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First-generation immigrants from developed countries appear to be particularly at risk of being diagnosed with a mental disorder after migration. Nevertheless, in Europe immigrated people appear less likely than their native counterparts to access community mental health care. Inequity in treatment may lead to enhanced severity of the disease and consequent emergency referrals.
The aim of this study was to explore demographic and clinical characteristics in immigrants patients compared to Italianborn patients admitted in a Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) for an acute mental disorder.
One hundred first-generation immigrant patients were consecutively recruited and compared to 100 age-, genderand diagnosis-matched Italian-born patients. Subjects were diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR and rated on the Clinical Global Impression - Severity Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning. Medical history and demographic information were collected with a study-specific form and were abstracted from medical records.
The majority of patients were admitted to the PICU for an acute psychotic or manic episode. There were no differences in socio-demographic characteristics, in clinical severity scores and global functioning scores between immigrant and Italian-born patients. Despite no differences in age or diagnosis, immigrant patients were significantly more likely to be at the first psychiatric contact (32% vs 15%; p=0.007).
Our results suggest a role of migration in the development of acute psychotic or manic episodes. Moreover, limited access for immigrants to community mental health services may lead to longer duration of untreated illness, increased disease severity and consequent emergency referrals.
Despite the potential theoretical and clinical relevance of psychopathological dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), few studies to date have investigated their possible association with obsession subtypes.
We aimed to examine whether, in OCD patients, anger and other psychopathological dimensions are associated with specific obsession subtypes.
We consecutively recruited 57 first-visit DSM-V OCD patients (females = 66.7%; age range = 18–63 years) at the Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic of our University Hospital. These patients were affected by severe OCD, as shown by a median (1st quartile–3rd quartile) Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of 27.0 (23.0–32.5). We used the point-biserial coefficient (rpbi) to measure the correlation between psychopathological dimensions, as assessed with the Scale for the Rapid Assessment of Psychopathology (SVARAD), and obsession subtypes, as evaluated with the Y-BOCS.
We found significant correlations (P-values < 0.05) between: anger/aggressiveness dimension and aggressive, contamination, and sexual obsessions; apprehension/fear dimension and contamination, religious, and somatic obsessions; sadness/demoralization dimension and contamination and somatic obsessions; obsessiveness/iterativity dimension and all obsession subtypes; impulsivity dimension and aggressive and sexual obsessions; somatic concern/somatization dimension and contamination and somatic obsessions. We also found, by using the Mann-Whitney U-test, that OCD patients with comorbid Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder–but not Schizotypal or Histrionic ones–showed higher levels (P < 0.05) of obsessiveness/iterativity and anger/aggressiveness than OCD patients without the personality disorder.
Anger and other psychopathological dimensions seem to be linked with specific obsession subtypes in OCD patients, suggesting an association between these dimensions and OCD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We present the concept of a novel facility dedicated to massively-multiplexed spectroscopy. The telescope has a very wide field Cassegrain focus optimised for fibre feeding. With a Field of View (FoV) of 2.5 degrees diameter and a 11.4m pupil, it will be the largest etendue telescope. The large focal plane can easily host up to 16.000 fibres. In addition, a gravity invariant focus for the central 10 arc-minutes is available to host a giant integral field unit (IFU). The 3 lenses corrector includes an ADC, and has good performance in the 360-1300 nm wavelength range. The top level science requirements were developed by a dedicated ESO working group, and one of the primary cases is high resolution spectroscopy of GAIA stars and, in general, how our Galaxy formed and evolves. The facility will therefore be equipped with both, high and low resolution spectrographs. We stress the importance of developing the telescope and instrument designs simultaneously. The most relevant R&D aspect is also briefly discussed.
High precision spectroscopy is one of the most successful methods to detect extra-solar planets. To enable the detection of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone, extremely precise instruments are required. Our lack of knowledge of the instrument line profile, non-linearity and charge transfer efficiency effects in the detector limits the achievable precision of an instrument. We report our studies on the HARPS (High Accuracy Radial- velocity Planet Searcher) line profiles, measured using the unresolved lines of a Laser Frequency Comb (LFC). We show how the line profile changes as a function of position and signal, and estimate the errors made in the line centroid measurement due to the variation of the line profile.
Thermal stability, hydration and mechanical properties of thermally cross-linked Sulfonated Aromatic Polymers (SAP) with high ionic exchange capacity (IEC) were measured and compared to untreated samples. The formation of cross-linking greatly stabilizes SAP in terms of thermal, mechanical, and hydrolytic degradation: they can resist in water even at a temperature of 145 °C with improved mechanical properties. Acid-base titration and FTIR spectra consistently indicate that SAP microstructure stabilization is related to cross-linking of the polymer chains by SO2 bridges, which is promoted by temperature.
The classification of psychological distress and illness behavior in the setting of medical disease is still controversial. Current psychiatric nosology does not seem to cover the spectrum of disturbances. The aim of this investigation was to assess whether the joint use of DSM-IV categories and the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR), that provide identification of syndromes related to somatization, abnormal illness behavior, irritable mood, type A behavior, demoralization and alexithymia, could yield subtyping of psychosocial variables in the medically ill.
