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Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
The farrowing process is one of the most energy-demanding activities for the modern hyperprolific sow. This study evaluated the effects of supply of energy on the expected date of farrowing on the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance during the first 24 h after birth. A total of 80 sows were used. The sows and their respective litters were considered as the experimental unit. On the expected day of farrowing, the sows were allocated to one of the following groups: sows that did not have access to feed from farrowing induction until the end of the farrowing process (CON, n = 40); sows fed 500 g of energetic supplement, which consisted of 250 g of the basal lactation diet plus 250 g of cane sugar, 18 h after farrowing induction (SUP, n = 40). The farrowing duration, farrowing assistance, birth interval, number of total born, stillborn and mummified piglets were recorded for each sow. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and 24 h later. The interval from birth to first suckle was evaluated individually for each piglet in 16 randomly selected litters (eight litters per treatment group). Blood glucose concentrations of six sows were measured shortly after expulsion of the first piglet. Farrowing duration, farrowing assistance and stillborn rate tended to be greater (P = 0.06, P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively) in sows from the CON group compared to sows from the SUP group. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) between the groups for birth interval. Colostrum intake was greater (P < 0.05) for piglets from the SUP group compared to piglets from the CON group. Additionally, BW gain of the piglets suckling the SUP group was greater (P < 0.05) than those suckling the CON group at 24 h after birth. The blood glucose concentrations during the expulsive stage of farrowing were greater (P < 0.05) in the SUP group than for sows from the CON group. In conclusion, supplying modern hyperprolific sows energy on the expected day of farrowing is a valuable nutritional intervention to improve the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance in early life.
The description of the growth of the Japanese quails is necessary to characterize the genetic potential of these birds raised in different countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the genetic potential of Japanese quails by conducting a meta-analysis considering studies conducted in different countries. Only data about the subspecies Coturnix coturnix japonica were considered; studies regarding Coturnix coturnix coturnix were not examined. The criteria investigated were BW (W), age (t), year of publication and location of the study. Each set of genetic material within a publication was coded as one study. The Gompertz function was used to interpret the growth of laying quails; thus, each study was represented by Gompertz parameters. The W and t data were applied to estimate the values of Gompertz growth parameters, including BW at maturity (Wm), BW at birth (Wi), maturity rate (B) and inflection point (IP). The age at which the maximum growth rate was achieved (t*) was calculated considering the parameters Wm, Wi and B. To estimate these parameters, random regression was used to randomize the parameter Wm. The parameters estimated for each assay were used in exploratory, grouping, and principal component analyses. The values of Wi ranged from 4.1 to 11.6 g. The values of B ranged from 0.0393 to 0.1039/day, and consequently, the values of t* and IP ranged from 14 to 31 days and 9.21 to 31.03 g, respectively. These results show that there is considerable variability in the growth potential of Japanese quails. To better understand this variation, two groups were examined: Brazil and other countries, according to the grouping of Wi, Wm, B and t*; parameter B was the variable that presented the highest specificity, indicating that both groups modified the maturity rate. For the principal component analysis, the year of publication showed a relationship with the growth parameters but only for studies performed in Brazil. For studies carried out in other countries, the changes in growth parameters were not related to the year of publication. In Brazilian studies, there was a decrease in the maturity rate, but the weight at maturity was higher. Therefore, it appears that different strategies of genetic selection were adopted in Brazil compared to other countries.
This study aims to understand the main issues in design education and discuss solutions. We conducted two workshops on the state of implementation of design in the Singaporean education system at the Design Education Summit, a conference for educators. We found that the main issues were the inclusion of design education within curriculum and change of stakeholder mindsets. Several solutions were discussed, such as ways to introduce design as part of the organization culture. We summarize results into action items and recommendations.
