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Identifying youth who may engage in future substance use could facilitate early identification of substance use disorder vulnerability. We aimed to identify biomarkers that predicted future substance use in psychiatrically un-well youth.
LASSO regression for variable selection was used to predict substance use 24.3 months after neuroimaging assessment in 73 behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth aged 13.9 (s.d. = 2.0) years, 30 female, from three clinical sites in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study. Predictor variables included neural activity during a reward task, cortical thickness, and clinical and demographic variables.
Future substance use was associated with higher left middle prefrontal cortex activity, lower left ventral anterior insula activity, thicker caudal anterior cingulate cortex, higher depression and lower mania scores, not using antipsychotic medication, more parental stress, older age. This combination of variables explained 60.4% of the variance in future substance use, and accurately classified 83.6%.
These variables explained a large proportion of the variance, were useful classifiers of future substance use, and showed the value of combining multiple domains to provide a comprehensive understanding of substance use development. This may be a step toward identifying neural measures that can identify future substance use disorder risk, and act as targets for therapeutic interventions.
We applied three statistical classification techniques—linear discriminant analysis (LDA), logistic regression, and random forests—to three astronomical datasets associated with searches for interstellar masers. We compared the performance of these methods in identifying whether specific mid-infrared or millimetre continuum sources are likely to have associated interstellar masers. We also discuss the interpretability of the results of each classification technique. Non-parametric methods have the potential to make accurate predictions when there are complex relationships between critical parameters. We found that for the small datasets the parametric methods logistic regression and LDA performed best, for the largest dataset the non-parametric method of random forests performed with comparable accuracy to parametric techniques, rather than any significant improvement. This suggests that at least for the specific examples investigated here accuracy of the predictions obtained is not being limited by the use of parametric models. We also found that for LDA, transformation of the data to match a normal distribution led to a significant improvement in accuracy. The different classification techniques had significant overlap in their predictions; further astronomical observations will enable the accuracy of these predictions to be tested.
Neuroimaging measures of behavioral and emotional dysregulation can yield biomarkers denoting developmental trajectories of psychiatric pathology in youth. We aimed to identify functional abnormalities in emotion regulation (ER) neural circuitry associated with different behavioral and emotional dysregulation trajectories using latent class growth analysis (LCGA) and neuroimaging.
A total of 61 youth (9–17 years) from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study, and 24 healthy control youth, completed an emotional face n-back ER task during scanning. LCGA was performed on 12 biannual reports completed over 5 years of the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-Item Mania Scale (PGBI-10M), a parental report of the child's difficulty regulating positive mood and energy.
There were two latent classes of PGBI-10M trajectories: high and decreasing (HighD; n = 22) and low and decreasing (LowD; n = 39) course of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over the 12 time points. Task performance was >89% in all youth, but more accurate in healthy controls and LowD versus HighD (p < 0.001). During ER, LowD had greater activity than HighD and healthy controls in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a key ER region, and greater functional connectivity than HighD between the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (p's < 0.001, corrected).
Patterns of function in lateral prefrontal cortical–amygdala circuitry in youth denote the severity of the developmental trajectory of behavioral and emotional dysregulation over time, and may be biological targets to guide differential treatment and novel treatment development for different levels of behavioral and emotional dysregulation in youth.
This paper describes the development of a nitrogen-based passivation technique for interface states near the conduction band edge [Dit(Ec)] in 4H-SiC/SiO2. These states have been observed and characterized in several laboratories for n- and p-SiC since their existence was first proposed by Schorner, et al. . The origin of these states remains a point of discussion, but there is now general agreement that these states are largely responsible for the lower channel mobilities that are reported for n-channel, inversion mode 4H-SiC MOSFETs. Over the past year, much attention has been focused on finding methods by which these states can be passivated. The nitrogen passivation process that is described herein is based on post-oxidation, high temperature anneals in nitric oxide. An NO anneal at atmospheric pressure, 1175°C and 200–400sccm for 2hr reduces the interface state density at Ec-E ≅0.1eV in n-4H-SiC by more than one order of magnitude - from > 3×1013 to approximately 2×1012cm−2eV−1. Measurements for passivated MOSFETs yield effective channel mobilities of approximately 30–35cm2/V-s and low field mobilities of around 100cm2/V-s. These mobilities are the highest yet reported for MOSFETs fabricated with thermal oxides on standard 4H-SiC and represent a significant improvement compared to the single digit mobilities commonly reported for 4H inversion mode devices. The reduction in the interface state density is associated with the passivation of carbon cluster states that have energies near the conduction band edge. However, attempts to optimize the the passivation process for both dry and wet thermal oxides do not appear to reduce Dit(Ec) below about 2×1012cm−2eV−1 (compared to approximately 1010cm−2eV−1 for passivated Si/SiO2). This may be an indication that two types of interface states exist in the upper half of the SiC band gap – one type that is amenable to passivation by nitrogen and one that is not. Following NO passivation, the average breakdown field for dry oxides on p-4H-SiC is higher than the average field for wet oxides (7.6MV/cm compared to 7.1MV/cm at room temperature). However, both breakdown fields are lower than the average value of 8.2MV/cm measured for wet oxide layers that were not passivated. The lower breakdown fields can be attributed to donor-like states that appear near the valence band edge during passivation.
