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The World Stroke Organization “1 in 6” campaign aims to raise awareness that 1 in 6 persons will experience a stroke during their lifetime. With aging populations and improved survival rates, an increased number of survivors live with functional limitations and require supportive care. This has important implications for implementing an all-of-society approach to disaster risk reduction. In this study, we explore the assets that stroke survivors and caregivers consider useful in supporting their capacity to manage routine activities and independent living and to respond to a disaster.
Transcripts from interviews with stroke survivors and caregivers were analyzed by use of content analysis.
Assets were categorized into 4 classes: social, physical, energy, and personal characteristics and are presented as a household map. Emergent themes suggested that understanding how to mobilize assets is complicated yet essential for building resilience. Household resilience requires people have self-efficacy and motivation to move from awareness to action. The findings informed development of a conceptual model of asset literacy and household resilience following stroke.
Interventions to enhance asset literacy can support an all-of-society approach to disaster risk reduction through awareness, empowerment, participation, innovation, and engagement. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 312–320)
This experiment aimed to assess the effect of different indoor winter growth rates (WGR) followed by different concentrate supplementation levels at pasture on meat quality of 90 bulls. During the first winter, bulls were offered grass silage ad libitum and either 3 kg (WGR3) or 6 kg (WGR6) of concentrates. After turn-out to pasture, bulls were offered: grass without supplementation (PO), grass plus 0.2 predicted dry matter intake (DMI) as concentrates (PL) or grass plus 0.4 predicted DMI as concentrates (PH). After finishing, colour, chemical composition (unaged), instrumental texture and sensory characteristics (14 days of ageing) of longissimus thoracis were measured. WGR6 bulls had heavier carcasses than WGR3 bulls. There was an interaction between WGR and supplementation for instrumental texture and redness (a). Within WGR3, PO beef was the most tender, whereas within WRG6, PL was the most tender. However, these differences were not detected by the sensory panel. Within WGR3, redness was the lowest for PL, whereas within WRG6, PO was the least red. No differences were found for chemical composition. The multivariate analysis highlighted WGR as the main variable affecting meat quality characteristics. In conclusion, variations in growth path exerted minor effects on appearance and instrumental texture which did not affect the perception of bull beef by a trained sensory panel.
The effects of shape and thickness of a tin surface layer and of the energy of a 170 ps neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser pulse on the conversion efficiency (CE) into extreme ultraviolet emission in the 13.5 nm region is investigated. Whereas a CE of up to 1.16% into the 2% reflection band of multilayer Mo/Si optics was measured for a bulk Sn target at a laser energy of 25 mJ, significant CE enhancement up to 1.49% is demonstrated for a 200-nm-thick Sn layer on a microstructured porous alumina substrate.
We present techniques developed to calibrate and correct Murchison Widefield Array low-frequency (72–300 MHz) radio observations for polarimetry. The extremely wide field-of-view, excellent instantaneous (u, v)-coverage and sensitivity to degree-scale structure that the Murchison Widefield Array provides enable instrumental calibration, removal of instrumental artefacts, and correction for ionospheric Faraday rotation through imaging techniques. With the demonstrated polarimetric capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array, we discuss future directions for polarimetric science at low frequencies to answer outstanding questions relating to polarised source counts, source depolarisation, pulsar science, low-mass stars, exoplanets, the nature of the interstellar and intergalactic media, and the solar environment.
Antenatal healthy lifestyle interventions are frequently implemented in overweight and obese pregnancy, yet there is inconsistent reporting of the behaviour-change methods and behavioural outcomes. This limits our understanding of how and why such interventions were successful or not.
The current paper discusses the application of behaviour-change theories and techniques within complex lifestyle interventions in overweight and obese pregnancy. The authors propose a decision tree to help guide researchers through intervention design, implementation and evaluation. The implications for adopting behaviour-change theories and techniques, and using appropriate guidance when constructing and evaluating interventions in research and clinical practice are also discussed.
To enhance the evidence base for successful behaviour-change interventions during pregnancy, adoption of behaviour-change theories and techniques, and use of published guidelines when designing lifestyle interventions are necessary. The proposed decision tree may be a useful guide for researchers working to develop effective behaviour-change interventions in clinical settings. This guide directs researchers towards key literature sources that will be important in each stage of study development.
Sleep can affect quality of life (QoL) during cancer survivorship, and symptoms related to poor sleep can be exacerbated. We examined the prevalence, severity, and nature of subjective sleep complaints in women surviving stage I–III breast cancer who were 1–10 years posttreatment. We also examined the demographic, medical, physical, and psychosocial correlates of poor sleep in these women in order to identify the subgroups that may be most in need of intervention.
A total of 200 patients at a comprehensive cancer center who were 1–10 years posttreatment for primary stage I–III breast cancer with no evidence of disease at the time of enrollment completed a battery of questionnaires on demographics, sleep, physical symptoms, mood, cancer-specific fears, and QoL.
The women had a mean age of 57 years (SD = 10.0), with a mean of 63.3 months (SD = 28.8) of post-cancer treatment. Some 38% of these patients were identified as having poor-quality sleep. Women with poor sleep took longer to fall asleep, had more awakenings, and acquired 2 hours less sleep per night than those with good sleep. They also had a lower QoL, greater severity of pain, more concerns about health and recurrence, and increased vasomotor symptoms (p < 0.05). Daytime sleepiness and depression were found to be not significantly correlated with sleep quality.