Each individual in the population has a distinct maximum growth potential, and the growth curve may vary depending on the response to nutrient intake, growth phase and variability among animals. The present study aimed to (1) model weight gain (WG) response to methionine+cystine (Met+Cys) supply using different mathematical functions, (2) identify functions that better fit the growth responses of pullets, (3) determine the Met+Cys requirements that maximize WG based on breeding standards and (4) partition the Met+Cys requirements for WG and maintenance. Three trials were performed using 1448 laying-type pullets. We adopted a completely randomized design with eight treatments and six replicates. The first trial (2 to 6 weeks, P1) used 15 pullets per experimental unit. The second and third trials (8 to 12 weeks, P2; 14 to 18 weeks, P3) were used eight pullets per replicate. The Met+Cys levels were obtained using a dilution technique. The mathematical functions used to describe WG responses to Met+Cys intake were broken line, broken line with curvilinear ascendancy, Michaelis–Menten, saturation kinetics and three logistic and three exponential models. Models were selected using the Bayesian information criterion and evaluated by residual analysis. It was possible to model the responses using the studied functions. The best functions were obtained by logistic and sigmoidal models in P1 and P2, and with the broken line by the curvilinear ascendancy model in P3. The Met+Cys intake that determined the maximum potential for WG (WGmax) in P1, P2 and P3 were 313, 381 and 318 mg/day, respectively. The Met+Cys requirements for WG were 20, 22 and 27 mg/g, and for maintenance were 214, 53 and 30 mg/kgBW0.75 for P1, P2 and P3, respectively.
This study presents two years of characterization of a warm temperate rhodolith bed in order to analyse how certain environmental changes influence the community ecology. The biomass of rhodoliths and associated species were analysed during this period and in situ experiments were conducted to evaluate the primary production, calcification and respiration of the dominant species of rhodoliths and epiphytes. The highest total biomass of rhodoliths occurred during austral winter. Lithothamnion crispatum was the most abundant rhodolith species in austral summer. Epiphytic macroalgae occurred only in January 2015, with Padina gymnospora being the most abundant. Considering associated fauna, the biomass of Mollusca increased from February 2015 to February 2016. Population densities of key reef fish species inside and around the rhodolith beds showed significant variations in time. The densities of grouper (carnivores/piscivores) increased in time, especially from 2015 to 2016. On the other hand, grunts (macroinvertebrate feeders) had a modest decrease over time (from 2014 to 2016). Other parameters such as primary production and calcification of L. crispatum were higher under enhanced irradiance, yet decreased in the presence of P. gymnospora. Community structure and physiological responses can be explained by the interaction of abiotic and biotic factors, which are driven by environmental changes over time. Biomass changes can indicate that herbivores play a role in limiting the growth of epiphytes, and this is beneficial to the rhodoliths because it decreases competition for environmental resources with fleshy algae.
The co-infection between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in several countries in the world. The current serological tests are not suitable since they present low sensitivity to detect the most of VL/HIV cases, and a more precise diagnosis should be performed. In this context, in the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed using Leishmania infantum antigenic extracts and VL, HIV and VL/HIV patients sera, besides healthy subjects samples; aiming to identify antigenic markers for these clinical conditions. Results showed that 43 spots were recognized by antibodies in VL and VL/HIV sera, and 26 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Between them, β-tubulin was expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments as a proof of concept for validation of our immunoproteomics findings and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect VL and VL/HIV patients. In conclusion, the identified proteins in the present work could be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to improvement of the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV co-infection.
Les jeunes en difficulté constituent un problème important de société et de santé publique. Une étude a été conduite par les Centres d’Examens de Santé de l’Assurance Maladie et les Missions Locales pour mieux connaître la santé mentale des jeunes . Cette étude établit l’existence de fortes corrélations entre la précarité, des traumatismes vécus dans l’enfance et des troubles psychiques. Elle souligne l’importance de considérer la souffrance des jeunes dans une approche globale de leurs difficultés. Plus le jeune est en souffrance, moins il semble enclin à demander de l’aide. Les manifestations de sa souffrance et de ses troubles se déposent dans les lieux dits du social, ou bien souvent, restent enkystées dans sa famille. Dans la filiation des EMPP , une Équipe Mobile pour les Jeunes en Souffrance Psychique (EMJSP) a été crée et mise en place dans l’établissement psychiatrique du Centre Hospitalier des Pyrénées de Pau (64), en juin 2013. Cette équipe pluridisciplinaire – composée d’une psychiatre, d’une psychologue, d’une assistante sociale et d’une infirmière – intervient auprès des jeunes (18–25 ans) qui sont en situation de précarité et/ou qui présentent des troubles psychiques. L’EMJSP rencontre le jeune dans son environnement (institution, rue, famille), dans une posture de proximité, là où il a été identifié par un partenaire ou par sa famille. Les objectifs sont alors de prévenir l’émergence des troubles psychiques, de faciliter l’accès aux soins et de préserver le risque de rechute. Les jeunes accompagnés vers le soin présentent des troubles mentaux, des troubles de la personnalité et du comportement. Il s’agit donc d’expliciter les premiers pas d’une équipe mobile spécialisée pour les jeunes et conçue pour répondre à la complexité de leur situation intriquant des problématiques sociales, éducatives, familiales et psychiatriques ; tout comme l’a développé le Dr Tordjman  pour les adolescents.
