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Terms such as mark, affront or bad name are usually employed in habitual dictionaries to describe the concept of stigma. Related to the area of mental health, this concept includes also the presence of false myths and negative evaluations towards the mental patient. The consecuence of that are prejudiced behaviours that demage the life of the stigmatized patient. Due to the significant repercussion of this fact, evaluate the level of mental stigmatization become fundamental.
To evaluate the presence of behavioural discrimination among the general public from Madrid city against people with mental health problems.
Material and Methods
This RIBS scale (Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale) was used to evaluate the previously cited discrimination. Different sociodemographic variables were also included to be able to establish the possible Association between them and the scale reults. 100 participants from general population from Madrid completed this questionnaire. A descriptive and analytical analysis were carried out using the statistics programme spss v. 21.
Results and Conclusions
In line with the results from previous studies, this analysis shows a high rate of behavioural discrimination against people with mental health problems. This situation may be a negative condition to the access of mental patients to mental health services. Besides, it may affect in a deleterious way to many others vital areas of the patient. Theese results reinforce the need of encourage anti-stigma programmes.
There is an increasing demand for treatment for dependence on different psychiatric medication like benzodiazepines. The goal is to determine the user's profile that is attended in a mental health center.
We obtained a sample of 30 users, divided into two groups: A) main drug benzodiazepines, B) primary drug others.
Sociodemographic, psychiatric and drug use variables are collected, making a descriptive retrospective analysis, using means for quantitative variables and proportions for categorical variables.
Group A is composed mainly of women (63.6%) of average age 46 years, and the group B of males (75%) with slightly higher average age (48 years). In group A and B the average level of education is primary/secondary education. Overall, they do not work and are single, having more pensioners and separated in group B.
In both groups, more than half have a history of affective disorders, often followed by anxiety disorders, with higher prevalence in group A (54.6% vs 36.8%), and personality disorders (77.3% and 75%).
In reference to group B, the primary drug of abuse is mostly alcohol. In general there is higher prevalence of nicotine dependence.
The profile of group A is a middle-aged woman who presents comorbidity with affective and personality disorders. The profile of group B is a middle-aged man, alcohol dependent, with earlier onset of use and with personality disorder.
Several studies show a high prevalence of stigma related to mental illnes. This implicate the presence of prejudiced behaviours and false beliefs when treating with people with mental disorders. The literature reveals elevated rates of stigmatization in general population. Also, it is documented in general healthcare professionals and even in mental health workers or medicine students. This scene supposes an obstacle in several vital areas. The evaluation of stigma in medicine students become fundamental considering that they will be professionals soon.
To evaluate the attitudes towards mental illness in a sample of medicine students from Madrid.
Material and Methods
The MICA (Mental Illness Clinician’ s Attitudes) scale v4 was used to evaluate the objective. Different sociodemographic variables were also included just like information about the clinical speciality the would like to choose. The posible association between theese variables and the scale reults was evaluated. 100 medical students in their 5°-6° year of the degree completed this questionnaire. The sample was collected from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. A descriptive and analytical analysis were carried out using the statistics programme spss v. 21.
Results and Conclusions
The results suggest that the rates of stigma between medical students from this sample are higher than desirable. That situation reinforce the need of encourage anti-stigma programmes which probably should include a longer contact between medical students and psychiatric patients.
Glucose intolerance during pregnancy – a major driver of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) – has significant short- and long-term health consequences for both the mother and child. As GDM prevalence continues to escalate, there is growing need for preventative strategies. There is limited but suggestive evidence that myo-inositol (MI) and probiotics (PB) could improve glucose tolerance during pregnancy. The present study tested the hypothesis that MI and/or PB supplementation would reduce the risk of glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomised to receive either no treatment, MI, PB (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis) or both (MIPB) for 5 weeks. They were then provided with a high-fat diet for 1 week before mating commenced and throughout mating/gestation, while remaining on their respective treatments. An oral glucose tolerance test occurred at gestational day (GD) 16·5 and tissue collection at GD 18·5. Neither MI nor PB, separately or combined, improved glucose tolerance. However, MI and PB both independently increased adipose tissue expression of Ir, Irs1, Akt2 and Pck1, and PB also increased Pparγ. MI was associated with reduced gestational weight gain, whilst PB was associated with increased maternal fasting glucose, total cholesterol and pancreas weight. These results suggest that MI and PB may improve insulin intracellular signalling in adipose tissue but this did not translate to meaningful differences in glucose tolerance. The absence of fasting hyperglycaemia or insulin resistance suggests this is a very mild model of GDM, which may have affected our ability to assess the impact of these nutrients.
