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This study determined farm management factors associated with long-duration bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns disclosed in the period 23 May 2016 to 21 May 2018; a study area not previously subject to investigation in Northern Ireland. A farm-level epidemiological investigation (n = 2935) was completed when one or more Single Intradermal Comparative Cervical Test (SICCT) reactors or when one or more confirmed (positive histological and/or bacteriological result) lesion at routine slaughter were disclosed. A case-control study design was used to construct an explanatory set of management factors associated with long-duration bTB herd breakdowns; with a case (n = 191) defined as an investigation into a breakdown of 365 days or longer. Purchase of infected animal(s) had the strongest association as the most likely source of infection for long-duration bTB herd breakdowns followed by badgers and then cattle-to-cattle contiguous herd spread. However, 73.5% (95% CI 61.1–85.9%) of the herd type contributing to the purchase of infection source were defined as beef fattening herds. This result demonstrates two subpopulations of prolonged bTB breakdowns, the first being beef fattening herds with main source continuous purchase of infected animals and a second group of primary production herds (dairy, beef cows and mixed) with risk from multiple sources.
We report on our project to study the activity in both the Sun and low mass stars. Utilising high cadence, Hα observations of a filament eruption made using the CRISP spectropolarimeter mounted on the Swedish Solar Telescope has allowed us to determine 3D velocity maps of the event. To gain insight into the physical mechanism which drives the event we have qualitatively compared our observation to a 3D MHD reconnection model. Solar-type and low mass stars can be highly active producing flares with energies exceeding erg. Using K2 and TESS data we find no correlation between the number of flares and the rotation phase which is surprising. Our solar flare model can be used to aid our understanding of the origin of flares in other stars. By scaling up our solar model to replicate observed stellar flare energies, we investigate the conditions needed for such high energy flares.
Perinatal mortality is higher in twins. Effects of twin order have not previously been studied in the context of single fetal demise. Our objective was to determine whether death of the fetus more proximal to the cervix will result in worse perinatal outcomes. Our population included multiple pregnancies with two viable fetuses confirmed prior to 20 weeks’ gestation with the subsequent death of at least one twin. All the pregnancies were managed at The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne between 2006 and 2014. We excluded pregnancies of higher order multiples, the death of both twins simultaneously, and cases with incomplete outcome data. Maternal and neonatal data were reviewed. Of 46 pregnancies included, in 24 (52%), the dead twin was presenting. Gestational age at delivery was significantly earlier in these cases (mean difference: -5.0 weeks, 95% CI [-7.4, -2.6], p < .001), and emergency cesarean rates were higher 67% versus 32% (OR 4.29, 95% CI [1.25, 14.7], p = .02). There were no differences in the frequency of chorioamnionitis, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes, or placental abruption. Survival rates for co-twins were similar in both groups (presenting 83%; not presenting 91%; OR 0.41, 95% CI [0.07, 2.50], p = .29). The increase in neonatal morbidities was related to prematurity rather than to order. Findings were more common in dichorionic twins. Analysis was limited by a small sample size. If the dead twin is presenting, delivery is likely to occur earlier, with associated morbidity for the survivors. This is especially relevant for dichorionic twin pregnancies.