Chronically stressed adult male Balb C mice were submitted to the tail suspension test. Chronic immobilization stress (6 h/d for 14 consecutive days) induced a significant reduction in immobility time when compared to non-stressed controls. Pretreatment with LY 53857, a serotonin 5HT2 antagonist, and IPS 339, a selective beta-2 adrenoceptor blocker, reversed immobility time to the levels of non-stressed controls. Chronic administration of corticosterone (100 mg/kg for 7 d) did not modify immobility time as compared to saline treated controls. It is suggested that both serotonergic and adrenergic pathways in the brain may participate in the stress-induced changes occurring in the tail suspension test response and that corticosterone does not appear to play a role in this process.
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is constituted by a set of specific metabolic alterations being postulated that the main dysfunction is insulin resistance. Estimates point to higher prevalence of MS in bipolar patients, between 30 to 35%. Cost-effective screening methods, not recurring to blood test, have been researched.
Analyse knowledge and importance given to MS in bipolar patients. Test the viability of MS screening without blood tests.
Observational, cross-sectional study. Random sample of 15 adult bipolar patients, in euthymic phase. Semi-structured interview, YMRS, HAMD were applied. MS diagnosis investigated according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. MS screening was defined positive if blood pressure ≥ 130/85 or anti-hypertensive medication and abdominal perimeter > 90 in males or > 80 in females. A questionnaire about knowledge, attitudes and concerns on MS was applied.
14 patients completed the investigation protocol. Five (36%) met IDF criteria for metabolic syndrome. Screening sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Twelve patients (80%) were overweigh or obese. Mean IMC in patients that met IDF criteria for MS was 30 while in the other group mean IMC was 26. Only 3 (20%) have ever heard about MS, but the majority of the patients were concerned, in decreasing order, about weight gain, blood pressure cholesterol and hyperglycemia control.
Although limited by small sample size, this study strengthens the idea that MS screening can be effective in clinical practice, it also indicates the need to educate BP patients about MS and to prevent overweight.
Psychogenic polydipsia associated with hyponatremia is a potentially dangerous and fatal condition observed on patients with psychiatric illness, specially schizophrenia. This results on a peripheral oedema and can lead to cerebral oedema, mental status deterioration and intracranial hypertension if not identified and treated urgently. We present a case of polydipsia as first signal of psychosis.
20-year-old man without significant past medical or psychiatric history attended to emergency service presenting exuberant lower limbs oedemas. The analytical study stated an hyponatremia and hipo-osmotic urine. A psychiatric evaluation was made after organic illness exclusion. The patient presented serious behaviour changes, delusions and eating disturbances (“eat raw meat to recover the red cells that they had stolen from him”), polydipsia and auditory hallucinations with 2 weeks of evolution. The patient was compulsory hospitalized, treated with risperidone and lorazepam and discharged 28 days after admission without psychotic symptoms.
The recognition and management of the polydipsia as a first signal of psychosis are difficult because sometimes patients are uncooperative and tend to hide their water intake, but is important to be awhare to this signal to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.
Psychogenic excoriations are also called neurotic excoriations, dermatillomania or skin picking syndrome. Psychogenic excoriations are lesions caused by scratching, picking, lancing, rubbing or squeezing, usually, in areas that patient can easily reach (face, upper back and upper and lower extremities). They are initiated because an urge to excoriate an irregularity of the skin or by a disturbing sensation in the skin. The classic lesions are characterized by clean, linear erosions, scabs and scars that can be hypopigmented or hyperpigmented and are usually similar in size and shape. Association with psychiatric comorbidities are common, particularly mood and anxiety disorders. It is estimated to occur in 2% of dermatology clinic patients and is associated with functional impairment, medical complications (e.g. infection) or substantial distress. Psychotropic medications (e.g. SSRIs) and appropriate counseling can be effective treatments.
