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The radiocarbon (14C) content of irradiated graphite is the most important problem for the management of Spanish irradiated graphite (Vandellós I NPP) as L&ILW, due to this material exceeding the maximum 14C inventory for the C.A. El Cabril repository. Therefore, the encapsulation of graphite in an impermeable matrix and making an appropriate waste form are indicated as potential management options to be studied. The conversion of the graphite to a long-term stable glass matrix, called IGM (impermeable graphite matrix), uses a long-term stable inorganic binder which additionally encloses the graphite pore system. The world’s first IGM samples made with irradiated graphite have been manufactured in CIEMAT facilities. The durability of the matrix is investigated in leaching experiments in deionized water and granitic bentonite water. The results show that ∼0.05% of 14C is leached. A species of organic carbon was found as formate and oxalate (∼10–1 mg/L). CO was detected as volatile specie in both media in the first leaching steps; for deionized water (∼3.101 mg/L) and in granitic bentonite water (ranging 1.101–3.101 mg/L). These low values demonstrated the durability of the IGM glass matrix for final disposal.
Radiocarbon (14C) is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of underground geological disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, and the understanding of the 14C behavior in stainless steel may lead to a re-evaluation of the near-surface repository for the disposal of wastes containing this radionuclide in high concentrations. To achieve this objective, leaching experiments were planned for two different scenarios. The first is where the leaching solution, NaOH solution of pH ca. 12 in aerobic conditions, simulates the expected conditions in a cement-based near-surface repository over long time periods. The other one uses an acid solution of 1M H3PO4, which has been proved as a high efficiency chemical removal agent of 14C in graphite. The development of both analytical methods and protocols to measure the release of 14C from the activated steel samples and the speciation in the aqueous and gaseous phase has been undertaken as part of the EC CAST (CArbon-14 Source Term) project. Analytical methods, suitable for identifying and quantifying low molecular weight organic molecules, comprise ion chromatography (IC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS); they are described for aqueous and gaseous samples, respectively. In this paper the preparation of leaching experiments to measure the release of 14C and the results obtained are described.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and psychosis share deficits in social cognition. The insular region has been associated with awareness of self and reality, which may be basic for proper social interactions.
Total and regional insular volume and thickness measurements were obtained from a sample of 30 children and adolescents with ASD, 29 with early onset first-episode psychosis (FEP), and 26 healthy controls (HC). Total, regional, and voxel-level volume and thickness measurements were compared between groups (with correction for multiple comparisons), and the relationship between these measurements and symptom severity was explored.
Compared with HC, a shared volume deficit was observed for the right (but not the left) anterior insula (ASD: p = 0.007, FEP: p = 0.032), and for the bilateral posterior insula: (left, ASD: p = 0.011, FEP: p = 0.033; right, ASD: p = 0.004, FEP: p = 0.028). A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) conjunction analysis showed that ASD and FEP patients shared a gray matter volume and thickness deficit in the left posterior insula. Within patients, right anterior (r = −0.28, p = 0.041) and left posterior (r = −0.29, p = 0.030) insular volumes negatively correlated with the severity of insight deficits, and left posterior insular volume negatively correlated with the severity of ‘autistic-like’ symptoms (r = −0.30, p = 0.028).
The shared reduced volume and thickness in the anterior and posterior regions of the insula in ASD and FEP provides the first tentative evidence that these conditions share structural pathology that may be linked to shared symptomatology.
ENTRAP comprises a pan-European cooperation of leading scientific institutions and regulatory bodies in the field of nuclear-waste characterization and its quality assurance for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. Here, the scope of this cooperation is presented and explained and links or interfaces for a potential collaboration with partners fulfilling tasks of IDG-TP are pursued.
The objective of the Apollon project is the generation of 10 PW peak power pulses of 15 fs at 1 shot/minute. In this paper the Apollon facility design, the technological challenges and the current progress of the project will be presented.
Maternal depression and unhealthy diet are well-known risk factors for adverse child emotional–behavioural outcomes, but their developmental relationships during the prenatal and postnatal periods are largely uncharted. This study sought to examine the inter-relationships between maternal depression symptoms and unhealthy diet (assessed during pregnancy and postnatal periods) in relation to child emotional–behavioural dysregulation (assessed at the ages of 2, 4 and 7 years).
In a large prospective birth cohort of 7814 mother–child pairs, path analysis was used to examine the independent and inter-related associations of maternal depression symptoms and unhealthy diet with child dysregulation.
Higher prenatal maternal depression symptoms were prospectively associated with higher unhealthy diet, both during pregnancy and the postnatal period, which, in turn, was associated with higher child dysregulation up to the age of 7 years. In addition, during pregnancy, higher maternal depression symptoms and unhealthy diet were each independently associated with higher child dysregulation up to the age of 7 years. These results were robust to other prenatal, perinatal and postnatal confounders (such as parity and birth complications, poverty, maternal education, etc.).
Maternal depression symptoms and unhealthy diet show important developmental associations, but are also independent risk factors for abnormal child development.
A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group
of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the
third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed
GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent
experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients
in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray
telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of
Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of
Cementum contains specific molecules that could serve to identify, isolate and characterize the cementoblast lineage and to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate the cementogenesis process, since it plays a key role during the periodontal regeneration process. One of these molecules is the human cementum protein 1 (CEMP1); which has a molecular weight of 25,9 kDa. In vitro experiments have shown that CEMP1 promotes cellular adhesion and differentiation. In addition, this protein has been implied in regulating the degree of deposition, composition and morphology of hydroxyapatite crystals formed by putative cementoblast in vitro. Therefore, it is possible that CEMP1 promotes the formation, growth and regulates the morphology of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro. We have produced a human recombinant CEMP1 (hrCEMP1) in a prokaryotic system. The hrCEMP1 purification was realized using the column NiTA HisPrep FF/16. Assays of calcium phosphate crystal growth were realized by means of capillary counterdiffusion system. Our results demonstrated that hrCEMP1 promotes octacalcium phosphate crystal nucleation and possesses high affinity for hydroxyapatite. We infer that hrCEMP1 plays a key role during the regeneration of mineralized tissues.
We report on astrophysical aspects of fully innovative very wide–field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. They are expected to contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.
A program is under way to develop methods and instrumentation based on charge-coupled device (CCD) sensors for hot plasma diagnostics. We have developed a new X-ray spectrometer in which a freestanding X-ray transmission grating is coupled to a CCD linear array detector with electronic digitized readout replacing film and its wet processing. This instrument measures time-integrated pulsed X-ray spectra with moderate spectral resolution (δλ ≤ 0.6 nm) over a broad spectral range (0.3–2 keV) with high sensitivity, linearity, and large dynamic range. The performance of the device was tested using laser plasma as the X-ray source.
The paper presents results of an investigation of energy transport in 6-μm aluminum foils covered with a silver or gold layer irradiated with 1·06-μm, 1-ns laser-pulse at intensities 1013to 1014 W/cm2. The increase in mass ablation rate and volume heating of accelerated fragment of the foil as well as the increased range of lateral energy transport were registered. The measured plasma parameters from aluminum foils were used for testing the one-dimesional numerical code.
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