Excellent quality epitaxial and textured superconducting HoBa2Cu307.x (Ho 123) thin films have been fabricated on lattice matched (100) KTaO3 and (100) LaAlO3, and lattice mismatched (100) MgO substrates by the pulsed laser evaporation (PLE) technique. A bulk Hol23 target was evaporated using nanosecond excimer laser pulses with the evaporating material depositing on a substrate maintained in the temperature range of 550‐650°C. The temperature for zero resistance for HoBa2Cu3O7_x films deposited on various substrates at 650°C varied between 85 to 89K. The epitaxial films deposited on (100) LaA103 substrates exhibited critical current densities greater than 3.5 x 106 Amps/cm2 at 77 K. The superconducting properties of the Ho 123 films were found to be similar to Y123 films.
Titanium and many of its alloys show very poor wear resistance considering their hardness. This together with high thermodynamic driving forces to form very hard compounds between titanium and nitrogen or carbon made titanium based alloys obvious candidates for ion implantation. In this paper the effects of similar implanted concentration profiles of nitrogen and carbon in two titanium alloys are compared. The wear behavior of pin on disk wear tests are reported along with the ultramicrohardness of the four samples.
Ion beam mixing in Pt-Si bilayered samples was measured during irradiation with projectiles ranging in mass from 4 amu (He) to 131 amu (Xe) at 10 K, 300 K and 373 K. Using deposited damage energy as a basis for comparing the different irradiations, it was found that the beavier ions were more efficient than the lighter ones for inducing mixing. Moreover, it was observed that the mixing was essentially independent of temperature below 373 K. These results are interpreted on the basis that the mixing is caused by the stimulated motion of defects during the cooling phase of energetic cascades.
A supralinear dose dependence for the amorphous transformation was observed in NiTi during bombardment with 2.5 MeV Ni+ ions. These results are consistent with a mechanism that requires cascade overlap to obtain a critical defect density for the amorphous transformation. Direct amorphization in the cascades was not resolvable. The temperature dependence of the minimum dose required for complete amorphous transformation had the same form as that observed for amorphization of silicon. Amorphization caused by electron bombardment required a higher dose than by ion bombardment. Different degrees of homogeneity of the damage state between ions and electrons can explain the dose dependence on particle type.
The relationship between the supramolecular conformational structure of assembled chromophores and their susceptibility to electric field poling is of interest for maximizing the bulk alignment achievable in an electro-optic material. We have employed solution phase dielectric constant measurements to investigate possible enhancements in dipolar susceptibility as a function of connectivity and state of aggregation in rationally synthesized chromophore assemblies, including conformationally defined head-to-tail oligomers. On the other hand, conformationally unrestricted, highly dipolar azo dyes behave as relatively isolated molecules even when present in supersaturated solutions and in close proximity on polymer chains.
The microstructure of aluminum annealed after implantation to peak concentrations of approximately 4.4 and 11 at. % Mo was investigated by analytical electron microscopy. Al12Mo precipitates formed with pseudo-lamellar and continuous film microstructures. Video recordings of insitu annealing experiments revealed the details of the phase transformations.
Corrosion behavior of Ni+ -irradiated NiTi alloys was studied in chloride solutions, together with unirradiated NiTi material with different surface conditions. Ion irradiation with either 2.5 or 5 MeV Ni+ ions transformed the NiTi surface into an amorphous layer up to 1.5 micrometers thick. Studies of corrosion potential vs. time and polarization behavior indicated a small enhancement of the passivation for the Ni+-irradiated NiTi over the unirradiated NiTi. The unirradiated NiTi with a mechanically polished, coarse surface was susceptible to pitting and crevice corrosion attack in 1 N HCl solution. The homogeneous amorphous structure in the irradiated alloy retarded this type of localized corrosion.
Dry sliding friction tests and relative abrasive wear measurements were used to investigate the effects of ion implantation on the tribology of a centrifugally cast Co-Cr-W-C alloy. Titanium implantation was found to significantly reduce the friction and wear of the alloy. Auger spectroscopy showed that vacuum carburization of the surface occurred during Ti implantation. Similar Ti and C profiles were seen in both carbide and (Co-rich) matrix phases. The abrasive wear resistance of the alloy decreased as a result of N-implantation. Nitrogen implantation did not reduce the friction during dry sliding, however, a change in the wear mode was observed.
Flat glassy polymeric carbon samples were prepared from phenolic resin by three techniques: spray coating, spin coating and molding. Cured at 110°C-180°C and pyrolyzed in argon at 600°C or at 1000°C, samples then were studied by RBS for trace impurities, by ESCA for surface oxidation and contamination and by Raman microprobe of the top surface and perpendicular to that for preferred orientation of aromatic ribbons. An increase of 13% to 24% in the relative area under the corresponding Raman peaks indicates increased orientation of the ribbon-like aromatic molecules in the sprayed and spin coated samples as compared with the molded sample.