The purpose of the poster is to highlight the existence and characteristics of psychogenic excoriations. A
condition that can be chronic, causes significant impairment and is believed to be common but unreported.
Here we report the case of a 27 year-old woman, with a 10 years history of self-inflicted excoriations, associated to high anxiety levels, treated with an SSRI with good response.
Although it does not appear as a diagnostic category in DSM- IV, psycogenic excoriations is indeed a treatable condition that, isolated or associated with psychiatric comorbidity can cause marked distress, impairment and psychological suffering.
Existential anxiety (EA) has been described as the anxiety about the meaning of life, death and the necessity to make choices (Tillich, 1953).Although recent research found EA to be associated with trauma and general psychological symptoms in community samples (Weems et al. 2004), to date, no study has investigated its relationship with trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in psychiatric outpatients.
To examine the association between EA and self-reported trauma history and PTSD symptoms in psychiatric outpatients.
Seventy-two stable psychiatric outpatients (mean(SD) age=46.1(14), 55% females) were assessed with the Existential Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ; score ranging 0-39), the Trauma History Questionnaire which reports on criminal experiences, natural disasters, death exposure and questioning about physical and sexual experiences, and the PTSD Checklist (PCL; score ranging 17-85).
Mean(SD) EAQ and PCL scores were 20.0(7.8) and 40.0(15), respectively. A majority of participants (93%) reported at least one lifetime trauma exposure. Results revealed a positive correlation between existential anxiety and lifetime trauma exposure (r=.28, p< .05).Furthermore, in patients with lifetime trauma exposure, increased EA was associated with increased PCL total score (r=.57, p< .001) as well as with all PTSD symptom clusters: re-experiencing (r=0.45, p < 0.001), hyperarousal (r=.51, p< .001) and avoidance (r=.53, p < .01).
Our findings suggest that EA might be an interesting construct to examine further in the assessment and treatment of PTSD and paves the way for empirical investigations of existential therapies.
Paraphrenia is a disorder similar to paranoid schizophrenia characterized by phantastic, paralogical and extraordinary imaginative delusions, with better-preserved affect and rapport and much less personality and cognitive deterioration. Most affected patients are women, with onset of symptoms in late adulthood. It was firstly systematically described by Kraepelin in 1913 in order to define a group of psychotic patients who exhibited characteristic symptoms of dementia praecox, but with minimal disturbances of emotion and volition, and marked delusions. Later, it was considered to be unfounded and the term paraphrenia was not included in the current DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. However, several authors suggest that the concept of paraphrenia has not lost its usefulness and it seems to be that some psychiatrists recognize the illness, but labelled it as atypical psychosis or delusional disorder for the lack of a better diagnostic category.
The aim of this poster is to underline the modernity of Kraepelin's paraphrenia concept, suggesting that it could be possible to define and recognize the illness if practitioners would be induced to use a viable diagnostic entity.
Herein we report a case of a 51-year-old woman who presented three years ago with a psychotic disorder whose clinical features resemble de classical description of paraphrenia.
Very few systematic studies on paraphrenia have been carried out in the past 70 years. Further research in this field is needed in order to recognize the viability of this diagnosis and provide patients a better care and therapeutic management.
Capgras syndrome is a misidentification syndrome typically characterized by the delusional belief that a close relative has been replaced by an impostor. This monothematic delusion can be found in numerous disorders such as paranoid schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, affective disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, head trauma, epilepsy, cerebrovascular disease and dementia, pituitary tumor, multiple myeloma, multiple sclerosis, viral encephalitis, frontal lobe pathology and AIDS. We present a case of a patient that presents Capgras Syndrome at the first psychiatric evaluation in the context of three-decades untreated paranoid schizophrenia.