Objectives: Caregivers of youth with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure report impaired communication, which can significantly impact quality of life. Using data collected as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD), we examined whether cognitive variables predict communication ability of youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods: Subjects (ages 10–16 years) comprised two groups: adolescents with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and non-exposed controls (CON). Selected measures of executive function (NEPSY, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System), working memory (CANTAB), and language were tested in the child, while parents completed communication ratings (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales – Second Edition). Separate multiple regression analyses determined which cognitive domains predicted communication ability. A final, global model of communication comprised the three cognitive models. Results: Spatial Working Memory and Inhibition significantly contributed to communication ability across groups. Twenty Questions performance related to communication ability in the CON group only while Word Generation performance related to communication ability in the AE group only. Effects remained significant in the global model, with the exception of Spatial Working Memory. Conclusions: Both groups displayed a relation between communication and Spatial Working Memory and Inhibition. Stronger communication ability related to stronger verbal fluency in the AE group and Twenty Questions performance in the CON group. These findings suggest that alcohol-exposed adolescents may rely more heavily on learned verbal storage or fluency for daily communication while non-exposed adolescents may rely more heavily on abstract thinking and verbal efficiency. Interventions aimed at aspects of executive function may be most effective at improving communication ability of these individuals. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1026–1037)
Prenatal adversity shapes child neurodevelopment and risk for later mental health problems. The quality of the early care environment can buffer some of the negative effects of prenatal adversity on child development. Retrospective studies, in adult samples, highlight epigenetic modifications as sentinel markers of the quality of the early care environment; however, comparable data from pediatric cohorts are lacking. Participants were drawn from the Maternal Adversity Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) study, a longitudinal cohort with measures of infant attachment, infant development, and child mental health. Children provided buccal epithelial samples (mean age = 6.99, SD = 1.33 years, n = 226), which were used for analyses of genome-wide DNA methylation and genetic variation. We used a series of linear models to describe the association between infant attachment and (a) measures of child outcome and (b) DNA methylation across the genome. Paired genetic data was used to determine the genetic contribution to DNA methylation at attachment-associated sites. Infant attachment style was associated with infant cognitive development (Mental Development Index) and behavior (Behavior Rating Scale) assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 36 months. Infant attachment style moderated the effects of prenatal adversity on Behavior Rating Scale scores at 36 months. Infant attachment was also significantly associated with a principal component that accounted for 11.9% of the variation in genome-wide DNA methylation. These effects were most apparent when comparing children with a secure versus a disorganized attachment style and most pronounced in females. The availability of paired genetic data revealed that DNA methylation at approximately half of all infant attachment-associated sites was best explained by considering both infant attachment and child genetic variation. This study provides further evidence that infant attachment can buffer some of the negative effects of early adversity on measures of infant behavior. We also highlight the interplay between infant attachment and child genotype in shaping variation in DNA methylation. Such findings provide preliminary evidence for a molecular signature of infant attachment and may help inform attachment-focused early intervention programs.
Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) has been associated with postnatal behavioral alterations that may be partly explained by interactions between the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axes. Yet it remains unclear whether PNMS leads to enduring HPA–HPG alterations in the offspring, and whether HPA–HPG interactions can impact behavior during development, in particular levels of aggression in childhood. Here we investigated the relationship between a marker for HPG axis function (baseline testosterone) and a marker for HPA axis response (cortisol area under the curve) in 11½-year-olds whose mothers were exposed to the 1998 Quebec ice storm during pregnancy (n = 59 children; 31 boys, 28 girls). We examined (a) whether the degree of objective or subjective PNMS regulates the testosterone–cortisol relationship at age 11½, and (b) whether this testosterone–cortisol relationship is associated with differences in aggressive behavior. We found that, at lower levels of subjective PNMS, baseline testosterone and cortisol reactivity were positively correlated; in contrast, there was no relationship between these hormones at higher levels of subjective PNMS. Cortisol response moderated the relationship between testosterone and aggression. These results support the notion PNMS may explain variance in fetal HPA–HPG interactions, and that these interactions may be associated with aggressive behavior in late childhood.
Currently policies enabling cattle herds to regain Official Tuberculosis Free (OTF) status after a bovine tuberculosis (bTB) herd incident vary between individual parts of the British Isles from requiring only one negative single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT) herd test when bTB infection is not confirmed to needing two consecutively negative SCITT herd tests after disclosure of two or more reactors, irrespective of bTB confirmation. This study used Kaplan–Meier curves and univariable and multivariable Cox Proportional Hazard models to evaluate the effect of the number of SCITT reactors and bTB confirmation on the risk of future bTB herd incident utilising data extracted from the national animal health database in Northern Ireland. Based on multivariable analyses the risk of a future bTB herd incident was positively associated with the number of SCITT reactors identified during the incident period (hazard ratio = 1.861 in incidents >5 SCITT reactors compared to incidents with only one SCITT reactor; P < 0.001), but not with bTB confirmation. These findings suggest that the probability of residual bTB infection in a herd increases with an increasing number of SCITT reactors disclosed during a bTB herd incident. It was concluded that bTB herd incidents with multiple SCITT reactors should be subjected to stricter control measures irrespective of bTB infection confirmation status.
