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Deficits in social functioning, including communication, work, social skills, and community functioning, are a defining feature of schizophrenia. Functional outcomes of schizophrenia are affected by several factors such as social cognition, neurocognition, psychopathology, and clinical outcomes. The multifaceted association among these factors and functional outcome continues to be unclear. Given the significant role of functional outcomes in schizophrenia, there has been increasing importance in factors that may underlie these outcomes. If the characteristics of these factors can be defined, interventions may be developed to improve them, which, in turn, will have a parallel impact on long term functioning and outcome. The current study examines whether social cognition, neurocognition and clinical symptoms have a relationship on functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia.
37 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia were assessed for: Neurocognition; MCCB-MATRICS, Clinical Symptoms: PANSS, Social Cognition: MSCEIT, Emotion Recognition-40 (ER-40), Dynamic Social Cognition Battery (DSCB: Emotion Identification - Facial, Verbal and Non Verbal), Functional Outcomes: University of San Diego Performance Based Assessment (USCD-UPSA), Social Skills: Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) employed with maximum likelihood estimation for test effects.
The overall model fit was χ2=39.6, P<0.14. Fit indexes: Cmin/df=1.25, NFI=0.96, Tucker-Lewis index (Bentler and Bonnet nonformed fit index)=0.97, RMSEA=0.044. Regression weights of the latent variable 'Marder Negative Factor' were significant and high (β=0.91) and a substantial amount of variance could be explained by negative symptoms, indicating that the negative factor is a reliable measure of the latent variable. In addition, the regression weights of the latent variable social cognition to the 3 indicators were moderate and significant (Emotion Recognition DSCB: β=0.77, ER-40: β=0.46, and Nonverbal Emotion Identification, β=0.44). Like social cognition, the latent variable functional assessment explained a substantial amount of variance in the latent variables of working memory (45%). Impact of social cognition on negative symptoms (β=0.91) was greater than the direct impact of social functioning (β=0.78) and functional assessments (β=0.63).
This study suggests that 49% of negative symptoms could be explained by impaired social cognition and that 49% of social functioning skills could be explained by social cognition. Our findings suggest that social cognition may be an essential target to improve functional outcomes. These findings provide evidence that may help develop novel interventions.
The combination of sensitivity and large sky coverage of the ALFALFA HI survey has enabled the detection of difficult to observe low mass galaxies in large numbers, including dwarf galaxies overlooked in optical surveys. Three different, but connected, studies of dwarf galaxies from the ALFALFA survey are of particular interest: SHIELD (Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs), candidate gas-rich ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and the (Almost) Dark population. SHIELD is a systematic multiwavelength study of all dwarf galaxies from ALFALFA with MHI < 107.2M⊙ and clear optical counterparts. Candidate gas-rich ultra-faint dwarf galaxies extend the dwarf galaxy population to even lower masses. These galaxies are identified as isolated HI clouds with no discernible optical counterpart but subsequent observations reveal that some are extremely faint, gas-dominated galaxies. Leo P, discovered first as an HI detection, and then found to be an actively star-forming galaxy, bridges the gap between these candidate galaxies and the SHIELD sample. The (Almost) Dark sample consists of galaxies whose optical counterparts are overlooked in current optical surveys but which are clear detections in ALFALFA. This sample includes field gas-rich ultra-diffuse galaxies. Coma P, with a peak surface brightness of only ∼26.4 mag arcsec−2 in g’, demonstrates the sort of extreme low surface brightness galaxy that can be discovered in an HI survey.
Character plays a crucial role in US law. This article explores flaws in how moral character requirements determine who can work in licensed occupations, who can practice law, and who can immigrate to the United States or become a citizen. Section I summarizes psychological research on character, which raises questions about a central legal premise that individuals have a settled disposition capable of accurately predicting their behavior independent of situational influences. Section II examines the role of moral character as an employment credential. Almost a third of the workforce is covered by licensing laws that typically require proof of good character and often unjustly penalize the seventy million Americans with criminal records. Section III examines the idiosyncratic and inconsistent application of moral character requirements for lawyers. Section IV focuses on similar flaws in immigration contexts. Section V identifies reform strategies to improve the fairness of character-related decisions in the law.