A 56-year-old woman was brought to the psychiatric department for evaluation for aggressive behavior directed to relatives. She has a history of auditory hallucinations, experiences of self-reference and paranoid delusions with more than 30 years of evolution. More recently, she started becoming aggressive with relatives, saying her real family members had been taken by strangers to an unknown hospital. She also said that her ID photo had been replaced by another person's photo. After detailed psychiatric evaluation, blood analysis and imaging study, the diagnosis of Paranoid Schizophrenia was established. She was treated with olanzapine 20mg/day with behavioral improvement.
Although Capgras Syndrome is not a psychiatric diagnosis but a feature of several different conditions, psychiatrists should be aware of this syndrome as it can signalize underlying psychiatric disorders and is usually associated with violent behaviors that should be managed.
Nutrient requirements in cattle are dependent on physiological stage, breed and environmental conditions. In Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers, the lack of data remains a limiting factor for estimating energy and protein requirements. Thus, we aimed to estimate the energy and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers raised under tropical conditions. Twenty-two crossbred (½ Holstein × ½ Gyr) heifers with an average initial BW of 102.2 ± 3.4 kg and 3 to 4 months of age were used. To estimate requirements, the comparative slaughter technique was used: four animals were assigned to the reference group, slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to estimate the initial empty BW (EBW) and composition of the animals that remained in the experiment. The remaining animals were randomized into three treatments based on targeted rates of BW gain: high (1.0 kg/day), low (0.5 kg/day) and close to maintenance (0.1 kg/day). At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered to determine EBW, empty body gain (EBG) and body energy and protein contents. The linear regression parameters were estimated using PROC MIXED of SAS (version 9.4). Estimates of the parameters of non-linear regressions were adjusted through PROC NLIN of SAS using the Gauss–Newton method for parameter fit. The net requirements of energy for maintenance (NEm) and metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) were 0.303 and 0.469 MJ/EBW0.75 per day, respectively. The efficiency of use of MEm was 64.5%. The estimated equation to predict the net energy requirement for gain (NEg) was: NEg (MJ/day) = 0.299 × EBW0.75 × EBG0.601. The efficiency of use of ME for gain (kg) was 30.7%. The requirement of metabolizable protein for maintenance was 3.52 g/EBW0.75 per day. The equation to predict net protein requirement for gain (NPg) was: NPg (g/day) = 243.65 × EBW−0.091 × EBG. The efficiency of use of metabolizable protein for gain (k) was 50.8%. We observed noteworthy differences when comparing to ME and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers with other systems. In addition, we also observed differences in estimates for NEm, NEg, NPg, kg and k. Therefore, we propose that the equations generated in the present study should be used to estimate energy and protein requirements for Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers raised in tropical conditions in the post-weaning phase up to 185 kg of BW.
Most mental disorders begin during adolescence and early adulthood (18–24-years-old), highlighting the importance of understanding the onset and progression of mental disorders among youths. Although progress has been made, namely by creating youth mental health transition services, gaps continue to exist. Locally, our recently constituted young adults unit aimed to minimize discontinuities in care.
To characterize a population of young adult psychiatric outpatients, regarding socio-demographic and clinic variables.
Socio-demographic and clinic characterization of young adult psychiatric outpatients observed during 1st January 2015–30th July 2016.
Two hundred and fifty-five outpatients were observed: 64.3% females and 35.7% males, average age 20.56-years-old (median 20). Most lived in urban areas (59.4%), with their parents (27.8%), were students (80.4%), attending secondary school (36.1%). A total of, 27.5% were referenced by an emergency department, and adjustment disorders (ICD-10 F43.2) were the most frequent diagnosis (21.6%). Regarding suicidal behaviours and self-harm, 9.8% did self-cutting. A vast majority did not have previous psychiatric hospitalizations–only 5.9% outpatients had at least one. In total, 39.8% were medicated with antidepressants (1/3 of which in association with other drugs), and about 38.8% received cognitive-behavioural interventions. About 2/3 of patients (66.3%) remained in care and only about 1/6 (15.7%) were discharged.