Determination of the proportion of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns attributed to a herd purchasing infected animals has not been previously quantified using data from the Animal and Public Health Information System (APHIS) database in Northern Ireland. We used a case–control study design to account for the infection process occurring in the disclosing bTB breakdown herds. Cases (N = 6926) were cattle moving to a future confirmed bTB breakdown where they would disclose as a confirmed bTB reactor or a Lesion at Routine Slaughter (LRS). Controls (N = 303 499) were cattle moving to a future confirmed bTB breakdown where they did not become a bTB reactor or LRS. Our study showed that the cattle leaving herds which disclosed bTB within 450 days had an increased odds of becoming a confirmed bTB reactor or LRS compared with the cattle which left herds that remained free for 450 days (odds ratio (OR) = 2·09: 95% CI 1·96–2·22). Of the 12 060 confirmed bTB breakdowns included in our study (2007–2015 inclusive), 31% (95% CI 29·8–31·5) contained a confirmed bTB reactor(s) or LRS(s) at the disclosing test which entered the herd within the previous 450 days. After controlling for the infection process occurring in the disclosing bTB breakdown herd, our study showed that 6·4% (95% CI 5·9–6·8) of bTB breakdowns in Northern Ireland were directly attributable to the movement of infected animals.
Preterm birth confers risk for poor outcome, including mental health problems. Survival of extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) or extremely low birthweight (ELBW; <1000 g) infants increased in the 1990s but psychiatric outcomes in older adolescents born preterm since 1990 are not well documented. This study aimed to characterize mental health and personality traits in a prospective geographical cohort of adolescents born EP/ELBW in Victoria, Australia in 1991 and 1992.
At age 18 years, 215 EP/ELBW and 157 normal birthweight (>2499 g) control adolescents completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, Axis 1 Non-Patient version (SCID-I/NP), the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) module, and questionnaires assessing recent depression and anxiety symptoms and personality traits.
ADHD prevalence was significantly elevated in EP/ELBW adolescents compared with controls [15% v. 7%; odds ratio (OR) 2.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–6.58]. Aside from ADHD, however, EP/ELBW and control adolescents reported very similar outcomes, with other lifetime diagnoses identified in 23% of EP/ELBW and 21% of controls. These were predominantly mood and anxiety disorders (21% EP/ELBW, 20% controls). The groups did not differ in recent depression or anxiety symptoms assessed using questionnaires, and personality traits were also similar.
ADHD was more prevalent in EP/ELBW adolescents than controls, which is consistent with some, but not all, reports on preterm survivors born before the 1990s, and younger preterm children born in the 1990s. The high rates of anxiety and mood disorders were similar in both groups, and comparable with population-based estimates.
The association between depression after myocardial infarction and increased risk of mortality and cardiac morbidity may be due to cardiac disease severity.
To combine original data from studies on the association between post-infarction depression and prognosis into one database, and to investigate to what extent such depression predicts prognosis independently of disease severity.
An individual patient data meta-analysis of studies was conducted using multilevel, multivariable Cox regression analyses.
Sixteen studies participated, creating a database of 10 175 post-infarction cases. Hazard ratios for post-infarction depression were 1.32 (95% CI 1.26–1.38, P<0.001) for all-cause mortality and 1.19 (95% CI 1.14–1.24, P<0.001) for cardiovascular events. Hazard ratios adjusted for disease severity were attenuated by 28% and 25% respectively.
The association between depression following myocardial infarction and prognosis is attenuated after adjustment for cardiac disease severity. Still, depression remains independently associated with prognosis, with a 22% increased risk of all-cause mortality and a 13% increased risk of cardiovascular events per standard deviation in depression z-score.
A heuristic greedy algorithm is developed for efficiently tiling spatially dense redshift surveys. In its first application to the Galaxy and MassAssembly (GAMA) redshift survey we find it rapidly improves the spatial uniformity of our data, and naturally corrects for any spatial bias introduced by the 2dF multi-object spectrograph. We make conservative predictions for the final state of the GAMA redshift survey after our final allocation of time, and can be confident that even if worse than typical weather affects our observations, all of our main survey requirements will be met.
Preterm (PT) birth and low birth weight (LBW) are high-prevalence events that are associated with adverse outcomes in the longer term, with vulnerability increasing as maturity at birth decreases. Psychiatric symptomatology appears heightened in PT/LBW survivors, though there are some discordant findings from studies using questionnaire measures, particularly with respect to anxiety and depressive symptoms.
This article synthesises findings from research using clinical psychiatric diagnostic criteria in PT/LBW individuals aged 10–25 years compared with term-born peers. Key outcomes of interest were the rates of individuals receiving any psychiatric diagnosis and the number of diagnoses of anxiety or depressive disorders.
A literature search for studies reporting prevalence of ‘any diagnosis’ yielded five studies that met inclusion criteria, with a total of 565 PT/LBW and 533 control individuals. Also, five studies were found that reported rates of anxiety/depression (692 PT/LBW and 605 control individuals). The risk of these outcomes was increased for PT/LBW individuals compared with controls [any diagnosis: odds ratio (OR) 3.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.57–5.21; anxiety or depressive disorder: OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.73–4.73].
