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A waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] biotype (designated as “NER”) collected from a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production field in eastern Nebraska survived the POST application of fomesafen at the labeled rate. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the level of resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors (acifluorfen, fomesafen, and lactofen) applied POST, (2) determine the mechanism of PPO-inhibitor resistance in the NER biotype, (3) determine whether NER possessed multiple resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS)-, and photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicides, and (4) control NER with POST soybean herbicides. A whole-plant dose–response bioassay revealed that the NER biotype was 4- to 6-fold resistant to PPO-inhibiting herbicides depending on the known susceptible biotype (S1 or S2) used for comparison. A Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP™) assay was developed and performed for rapid and robust detection of the ΔG210 mutation (deletion of a codon) in the PPX2L gene. All samples of the NER biotype tested positive for the ΔG210 mutation. Dose–response bioassays confirmed that the NER biotype was resistant to three additional herbicide sites of action. Chlorimuron and imazethapyr, both ALS inhibitors, applied at 32X the labeled rate resulted in <80% reduction in the aboveground biomass of the NER biotype. The same biotype was 3- and 7-fold resistant to glyphosate (EPSPS inhibitor) and atrazine (PSII inhibitor), respectively. Glufosinate, 2,4-D choline plus glyphosate, and dicamba were the only soybean POST herbicides that controlled NER effectively (≥92% aboveground biomass reduction). Amaranthus tuberculatus is the first confirmed weed species in Nebraska to evolve resistance to four distinct herbicide sites of action, leaving no POST herbicide choice for effective control in glyphosate-resistant and conventional (non-transgenic) soybean.
Children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders are at elevated risk for a range of behavioral and emotional problems. However, as the usual reporter of psychopathology in children is the parent, reports of early problems in children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders may be biased by the parents' own experience of mental illness and their mental state.
Independent observers rated psychopathology using the Test Observation Form in 378 children and youth between the ages of 4 and 24 (mean = 11.01, s.d. = 4.40) who had a parent with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or no history of mood and psychotic disorders.
Observed attentional problems were elevated in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia (effect sizes ranging between 0.31 and 0.56). Oppositional behavior and language/thought problems showed variable degrees of elevation (effect sizes 0.17 to 0.57) across the three high-risk groups, with the greatest difficulties observed in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Observed anxiety was increased in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (effect sizes 0.19 and 0.25 respectively) but not in offspring of parents with schizophrenia.
Our results suggest that externalizing problems and cognitive and language difficulties may represent a general manifestation of familial risk for mood and psychotic disorders, while anxiety may be a specific marker of liability for mood disorders. Observer assessment may improve early identification of risk and selection of youth who may benefit from targeted prevention.
We compared antibiotic prescribing to older people in different settings to inform antibiotic stewardship interventions. We used data linkage to stratify individuals aged 65 years and over in Northern Ireland, 1st January 2012–31st December 2013, by residence: community dwelling, care home dwelling or ‘transitioned’ if admitted to a care home. The odds of being prescribed an antibiotic by residence were analysed using logistic regression, adjusting for patient demographics and selected medication use (proxy for co-morbidities). Trends in monthly antibiotic prescribing were examined in the 6 months pre- and post-admission to the care home. The odds of being prescribed at least one antibiotic were twofold higher in care homes compared with community dwellers (adjusted odds ratio 2.05, 95% CI 1.93–2.17). There was a proportionate increase of 51.5% in the percentage prescribed an antibiotic on admission, with a monthly average of 23% receiving an antibiotic in the 6 months post admission. While clinical need likely accounts for some of the observed antibiotic prescribing in care homes we cannot rule out more liberal prescribing, given the twofold difference between care home residents and their community dwelling peers having accounted for co-morbidities. The appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in the care home setting should be examined.
The burden of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) has increased. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of CA-CDI to inform future interventions. We used population-based linked surveillance data from 2012 to 2016 to describe socio-demographic factors, ribotype and mortality for all CA (n = 1303) and hospital-associated (HA, n = 1356) CDI. For 483 community-onset (CO) CA-CDI and 287 COHA-CDI cases, a questionnaire on risk factors was completed and we conducted a case–case study using logistic regression models for univariate and multivariable analysis. CA-CDI cases had lower odds of being male (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58–0.87; P < 0.001), and higher odds of living in rural rather than urban settlement (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.1; P = 0.05) compared with HA-CDI cases. The distribution of ribotypes was similar in both groups with RT078 being most prevalent. CDI-specific death was lower in CA-CDI than HA-CDI (7% vs. 11%, P < 0.001). COCA-CDI had lower odds of having had an outpatient appointment in the previous 4 weeks compared with COHA-CDI (AOR 0.61; 95% CI 0.41–0.9, P = 0.01) and lower odds of being in a care home or hospice when compared with their own home, than COHA-CDI (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.45–0.98 and AOR 0.35; 95% CI 0.13–0.92, P = 0.02). Exposure to gastric acid suppressants (50% in COCA-CDI and 55% in COHA-CDI) and antimicrobial therapy (18% in COCA-CDI and 20% in COHA-CDI) prior to CDI was similar. Our analysis of community-onset cases suggests that other risk factors for COHA-CDI may be equally important for COCA-CDI. Opportunities to safely reduce antibiotic and gastric acid suppressants use should be investigated in all healthcare settings.
We aimed to quantify the proportion of people receiving care for HIV-infection that are 50 years or older (older HIV patients) in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2000 and 2015 and to estimate the contribution to the growth of this population of people enrolled before (<50yo) and after 50 years old (yo) (⩾50yo). We used a series of repeated, cross-sectional measurements over time in the Caribbean, Central and South American network (CCASAnet) cohort. We estimated the percentage of patients retained in care each year that were older HIV patients. For every calendar year, we divided patients into two groups: those who enrolled before age 50 and after age 50. We used logistic regression models to estimate the change in the proportion of older HIV patients between 2000 and 2015. The percentage of CCASAnet HIV patients over 50 years had a threefold increase (8% to 24%) between 2000 and 2015. Most of the growth of this population can be explained by the increasing proportion of people that enrolled before 50 years and aged in care. These changes will impact needs of care for people living with HIV, due to multiple comorbidities and high risk of disability associated with aging.
To examine the potential links between activity spaces, the food retail environment and food shopping behaviours for the population of young, urban adults.
Participants took part in the Canada Food Study, which collected information on demographics, food behaviour, diet and health, as well as an additional smartphone study that included a seven-day period of logging GPS (global positioning system) location and food purchases. Using a time-weighted, continuous representation of participant activity spaces generated from GPS trajectory data, the locations of food purchases and a geocoded food retail data set, negative binomial regression models were used to explore what types of food retailers participants were exposed to and where food purchases were made.
Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Edmonton and Halifax, Canada.
Young adults aged 16–30 years (n 496). These participants were a subset of the larger Canada Food Study.
Demographics, household food shopper status and city of residence were significantly associated with different levels of exposure to various types of food retailers. Food shopping behaviours were also statistically significantly associated with demographics, the activity space-based food environment, self-reported health and city of residence.
The study confirms that food behaviours are related to activity space-based food environment measures, which provide a more comprehensive accounting of food retail exposure than home-based measures. In addition, exposure to food retail and food purchasing behaviours of an understudied population are described.