Our typical youth psychiatric outpatient was of female gender, student, living with its parents. Adjustment disorders were the most frequent diagnosis, and antidepressants were the main psychopharmacologic option, often combined with other psychotropic drugs. In the future, psychotherapy interventions should be more widely available, namely group psychotherapy.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Koro syndrome is a culturally related disorder characterized by intense anxiety that the penis (vulva or nipples in females) is shrinking or retracting and will recede into the body. Usually it occurs in epidemics in Southeastern Asia, being extremely rare in western countries. The condition is more common in males and is classified within Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders.
A 27-year-old single man was referred to the psychiatric department. By the age of 23, he began worrying that his penis was shrinking and retracting into the abdomen. He described these thoughts as intrusive, ridiculous and repetitive. During the first months the thoughts were not very disturbing but he progressively developed an urge to verify the length of his penis several times a day. To diminish the anxiety provoked by the obsessive doubts on penis length, he started to have repetitive thoughts and mental images about sexual acts, to consume pornography compulsively and to increase his masturbatory behaviors (from some times a week to several times a day). He described those thoughts and behaviors as unpleasant and uniquely driven to reduce anxiety provoked by obsessions.
He was prescribed fluvoxamine 200 mg/day and initiated cognitive behavioral therapy with good response. Y-BOCS score decreased from 30 at initial evaluation to 18 after 3 months of treatment.
Koro syndrome is a very rare condition in psychiatry in western countries, usually presenting secondarily to other psychiatric disorders. Awareness of this diagnosis and knowledge on its management are critical to provide optimal care to patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Psychopathology rating scales have been widely used. Studies evaluating the congruence between self and observer-reported ratings show inconsistent results.
Objectives or aims
Determine whether there was consistency between psychopathology as assessed by patients and clinicians’ assessment in outpatients observed in the Young Adult Unit of our Psychiatry Department (Coimbra Hospital and University Centre-Portugal).
Socio-demographic characterization was undertaken with young adult outpatients observed during nineteen months (1st January 2015–31st July 2016). Brief Symptom Inventory–53 items (BSI-53) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were applied at the first clinical evaluation. Spearman correlation coefficient between General Severity Index (GSI) of BSI-53 and BPRS total score was calculated.
During the mentioned interval 255 outpatients were observed: 64.3% females and 35.7% males; aged between 17 and 39 years old (average: 20.56; median: 20). Fifty percent were diagnosed with neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (ICD-10 F40-48) and 14.1% with mood disorders (ICD-10 F30-39). BPRS and BSI-53 rating scales were administered to 55 patients: 72.5% females and 27.5% males; average age 21.2. A statistical significant correlation was found between BPRS total and GSI score.
Several factors can determine the accuracy of psychopathology self-assessment, including diagnosis and severity of illness. In fact, studies show strong correlation between self and observer assessment of depressive and anxious psychopathology, but no correlation in psychotic psychopathological dimensions. Therefore, the correlation found in this population can be explained by the fact that the majority of patients were diagnosed with neurotic, stress-related and somatoform and mood disorders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
It is known that several factors can influence the quality of life such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, the presence of mental illness or substance abuse.
Assess quality of life of outpatients observed in Young Adult Unit of our Psychiatry Department (Coimbra Hospital and University Centre – Portugal) and its relation with substance use.
Socio-demographic characterization of youth psychiatric outpatients observed during between 1st January 2015 and 31st July 2016. Portuguese versions of The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and The World Health Organization Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered. A Spearman correlation coefficient between ASSIST and WHOQOL-BREF scores was calculated.
A total of 255 outpatients were observed: 64.3% females and 35.7% males; ages between 17 and 39 years old. ASSIST and WHOQOL-BREF were administered in 57 patients. Average ASSIST total score was 16.81 (median: 13.50), with tobacco and alcohol scoring higher. Average WHOQOL-BREF total was 13.74 (median: 13.67), with physical and psychological domains scoring less. We found a significant negative correlation between WHOQOL-BREF physical domain and ASSIST tobacco scores; and between WHOQOL-BREF social domain and ASSIST sedatives score.
Quality of life is influenced by several factors. Studies showed that consumers of psychoactive substances have lower WHOQOL-BREF scores than nonusers. In our sample, we did not find a significant correlation between global quality of life and different substances. This may be due to existence of low consumption of substances in the sample as well as the existence of other factors that might have influenced quality of life.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.