A cross-sectional assessment using both DSM-IV and the DCPR was conducted in eight medical centers in the Italian Health System. Data were submitted to cluster analysis. Participants were consecutive medical out-patients and in-patients for whom a psychiatric consultation was requested. A total of 1700 subjects met eligibility criteria and 1560 agreed to participate.
Three clusters were identified: non-specific psychological distress, irritability and affective disturbances with somatization.
Two-step cluster analysis revealed clusters that were found to occur across clinical settings. The findings indicate the need of expanding clinical assessment in the medically ill to include the various manifestations of somatization, illness behavior and subclinical distress encompassed by the DCPR.
The single stable isotope of beryllium is a pure product of cosmic-ray spallation in the ISM. Assuming that the cosmic-rays are globally transported across the Galaxy, the beryllium production should be a widespread process and its abundance should be roughly homogeneous in the early-Galaxy at a given time. Thus, it could be useful as a tracer of time. In an investigation of the use of Be as a cosmochronometer and of its evolution in the Galaxy, we found evidence that in a log(Be/H) vs. [α/Fe] diagram the halo stars separate into two components. One is consistent with predictions of evolutionary models while the other is chemically indistinguishable from the thick-disk stars. This is interpreted as a difference in the star formation history of the two components and suggests that the local halo is not a single uniform population where a clear age-metallicity relation can be defined. We also found evidence that the star formation rate was lower in the outer regions of the thick disk, pointing towards an inside-out formation.
The simultaneous investigation of Li and Be in stars is a powerful tool in the study of the evolutionary mixing processes. Here, we present beryllium abundances in stars along the whole evolutionary sequence of the open cluster IC 4651. This cluster has a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.11 and an age of 1.2 or 1.7 Gyr. Abundances have been determined from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise UVES spectra using spectrum synthesis and model atmospheres. Lithium abundances for the same stars were determined in a previous work. Confirming previous results, we find that the Li dip is also a Be dip. For post-main-sequence stars, the Be dilution starts earlier within the Hertzsprung gap than expected from classical predictions, as does the Li dilution. Theoretical hydrodynamical models are able to reproduce well all the observed features.
Beryllium stellar abundances were suggested to be a good tracer of time in the early Galaxy. In an investigation of its use as a cosmochronometer, using a large sample of local halo and thick-disk dwarfs, evidence was found that in a log(Be/H) vs. [α/Fe] diagram the halo stars separate into two components. One is consistent with predictions of evolutionary models while the other is chemically indistinguishable from the thick-disk stars. This is interpreted as a difference in the star formation history of the two components and suggests that the local halo is not a single uniform population where a clear age-metallicity relation can be defined.
A seroprevalence study was carried out on 1757 outpatients consecutively seen in a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in order to evaluate the sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV). A total of 1442 consenting patients were tested for hepatitis C, hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HCV. HBV, HIV - 1) antibodies. The relations between anti-HCV, anti-HBc and anti-HIV - 1 were studied. Of 73 anti-HCV positive reactions, 45 (61.6%) were confirmed by the recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). The proportion of individuals with anti-HCV was higher in outpatients with a history of sexually transmitted disease than without. It was 2.8% in non drug user heterosexuals and 2.9% in non drug user homosexuals. Intravenous drug users (IDU) had higher anti-HCV prevalence when a history of STD was taken into account (42.3% in subjects with STD versus 36.7% in subjects without STD). Among non drug user heterosexuals an association was found between anti-HCV and anti-HBc. These data suggest that sexual transmission of HCV occurs, although it seems to be less efficient than other parenteral modes of transmission. When a more sensitive and specific marker of HCV infection become available, a more accurate estimate of the frequency and efficiency of the sexual transmission will be possible.
L. Pasquini, European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany,
M. Döllinger, European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München, Germany,
J. Setiawan, Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany,
A. Hatzes, Tautemburg Observatory, Germany,
L. Girardi, INAF – Trieste, Italy,
L. da Silva, Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,
J. R. de Medeiros, UFRN, Natal, Brazil,
A. Weiss, Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Garching bei München, Germany,
O. Von Der Lühe, Kipenheuer Institut für Sonnenphysik, Freiburg, Germany
We have derived metallicity, masses, and ages for two samples of nearby giant stars, which have been observed with the aim of understanding their nature of the radial-velocity (RV) variability and to search for planetary companions. Our stars have reliable Hipparcos parallaxes, and for several we also have measured angular diameters; the parameters we retrieve from our inversion process are in very good agreement with the observed ones. Among our results, we find that the stars regarded as candidates to host planetary companions are not preferencially metal-rich, which is at odds with what is found for main-sequence stars. We also find that stars younger than ∼1 Gyr can be described by a single metallicity and that an age–metallicity relationship applies to our samples.
Planet searches around evolved giant stars are bringing new insights to planet formation theories by virtue of the broader stellar mass range of the host stars compared to the solar-type stars that have been the subject of most current planet searches programs. These searches among giant stars are producing extremely interesting results. Contrary to main sequence stars planet-hosting giants do not show a tendency of being more metal rich. Even if limited, the statistics also suggest a higher frequency of giant planets (at least 10%) that are more massive compared to solar-type main sequence stars.
