properties of their individual components. The shape of dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures (DEMES) depends on the equilibrium between the pre-stressed elastomeric membrane and its inextensible frame. Therefore, DEMES can be modeled and analyzed using structural form-finding techniques. We applied dynamic relaxation (DR), a well-established explicit and efficient numerical form-finding and analysis method, to simulate DEMES equilibrium shapes and predict the elastic energy of DEMES. The DR-DEMES model shows generally good agreement with its physical implementation counterpart, as it captures the equilibrium shape and also the elastic energy in function of shape. However, we found that the numerical and the physical models differ in the pre-stress that is required to obtain a specific equilibrium shape. Therefore, in this study we introduce hyper-elasticity in the DR-DEMES model. With this refinement in physical parameters the DR-DEMES model approaches the pre-stress state of the physical DEMES implementation more closely, while it maintains the computational efficiency of the form-finding approach. We conclude that dynamic relaxation, with its low computational cost, is a powerful tool for the design of novel DEMES applications.
In late February and early March 2002, an archaeological watching brief at Lynford Quarry, Mundford, Norfolk revealed a palaeochannel with a dark organic fill containing in situ mammoth remains and associated Mousterian stone tools and debitage buried under 2–3 m of bedded sands and gravels. Well-preserved in situ Middle Palaeolithic open air sites are very unusal in Europe and exceedingly rare within a British context. As such, the site was identified as being of national and international importance, and was subsequently excavated by the Norfolk Archaeological Unit with funding provided by English Heritage through the Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund.
This report presents some of the initial results of the excavation. It sets out how the site was excavated, outlines the stratigraphic sequence for the site, and presents some provisional findings of the excavation based on the results of the assessment work carried out by project specialists and Norfolk Archaeological Unit staff.
Acinetobacter is a well-recognized nosocomial pathogen. Previous reports of community-associated Acinetobacter infections have lacked clear case definitions and assessment of healthcare-associated (HCA) risk factors. We identified Acinetobacter bacteraemia cases from blood cultures obtained <3 days after hospitalization in rural Thailand and performed medical record reviews to assess HCA risk factors in the previous year and compare clinical and microbiological characteristics between cases with and without HCA risk factors. Of 72 Acinetobacter cases, 32 (44%) had no HCA risk factors. Compared to HCA infections, non-HCA infections were more often caused by Acinetobacter species other than calcoaceticus–baumannii complex species and by antibiotic-susceptible organisms. Despite similar symptoms, the case-fatality proportion was lower in non-HCA than HCA cases (9% vs. 45%, P < 0·01). Clinicians should be aware of Acinetobacter as a potential cause of community-associated infections in Thailand; prospective studies are needed to improve understanding of associated risk factors and disease burden.