The studies reviewed here indicate that, in addition to monitoring and management of medical and cognitive sequelae, the psychological well-being of PT/LBW individuals should be a key part of ongoing care.
Leishmania spp. are sandfly-transmitted protozoa parasites that cause a spectrum of diseases in humans. Many enzymes involved in Leishmania central carbon metabolism differ from their equivalents in the mammalian host and are potential drug targets. In this review we summarize recent advances in our understanding of Leishmania central carbon metabolism, focusing on pathways of carbon utilization that are required for growth and pathogenesis in the mammalian host. While Leishmania central carbon metabolism shares many features in common with other pathogenic trypanosomatids, significant differences are also apparent. Leishmania parasites are also unusual in constitutively expressing most core metabolic pathways throughout their life cycle, a feature that may allow these parasites to exploit a range of different carbon sources (primarily sugars and amino acids) rapidly in both the insect vector and vertebrate host. Indeed, recent gene deletion studies suggest that mammal-infective stages are dependent on multiple carbon sources in vivo. The application of metabolomic approaches, outlined here, are likely to be important in defining aspects of central carbon metabolism that are essential at different stages of mammalian host infection.
Debate has proliferated as to the true site of action of opioids when placed in the epidural space. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effects of a bolus of diamorphine given by the epidural or intramuscular route.
Sixty patients having elective primary total knee replacements were recruited and randomized to receive epidural or intramuscular diamorphine. A lumbar epidural catheter was sited and 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.5% wt vol−1 was injected. Patients subsequently received diamorphine 5 mg into the epidural space or as an intramuscular injection. Patient-controlled analgesia with intravenous morphine was used for postoperative analgesia. The primary outcome measures included time to first patient-controlled analgesia use and total morphine consumption in 24 h. Secondary end-points considered possible treatment complications.
All primary end-points showed significant differences in favour of epidural diamorphine. Medians for times to first patient-controlled analgesia use and total 24 h morphine requirements were significantly different (P < 0.001) at 418 vs. 198 min and 11 vs. 39 mg, respectively. There were no significant differences in secondary end-points.
This study has shown the superior analgesic efficacy of epidural diamorphine when compared to intramuscular injection.
A founder haplotype on chromosome 2p for autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD) has
been postulated for two families of Northern European descent, and a new mutation in the
α-synuclein gene (Ala30Pro) has been found in a German PD family. We evaluated 85 German PD
patients and 85 ethnically matched controls for shared markers on chromosome 2p and for the new
α-synuclein mutation. We found no evidence for linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that the putative
founder mutation on chromosome 2p is not a common cause of PD in the local population.
Furthermore, no patient carried the Ala30Pro change, supporting earlier findings that mutations in
the α-synuclein gene are extremely rare.
Lattice defects are introduced into the structure to suppress the motion of magnetic vortices and enhance the critical current density in high temperature superconductors. Point defects are not very effective pinning sites for the cuprate superconductors; however, extended defects, such as linear tracks, have been shown to be strong pinning sites. We study the superconducting cuprate TI-2212 (the numbers designate Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu stoichiometry). Large enhancements of vortex pinning potential were observed in TI-2212 after high-intermediate energy heavy-ion irradiations where non-continuous extended defects were induced at dE/dx of 9 to 15.2 keV/nm (60 MeV Au, 60 MeV Cu, and 30 MeV Au) and continuous linear defects were induced at 19.5keV/nm (88MeV Au). Our research addresses the question of pinning in highly anisotropic materials like Tl-2212 where the vortices are “pancakes” rather than “rods” and suitable defect structures may be discontinuous extended damage domains. The defect microstructure and the effectiveness of the pinning potential in TI-2212 after irradiation by intermediate energy Au at lower dE/dx of 5–15 keV/nm, where recoils are more significant, is studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy digital imaging and a SQUID magnetometer. The nature of the ion irradiation damage at these intermediate dE/dx will be correlated to the average vortex pinning potential and the TRIMRC calculations for recoils.
Electrically active defects in both 4H and 6H polytypes of SiC have been observed through the use of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Schottky contacts were grown by vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) with doping concentrations, the epitaxial layer having a doping concentration in the range of 1014 cm−3 to 1017cm−3. Numerous levels have been found in the as-grown n-type 6H-SiC samples and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and MeV electron irradiation have been employed to corrrelate the defect levels to impurities or structural defects. In contrast, only a single level is observed in the as-grown 4H-SiC samples.