The interpretation of these results is not straightforward. We propose that the lack of a metallicity-planet connection among giant stars is due to pollution of the star while on the main sequence, followed by dillution during the giant phase. We also suggest that the higher mass and frequency of the planets are due to the higher stellar mass. Even if these results do not favor a specific formation scenario, they suggest that planetary formation might be more complex than what has been proposed so far, perhaps with two mechanisms at work and one or the other dominating according to the stellar mass. We finally stress as the detailed study of the host stars and of the parent sample is essential to derive firm conclusions.
The combination of the collecting power of an ELT with an ultra-stable high resolution spectrograph opens up the possibility to measure for the first time directly the dynamical effect of the acceleration of the Universe. CODEX will also provide unique opportunities for advance in many other branches of astrophysics. The CODEX design is based on an array of several identical spectrographs. It is highly modular and can be easily adapted to a large range of sky apertures and telescope diameters. CODEX is designed to work as a seeing limited instrument. The requirements for the telescope are moderate and clearly identified.
In da Silva et al. (2005) is presented the detailed spectroscopic analysis of 60 evolved stars, which were previously studied for accurate radial velocity variations (Setiawan et al. 2003). The observations were made with FEROS and the 1.52m ESO telescope of La Silla, partially in the ESO-Observatório Nacional (Brazil) agreement. The main goal of this study is to determine precise atmospheric fundamental data (Teff, log g, [Fe/H] and micro-turbulence velocity) to derive ages and masses of the stars, trying to link them to the detected radial velocity variabilities. Here, due the short space at our disposal, we discuss only the effective temperature determination, comparing the values obtained from the excitation equilibrium of FeI and from (V-K) index with those from (B-V).
We present results of an extensive spectroscopic survey of Subgiant stars in the stellar system ω Centauri. Using infrared CaII triplet lines we derived metallicities and radial velocities for more than 250 stars belonging to different stellar populations of the system. A small age spread (<2 Gyr) among the stellar populations of ω Cen has been estimated regardless of any choice of helium abundance. These results impose severe constraints on the time-scale of the enrichment process of this stellar system, excluding the possibility of an extended star formation period. The radial velocities analysis of the entire sample demonstrates that only the metal-intermediate populations ($-1.4<[Fe/H]<-1.0$) are kinematically cooler than the others.
A detailed abundance analysis of four giants in the metal-rich bulge globular cluster NGC 6553 is carried out, based on optical high resolution échelle spectra obtained with UVES at the ESO VLT-UT2 Kueyen telescope. A mean radial heliocentric velocity of −1.86 km s−1 is found. Stellar parameters are derived from spectroscopic data based on Fe I and Fe II lines. Enhanced abundance ratios for the α-elements Mg and Si with respect to Ca and Ti are obtained. The odd-Z elements are typically solar. A solar value for the r-process element Eu ([Eu/Fe] = +0.05 ±0.06) was also found.
We present nearly 70 new observations for M67 members at the main-sequence (MS), turn-off (TO) and post-turn-off (PTO) in addition to those already published in Melo, Pasquini & De Medeiros (2001). These additional v sin i measurements confirm that most of stars are experiencing a strong braking as they pass the turn-off. In contrast to our previous results, some spread in the v sin i is observed among the TO and PTO stars.
Magnesium carbon nanocomposites for hydrogen storage have been synthesized by ball milling with different amount of benzene, acting as a lubricant. Their microstructure has been studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, while the hydrogen desorption temperature has been tested by differential scanning calorimetry. Experimental results show that the microstructure after milling, the hydrogenation capabilities of the material and the reactivity with the air are related to the amount of additives. In particular the carbon to benzene ratio seems to play a major role. In fact, with an optimum value of carbon to benzene weight ratio of 1/6, the amount of carbon being 15 wt% of the milled mixture, a decomposition heat equal to 57% of pure MgH2 was measured, even after air manipulation of the sample.
Five giants and 11 subgiants of the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397 are analysed. In this Poster we present the lithium abundances derived. The present Li abundances and those of turnoff stars by Pasquini & Molaro (1996) are complementary in terms of stellar evolution stage, and show the Li abundances decreasing off the main sequence along the red giant branch.
The mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline iron and nickel prepared by mechanical attrition and inert gas condensation was investigated using mechanical spectroscopy techniques in the quasi static-and low frequency dynamic stress-strain regimes. The measures were performed on samples previously stabilized by thermal annealing at low homologous temperatures. The results of elastic energy dissipation, creep, and creep recovery measurements performed in the low strain regime (ε = 10−5−10−3) allowed to trace a phenomenological picture of the anelastic and viscoplastic behavior of nanocrystalline Ni and Fe in the 300-450 K range with different grain sizes and interfaces disorder degree. Activation energies of the thermally activated anelastic and plastic mechanisms responsible for the mechanical behavior have been evaluated.