Community nurseries within natural protected areas (NPAs) represent an attractive option to link biodiversity conservation with socioeconomic development, yet their functioning lacks proper assessment. Here, we analyse the national context of community nurseries in Mexican NPAs and suggest a specific framework to evaluate their viability. First, we examine the impact of a major governmental funding programme on these projects. Next, we conduct a case study in a focal nursery to identify challenges faced by its operation. Despite the large number of community nurseries funded by the programme, current performance indicators are not suitable to assess their viability. In turn, the case study reveals this nursery’s partial success, with a clear contribution to social development but a limited impact on economic improvement and vegetation conservation. Regardless of the characteristics of individual community nurseries, we suggest a framework that is potentially useful for evaluating community nursery viability, which enables agencies to detect problems, find solutions and use resources efficiently, while balancing biodiversity conservation and development.
The upper mass limit of stars remains an open question in astrophysics. Here we discuss observations of the most massive stars (greater than 100 solar masses) in the local universe and how the observations fit in with theoretical predictions. In particular, the Large Magellanic Cloud plays host to numerous very massive stars, making it an ideal template to study the roles that environment, metallicity, and multiplicity play in the formation and evolution of the most massive stars. We will discuss the work that is instrumental in laying the groundwork for interpreting future observations by James Webb of starburst regions in the high redshift universe.
The formation of massive stars remains one of the most intriguing questions in astrophysics today. The main limitations result from the difficulty to obtain direct observational constraints on the formation process itself. In this context, the Carina High-contrast Imaging Project of massive Stars (CHIPS) aims to observe all 80+ O stars in the Carina nebula using the new VLT 2nd-generation extreme-AO instrument SPHERE. This instrument offers unprecedented imaging contrast allowing us to detect the faintest companions around massive stars. These novel observational constraints will help to discriminate between the different formation scenarios by comparing their predictions for companion statistics and properties.
We present VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 2070, the dominant ionizing nebula of 30 Doradus in the LMC, plus HST/STIS spectroscopy of its central star cluster R136. Integral Field Spectroscopy (MUSE) and pseudo IFS (STIS) together provides a complete census of all massive stars within the central 30×30 parsec2 of the Tarantula. We discuss the integrated far-UV spectrum of R136, of particular interest for UV studies of young extragalactic star clusters. Strong He iiλ1640 emission at very early ages (1–2 Myr) from very massive stars cannot be reproduced by current population synthesis models, even those incorporating binary evolution and very massive stars. A nebular analysis of the integrated MUSE dataset implies an age of ~4.5 Myr for NGC 2070. Wolf-Rayet features provide alternative age diagnostics, with the primary contribution to the integrated Wolf-Rayet bumps arising from R140 rather than the more numerous H-rich WN stars in R136. Caution should be used when interpreting spatially extended observations of extragalactic star-forming regions.
In the sand-fly mid gut, Leishmania promastigotes are exposed to acute changes in nutrients, e.g. amino acids (AAs). These metabolites are the main energy sources for the parasite, crucial for its differentiation and motility. We analysed the migratory behaviour and morphological changes produced by aliphatic, monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic, heterocyclic and sulphur-containing AAs in Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis and demonstrated that L-methionine (10−12m), L-tryptophan (10−11m), L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid (10−6m), induced positive chemotactic responses, while L-alanine (10−7m), L-methionine (10−11 and 10−7m), L-tryptophan (10−11m), L-glutamine (10−12m) and L-glutamic acid (10−9m) induced negative chemotactic responses. L-proline and L-cysteine did not change the migratory potential of Leishmania. The flagellum length of L. braziliensis, but not of L. amazonensis, decreased when incubated in hyperosmotic conditions. However, chemo-repellent concentrations of L-alanine (Hypo-/hyper-osmotic conditions) and L-glutamic acid (hypo-osmotic conditions) decreased L. braziliensis flagellum length and L-methionine (10−11m, hypo-/hyper-osmotic conditions) decreased L. amazonensis flagellum length. This chemotactic responsiveness suggests that Leishmania discriminate between slight concentration differences of small and structurally closely related molecules and indicates that besides their metabolic effects, AAs play key roles linked to sensory mechanisms that might determine the parasite's behaviour.
Relationships between fatty acids (FAs) in plant oils included in goat diets and milk fat C18 isomers were determined by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). The three first principal factors (PF1, PF2 and PF3) accounted for 64·5% of the total variation in milk FAs contents. Fatty acids with a double bond at carbons 13, 14, 15 or 16 had high (>0·6) and positive loadings for PF1, trans-4 to trans-8 C18:1 for PF2, whereas trans-10 C18:1, trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 showed high and positive loadings for PF3. Pearson's correlations supported that PF1, PF2 and PF3 were related to α-linolenic, oleic and linoleic acid intakes, respectively. Our results show that the quantitatively main FAs in plant lipids supplemented to dairy ruminants are often the main cause of the observed changes in milk C18 isomer contents. However, sometimes the observed changes are caused, or at least are influenced, by other FAs present in lower quantities in the plant lipids. Thus, using mixtures of plant oils with differently unsaturated main FAs could be a way of tailoring milk fat composition to a pre-designed pattern.