Deborah Gordon, Professor of Law and Director of the Center on the Legal Profession at Stanford University.,
Deborah L. Rhode, Professor of Law and Director of the Center on the Legal Profession at Stanford University.
In Johnson, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a voluntary affirmative action plan that the defendant agency (the “Agency”) implemented in response to a significant lack of female workers in its “skilled,” and therefore supervisory and higher-paying, positions. Justice Brennan, for the majority, found that the plan did not violate Title VII even though it allowed the Agency to take into account a job applicant's sex; the Court reasoned that this preference was used to remedy a “manifest” imbalance in job classifications for which women had been traditionally underrepresented and, in doing so, did not “unnecessarily trammel” the rights of male workers or create an absolute bar to their advancement.
Extending approval of race-based affirmative action programs to gender- based programs, the Johnson Court also recognized that treating women “equally” with men did not necessarily mean treating women identically to men. And yet, by accepting that the male applicant in question was “more qualified” than the female, Johnson embraces the notion that merit can be objectively and fairly determined. Professor Deborah Rhode, writing as Justice Rhode, rewrites the decision to highlight and debunk this fundamental misunderstanding and to confront directly how limits on women's traditional employment opportunities are not simply matters of choice.
JOHNSON: FACTS AND DOCTRINE
Diane Joyce was the first woman at the Agency to hold a road maintenance position, a prerequisite to the dispatcher job at the center of the dispute in this case. At the time Joyce applied to be dispatcher, the Agency had never employed a woman in that position or in any of its 238 “skilled craft” positions.
One of Joyce's review panels included two Agency employees who had sexually harassed Joyce in the past. Although this panel recommended promoting Petitioner Paul Johnson over Joyce, the Agency Director decided to promote Joyce instead. In response, Johnson filed a complaint alleging that he had been denied a promotion on the basis of sex in violation of Title VII.
The district court found that Johnson was “more qualified” for the dispatcher position than Joyce and that Joyce's gender was the “determining factor in her selection”; it further held that the Agency's plan violated Steelworkers v.
Control of fire was a hallmark of developing human cognition and an essential technology for the colonisation of cooler latitudes. In Europe, the earliest evidence comes from recent work at the site of Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Río Quípar in south-eastern Spain. Charred and calcined bone and thermally altered chert were recovered from a deep, 0.8-million-year-old sedimentary deposit. A combination of analyses indicated that these had been heated to 400–600°C, compatible with burning. Inspection of the sediment and hydroxyapatite also suggests combustion and degradation of the bone. The results provide new insight into Early Palaeolithic use of fire and its significance for human evolution.
Benchmarks for antimicrobial consumption measured in antimicrobial days are beginning to emerge. The relationship between the traditional measure of days of therapy and antimicrobial days is unclear. We observed a high intermethod correlation (R2=0.99): antimicrobial days were 1.9-fold lower than days of therapy across agents. Individual institutions should correlate these measures.
Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide with radiographically confirmed pneumonia a key disease burden indicator. This is usually determined by a radiology panel which is assumed to be the best available standard; however, this assumption may introduce bias into pneumonia incidence estimates. To improve estimates of radiographic pneumonia incidence, we applied Bayesian latent class modelling (BLCM) to a large database of hospitalized patients with acute lower respiratory tract illness in Sa Kaeo and Nakhon Phanom provinces, Thailand from 2005 to 2010 with chest radiographs read by both a radiology panel and a clinician. We compared these estimates to those from conventional analysis. For children aged <5 years, estimated radiographically confirmed pneumonia incidence by BLCM was 2394/100 000 person-years (95% credible interval 2185–2574) vs. 1736/100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval 1706–1766) from conventional analysis. For persons aged ⩾5 years, estimated radiographically confirmed pneumonia incidence was similar between BLCM and conventional analysis (235 vs. 215/100 000 person-years). BLCM suggests the incidence of radiographically confirmed pneumonia in young children is substantially larger than estimated from the conventional approach using radiology panels as the reference standard.
