In vitro experiments have demonstrated that polyphenols exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study was designed to test whether dealcoholized red (DRW) and white (DWW) wines can decrease the oxidative stress associated with inflammation in vivo. Rats were fed for 15 d either a control diet or one supplemented with DRW or DWW. Finally, a granuloma was induced by subcutaneous administration of carrageenan. Although DRW showed higher antioxidant activity in vitro than DWW, both wines decreased the number of cells recruited into the granuloma pouch. Malondialdehyde decreased in plasma and inflammatory exudate from rats fed with DRW- and DWW-rich diets. Moreover, the concentration of NO increased in exudate, which correlates with the increase in the citrulline:arginine ratio. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes from the inflammatory exudate of rats fed dealcoholized wines showed decreased superoxide anion (O2∙−) production and increased NO production ex vivo. This change in NO production resulted from increased expression and activity of inducible NO synthase (EC 22.214.171.124). Moreover, the up regulation of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (EC 126.96.36.199) protein expression observed in rats fed the DRW-rich diet was not related to a direct effect of NO. The present results indicate that the non-alcoholic compounds of wines not only improve antioxidant status in an inflammatory situation, but also limit cell infiltration, possibly through a decrease in O2∙− and an increase in NO production.