Significance of results:
Many breast cancer survivors had severe subjective insomnia, and several breast cancer survivor subgroups were identified as having members who might be most in need of sleep-improvement interventions. Addressing physical symptoms (e.g., vasomotor symptoms and pain) and providing education about the behavioral, social, environmental, and medical factors that affect sleep could result in substantial improvement in the life course of breast cancer survivors.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Impending malignant spinal cord compression (IMSCC) may be defined as compression of the thecal sac, without any visible pressure on the spinal cord itself. Although there is a perception that IMSCC patients have a better prognosis and less severe clinical symptoms than true malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) patients, these factors have never been documented in the literature.
To record the characteristics, management and functional outcome of a group of patients with IMSCC, who were treated with radiotherapy in our institution, and compare these parameters with similar data on MSCC patients.
Materials and methods
Data (gender, age, primary oncological diagnosis, pain, performance status and neurological status) were prospectively collected for 28 patients. Patients were then followed up post treatment to document their response to treatment and treatment-related toxicity.
The median survival of our group of IMSCC patients is similar to that of an MSCC patient. In addition, the IMSCC group exhibits significant clinical symptoms including neurological deficit.
Although further studies are necessary, we have found that IMSCC patients in this study share similar prognosis and clinical symptoms with MSCC patients. Clinicians should be aware of this when communicating with IMSCC patients and their families, and short-course radiotherapy should be considered.
Introduction: This paper is a report of a qualitative study of emergency and critical care nurses' perceptions of occupational response and preparedness during infectious respiratory disease outbreaks including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza.
Problem: Healthcare workers, predominantly female, face occupational and personal challenges in their roles as first responders/first receivers. Exposure to SARS or other respiratory pathogens during pregnancy represents additional occupational risk for healthcare workers.
Methods: Perceptions of occupational reproductive risk during response to infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were assessed qualitatively by five focus groups comprised of 100 Canadian nurses conducted between 2005 and 2006.
Results: Occupational health and safety issues anticipated by Canadian nurses for future infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were grouped into four major themes: (1) apprehension about occupational risks to pregnant nurses; (2) unknown pregnancy risks of anti-infective therapy/prophylaxis; (3) occupational risk communication for pregnant nurses; and (4) human resource strategies required for pregnant nurses during outbreaks. The reproductive risk perceptions voiced by Canadian nurses generally were consistent with reported case reports of pregnant women infected with SARS or emerging influenza strains. Nurses' fears of fertility risks posed by exposure to infectious agents or anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis are not well supported by the literature, with the former not biologically plausible and the latter lacking sufficient data.
Conclusions: Reproductive risk assessments should be performed for each infectious respiratory disease outbreak to provide female healthcare workers and in particular pregnant women with guidelines regarding infection control and use of anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis.
In order to understand thickness and interfacial effects on the
crystallization kinetics of amorphous solids, Ni(P) thin films electrolessly
deposited on Cu seed layers were annealed at constant heating rates or at
constant temperatures in a DSC to obtain activation energies andAvrami
exponents. It was found that the activation energy of crystallization in
Ni(P) changes asa function of sample thickness when the sample thickness is
less than 1.0 μm. Furthermore, the Avrami exponent was found to change not
only as a function of thickness but also as a function of annealing
We present experimental results directed at understanding the growth and structure of metallic barrier layer and interconnect films. Numerical simulation results associated with this experimental work are presented in an accompanying paper in these proceedings. Here, thin films of Al, Ti, Cu and Ta have been grown by magnetron sputtering onto oxidized Si substrates. Using a specially-constructed substrate holder, the orientation of the substrate with respect to the growth direction was varied from horizontal to vertical. Films were grown at both low and high argon pressure; in the case of Ta, the cathode power was varied as well. The film structure and in particular the surface roughness was measured by X-ray reflectance and also by atomic force microscopy. We find that the surface roughness increases markedly with orientation angle in the case of Ta and Cu films, and in Ti films grown at high argon pressure. At low pressure, however, the Ti film surface roughness remains constant for all substrate orientations. No variation in roughness with either orientation angle or argon pressure was observed in the Al films. These results suggest that, under certain circumstances, shadowing effects and/or grain orientation (i.e., texture) competition during growth can give rise to lower density, more porous (and thus more rough) films, particularly at large orientation angles, as on sidewalls in sub-micron trenches.
Electrodeposition through photoresist masks is a critical, enabling technology for fabrication of the thick structures (of up to several hundred microns) involved in HI-MEMS. Process integration is an important issue in HI-MEMS. The electrodeposited structure is influenced by the choice of optical or X-ray lithography. Thickness uniformity of the deposit on the wafer scale can be optimized by the use of an auxiliary cathode. On the device or feature scales, thickness uniformity can be improved by the thoughtful design of the pattern to be plated.
A variable reluctance, planar, integrated mini-motor with a 6 mm diameter rotor has been fabricated using lithography, electrodeposition and dielectric planarization processes. The rotors were fabricated separately, released from the substrate, and slipped on the shaft, which was plated up as part of the stator fabrication.