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The study objective was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in the nares and oropharynx of healthy persons and identify any risk factors associated with such S. aureus colonisation. In total 263 participants (177 adults and 86 minors) comprising 95 families were enrolled in a year-long prospective cohort study from one urban and one rural county in eastern Iowa, USA, through local newspaper advertisements and email lists and through the Keokuk Rural Health Study. Potential risk factors including demographic factors, medical history, farming and healthcare exposure were assessed. Among the participants, 25.4% of adults and 36.1% minors carried S. aureus in their nares and 37.9% of adults carried it in their oropharynx. The overall prevalence was 44.1% among adults and 36.1% for minors. Having at least one positive environmental site for S. aureus in the family home was associated with colonisation (prevalence ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.66). The sensitivity of the oropharyngeal cultures was greater than that of the nares cultures (86.1% compared with 58.2%, respectively). In conclusion, the nares and oropharynx are both important colonisation sites for healthy community members and the presence of S. aureus in the home environment is associated with an increased probability of colonisation.
DNA barcode analysis of specimens belonging to the genus Histeromerus Wesmael, 1838 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reveals the presence of two species in North America. One is identified as H. canadensis Ashmead, 1891, which is widely recorded in North America, while the other is H. mystacinus Wesmael, 1838, a species formerly known only from the western Palaearctic.
We present results from a multiwavelength study of the blazar PKS 1954–388 at radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray energies. A RadioAstron observation at 1.66 GHz in June 2012 resulted in the detection of interferometric fringes on baselines of 6.2 Earth-diameters. This suggests a source frame brightness temperature of greater than 2 × 1012 K, well in excess of both equipartition and inverse Compton limits and implying the existence of Doppler boosting in the core. An 8.4-GHz TANAMI VLBI image, made less than a month after the RadioAstron observations, is consistent with a previously reported superluminal motion for a jet component. Flux density monitoring with the Australia Telescope Compact Array confirms previous evidence for long-term variability that increases with observing frequency. A search for more rapid variability revealed no evidence for significant day-scale flux density variation. The ATCA light-curve reveals a strong radio flare beginning in late 2013, which peaks higher, and earlier, at higher frequencies. Comparison with the Fermi gamma-ray light-curve indicates this followed ~ 9 months after the start of a prolonged gamma-ray high-state—a radio lag comparable to that seen in other blazars. The multiwavelength data are combined to derive a Spectral Energy Distribution, which is fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) model with the addition of external Compton (EC) emission.
This report describes the unique challenges of managing potential exposure to bats in a neonatal intensive care unit. The outcome demonstrates that rabies post-exposure prophylaxis can be safely administered to preterm infants with evidence that preterm infants are able to develop adequate titers post vaccination.
PKS 1934–638 is an archetypal GPS source, peaking at 1.4 GHz and exhibits almost no flux density variability. VLBI images at frequencies of .843, 2.3, 4.8, & 8.4 were made with the southern hemisphere VLBI array and they reveal that the source is a 42 mas compact double. There is no detectable change in separation over the last 20 years, yielding an upper limit of ~ 0.03c ± 0.2c on any expansion velocity. The spectral shapes of the two components are remarkably similar, despite indications of finer structure on longer baselines. Magnetic field calculations indicate fields of a few mGauss and the results are consistent with equipartition.
Significant gaps in immunity to polio, measles, and rubella may exist in adults in Cambodia and threaten vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control goals, despite high childhood vaccination coverage. We conducted a nationwide serological survey during November–December 2012 of 2154 women aged 15–39 years to assess immunity to polio, measles, and rubella and to estimate congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA and polio antibodies by microneutralization testing. Age-structured catalytic models were fitted to rubella serological data to predict CRS cases. Overall, 29·8% of women lacked immunity to at least one poliovirus (PV); seroprevalence to PV1, PV2 and PV3 was 85·9%, 93·4% and 83·3%, respectively. Rubella and measles antibody seroprevalence was 73·3% and 95·9%, respectively. In the 15–19 years age group, 48·2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42·4–54·1] were susceptible to either PV1 or PV3, and 40·3% (95% CI 33·0–47·5) to rubella virus. Based on rubella antibody seroprevalence, we estimate that >600 infants are born with CRS in Cambodia annually. Significant numbers of Cambodian women are still susceptible to polio and rubella, especially those aged 15–19 years, emphasizing the need to include adults in VPD surveillance and a potential role for vaccination strategies targeted at adults.
Too many managers and scholars alike may overlook post-downsizing. There are important considerations in the aftermath of a downsizing event, some of which very much need to be anticipated as the downsizing process begins. These considerations include:
effects on the organization,
outcome goals (e.g., surviving versus revitalizing), and
effects on individuals.
A key question here is: what are the impacts a downsizing climate has on people and their relationship to work? The primary concern of this chapter is the human side of the business and the effects of downsizing on individuals. There are five groups of individuals that are impacted by the downsizing process. These are:
employees and managers who are downsized and lose their positions as a result (primary casualties);
employees who survive the downsizing and remain within the organization (secondary casualties but survivors);
managers who orchestrate and execute the downsizing event (secondary casualties but survivors);
spouses, family members, and loved ones who have personal, intimate relationships with those who are let go in the downsizing process as well as those employees and managers who remain (secondary casualties);
external spectators, care givers, and community members who are witness to the downsizing event and may either have direct or indirect contact with any or all of the above-mentioned groups (tertiary casualties).
Downsizing is one of the most frequently used business strategies for reducing costs, returning firms to profit or for restructuring businesses following takeovers, mergers and acquisitions. Downsizing measures are also set to become much more prevalent in the public sector as governments seek to restrict levels of public spending. This book is one of the first to provide a thorough study of downsizing from a global perspective. It examines the phenomenon in its entirety, exploring how it is initiated and what the process of downsizing looks like. It also looks at the effects of downsizing at a number of different levels, from the individual (e.g., motivational effects, effects on health and stress levels) to the organizational (e.g., financial outcomes, reputational and productivity outcomes). Written by an international team of experts, the book provides a comprehensive overview of downsizing that examines both the strategic and human implications of this process.
The dissolution of a drug delivery system consisting of gentamicin sulfate in a hydrophobic polyanhydride matrix has been examined. The in vitro release of gentamicin is a function of the composition of the dissolution medium, with slower release in pH 7.4 buffer than in unbuffered water. This is consistent with an anion exchange taking place under conditions in which carboxylate polymer chain-ends form a poorly soluble salt with gentamicin, and sulfate is released into solution. Results of additional experiments probing this model are digeussed.
Monoclinic ZrO2 and its supported catalysts Co/Ni/ZrO2 for catalytic decomposition of N2O have been studied with FTIR, EDAX, XPS, and the evaluation of activity of the catalysts. It is found that monoclinic ZrO2 alone has the catalytic effect for N2O decomposition although the gas decomposes on Co/Ni/ZrO2 more efficiently. The XPS study shows that only Co exists in the surface region of ZrO2. In evaluation experiments, it is found that when Co/Ni exceeds a threshold concentration, the conversion of N2O is no longer accelerated with the increase of Co/Ni content. The gas decomposition on Co/Ni/ZrO2 can be described as first order with respect to partial pressure of N2O. No nitrogen N(ls) photoelectrons were detected for the catalysts after N2O decomposition. Surface reactions on ZrO2 and Co/Ni/ZrO2, including the behaviour of retained carbon (Cls) and N2O decomposition mechanism, will also be addressed.