The multicomponent Dry Creek site, located in the Nenana Valley, central Alaska, is arguably one of the most important archaeological sites in Beringia. Original work in the 1970s identified two separate cultural layers, called Components 1 and 2, thought to date to the terminal Pleistocene and suggesting that the site was visited by Upper Paleolithic huntergatherers between about 13,000 and 12,000 calendar years before present (cal B.P.). The oldest of these became the typeassemblage for the Nenana complex. Recently, some have questioned the geoarchaeological integrity of the site's early deposits, suggesting that the separated cultural layers resulted from natural postdepositional disturbances. In 2011, we revisited Dry Creek to independently assess the site's age and formation. Here we present our findings and reaffirm original interpretations of clear separation of two terminal Pleistocene cultural occupations. For the first time, we report direct radiocarbon dates on cultural features associated with both occupation zones, one dating to 13,485-13,305 and the other to 11,060-10,590 cal B.P.
Throughout the tropics, developing countries and territories are highly dependent on nearshore marine resources for food and income, however information on the sustainability and proper management of these fisheries is lacking. In Pohnpei, Micronesia, the sustainability of a coral reef finfishery was assessed by comparing coral reef fish demand to coral reef biocapacity using a marine ecological footprint (MEF) analysis. Based on geo-referenced satellite and aerial imagery, Pohnpei and surrounding atolls have 184.2 km2 of coral reef habitat with a sustainable finfish yield of 573–1118 t yr−1, however total harvest was estimated at 4068 t yr−1, exceeding biocapacity by 360–710%. The MEF was supported by observed impacts to coral reef resources, including (1) long-term declines in fish spawning aggregation density, (2) reductions in mean size, age and fecundity of key commercial species, (3) reliance on undersized fish, and (4) decadal declines in mean size and abundance of fishes of iconic value and critical to ecosystem maintenance. The commercial fishery was responsible for 68% of finfish catch volume, while reef fish consumption, at 93 kg person−1 yr−1, was among the highest in the region. To sustainably meet current demand, up to 833 km2 of additional reef area would be required. The study illustrates the MEF, at least rudimentarily, reflects biological reality on local reefs and represents a valuable analytical tool in a marine policymaker's toolbox.
Form-finding describes the process of finding a stable equilibrium shape for a structure under a specific set of loading for a set of boundary conditions. Both physical (experimental) and numerical (computational) form-finding methods have been employed by structural engineers and architects for the design of shape-resistant structures: structures whose behavior depends mostly on their global spatial configuration and less on the properties of their individual components. The shape of dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures (DEMES) depends on the equilibrium between the pre-stressed elastomeric membrane and its inextensible frame. Therefore, DEMES can be modeled and analyzed using structural form-finding techniques. We applied dynamic relaxation (DR), a well-established explicit and efficient numerical form-finding and analysis method, to simulate DEMES equilibrium shapes and predict the elastic energy of DEMES. The DR-DEMES model shows generally good agreement with its physical implementation counterpart, as it captures the equilibrium shape and also the elastic energy in function of shape. However, we found that the numerical and the physical models differ in the pre-stress that is required to obtain a specific equilibrium shape. Therefore, in this study we introduce hyper-elasticity in the DR-DEMES model. With this refinement in physical parameters the DR-DEMES model approaches the pre-stress state of the physical DEMES implementation more closely, while it maintains the computational efficiency of the form-finding approach. We conclude that dynamic relaxation, with its low computational cost, is a powerful tool for the design of novel DEMES applications.
Acinetobacter is a well-recognized nosocomial pathogen. Previous reports of community-associated Acinetobacter infections have lacked clear case definitions and assessment of healthcare-associated (HCA) risk factors. We identified Acinetobacter bacteraemia cases from blood cultures obtained <3 days after hospitalization in rural Thailand and performed medical record reviews to assess HCA risk factors in the previous year and compare clinical and microbiological characteristics between cases with and without HCA risk factors. Of 72 Acinetobacter cases, 32 (44%) had no HCA risk factors. Compared to HCA infections, non-HCA infections were more often caused by Acinetobacter species other than calcoaceticus–baumannii complex species and by antibiotic-susceptible organisms. Despite similar symptoms, the case-fatality proportion was lower in non-HCA than HCA cases (9% vs. 45%, P < 0·01). Clinicians should be aware of Acinetobacter as a potential cause of community-associated infections in Thailand; prospective studies are needed to improve understanding of associated risk factors and disease burden.
Bandgap engineered ZnSxO1-x films were grown on Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP) substrates and analyzed using transmission spectroscopy. FEP is considered as a potential substrate for application in flexible electronics and semiconductor films.
When I began teaching and writing about legal ethics some three decades ago, the field was barely a field. “General piffle” was how an early scholar of the profession described the field. Some leading exceptions are represented in this volume. Unlike much of the pompous moralizing that had previously characterized the field, this new work drew on research in law and society and critical legal theory. And unlike more conventional professional responsibility approaches, this scholarship tended to be skeptical of incremental reform, particularly the bar's efforts to reform its regulatory structures and promote public service. Shoring up a bankrupt structure was how many of us saw it.
So what were the alternatives? Here accounts differed. In a 1981 law review symposium, Richard Abel, one of the most influential voices, presented deficiencies in lawyers' ethics as inherent in a liberal capitalist system that privileged profits and value-free conceptions of professional roles. On the prospects of reforming that system, he was diplomatically silent. By contrast, I suggested that “to affect significant improvements in the cost, quality, and delivery of legal services, the bar must accept fundamental changes in its regulatory structures,” changes in which the public would have a much greater voice. On how those changes could be achieved, I was similarly silent.
Monteverde, in north-western Costa Rica, is located on the leeward side of the Continental Divide, and experiences strong seasonal variations in precipitation. The majority of rainfall to the region occurs during the wet season (May–October) when the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) brings convective rainfall. In addition, trade winds produce orographic uplift and condensation, and this hydrological input is dominant during the transitional (November–January) and dry (February–April) seasons. This chapter assesses the viability of using stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen to identify and distinguish waters arisen from these two condensation mechanisms, with the future goal of using these signatures to trace precipitation through the hydrological cycle.
Open-field precipitation and throughfall were sampled at Monteverde at an elevation of 1460 m.a.s.l. from mid-June 2003 to mid-January 2004. Cumulative precipitation was collected over a variable sampling interval that ranged from 1 to 48 days. The sampling interval averaged 4 days during June–July 2003 and January 2004; otherwise, samples were collected on average every 26 days. The wet season yielded a wide range of isotopic values, from −13.1 to −3.0‰ (δ18O) and −96 to −15‰ (δ2H). The isotopically lightest samples were collected during June and September/October, when the ITCZ is over Costa Rica. Rain and fog samples collected during the transitional season were isotopically heavier, ranging from −4.3 to −1.9‰ (δ18O) and −16 to + 6‰ (δ2H). January precipitation samples all yielded positive δ2H values and had isotopic compositions similar to those of fog water samples reported elsewhere.
Monteverde, Costa Rica is home to a tropical montane cloud forest that illustrates the balances between habitat and development inherent to ecotourism. The Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, located on the leeward side of the Continental Divide, has experienced a 100-fold increase in visitors since its inception 20 years ago. The associated growth in population and commercial development has the potential to impact water resources. Over three years, more than 400 stream-water samples were collected from eight sites above and below the main road within the Rio Guacimal watershed to assess the effect of development on water quality. The chemistry of upstream samples reflects mineral weathering and cation exchange reactions in the forest soils. Comparisons of downstream samples to these baseline data showed evidence of anthropogenic impacts: chemical concentrations were two to five times higher at downstream locations. The highest concentrations were observed at the site with the highest population density. These results point to the value of forest preserves, specifically the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve and the Bosque Eterno de Los Niños (or the Children's Eternal Rainforest), in limiting growth in riparian areas, which in turn helps to protect the quality of water resources for downstream communities.