The composition and structure of sublittoral faunal assemblages inhabiting soft bottoms (15–72 m depth) within the Marine Protected Area ‘Acantilados y Fondos Marinos de Calahonda-Castell de Ferro’ in southern Spain (North Alboran Sea, Mediterranean) have been studied in relation to sediment and water column variables. Three assemblages were identified and corresponded to mixed bottom, unstable bottom and coastal detritic bottom assemblages, based on Pérès & Picard's (1964) benthic classification. A total of 14,318 individuals were collected and 218 species identified, molluscs being the best represented group (141 species). Species richness displayed significant differences with depth and transect, with the highest values observed in the medium to very fine sand and muddy bottoms with bioclasts located at the shallowest sampling stations. The presence of some rare and poorly known invertebrates that are scarce in other areas of the Mediterranean Sea is remarkable, such as the crustacean decapods Bythocaris cosmetops and Pagurus mbizi, Atlantic species with no records in the Mediterranean Sea, and the bathyal molluscs Poromya granulata and Alvania testae, collected at shallow depths. The spatial distribution of faunal assemblages was mainly related to depth and percentage of gravel and clay according to the canonical correspondence analysis. The geographic location of the area, the heterogeneity of soft bottoms and the presence of upwellings in the area may favour the high biodiversity found in the studied soft bottoms. This study increases the scarce knowledge of the circalittoral fauna of sedimentary habitats of the Alboran Sea, providing a baseline for the management of this interesting SCI and for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
Acute psychological stress is positively associated with a cold/flu. The present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effect of three potentially probiotic bacteria on the proportion of healthy days over a 6-week period in academically stressed undergraduate students (n 581) who received Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis R0033, Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 or placebo. On each day, participants recorded the intensity (scale: 0 = not experiencing to 3 = very intense) for nine cold/flu symptoms, and a sum of symptom intensity >6 was designated as a day of cold/flu. B. bifidum resulted in a greater proportion of healthy days than placebo (P≤ 0·05). The percentage of participants reporting ≥ 1 d of cold/flu during the 6-week intervention period was significantly lower with B. bifidum than with placebo (P< 0·05). There were no effects of B. infantis or L. helveticus compared with placebo on either outcome. A predictive model accounted for influential characteristics and their interactions on daily reporting of cold/flu episodes. The proportion of participants reporting a cold on any given day was lower at weeks 2 and 3 with B. bifidum and B. infantis than with placebo for the average level of stress and the most commonly reported number of hours of sleep. Daily intake of bifidobacteria provides benefit related to cold/flu outcomes during acute stress.
The most effective dose of prehospital furosemide in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) has not yet been identified and concerns of worsening renal function have limited its use.
To assess if administering high-dose furosemide is associated with worsening renal function.
The authors conducted a 2-center chart review for patients who presented via a single Emergency Medical Service (EMS) from June 5, 2009 through May 17, 2013. Inclusion criteria were shortness of breath, primarily coded as ADHF, and the administration of furosemide prior to emergency department (ED) arrival. A total of 331 charts were identified. The primary endpoint was an increase in creatinine (Cr) of more than 0.3 mg/dL from admission to any time during hospital stay. Exploratory endpoints included survival, length-of-stay (LOS), disposition, urine output in the ED, change in BUN/Cr from admission to discharge, and change in Cr from admission to 72 hours and discharge.
When treated as a binary variable, there was no association observed between an increase in Cr of more than 0.3 mg/dL and prehospital furosemide dose. Baseline characteristics found to be associated with dose were included in the logistic regression model. Lowering the dose of prehospital furosemide was associated with higher odds of attaining a 0.3 mg/dL increase in Cr (adjusted OR = 1.49 for a 20 mg decrease; P = .019). There was no association found with any of the exploratory endpoints.
Patients who received higher doses of furosemide prehospitally were less likely to have an increase of greater than 0.3 mg/dL in Cr during the hospital course.
NievesLC, MehrtensGM, PoresN, PickrellC, TanisJ, SattyT, ChuangM, YoungTC, MerlinMA. The Effect of Furosemide Dose Administered in the Out-of-hospital Setting on Renal Function Among Patients with Suspected Acute Decompensated Heart Failure. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(1):1-8.
Living specimens of the amphi-Atlantic asteroid Hacelia superba have been collected in different areas of Gazul mud volcano in the Gulf of Cadiz, south-western Iberian Peninsula, at depths of 380–487 m. This starfish displayed low abundances (~1 ind. 2000 m−2) in beam trawl catches on the mud vulcano and adjacent soft bottoms. The absence of previous records in this area could be due to a low sampling effort on bathyal hard bottoms of the Gulf of Cadiz, especially those of dormant mud volcanoes, as well as a possible misidentification as Hacelia attenuata that also occurs in the area but is restricted to infralittoral and circalitoral bottoms.
Libon et al. (2010) provided evidence for three statistically determined clusters of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): amnesic (aMCI), dysexecutive (dMCI), and mixed (mxMCI). The current study further examined dysexecutive impairment in MCI using the framework of Fuster's (1997) derailed temporal gradients, that is, declining performance on executive tests over time or test epoch. Temporal gradients were operationally defined by calculating the slope of aggregate letter fluency output across 15-s epochs and accuracy indices for initial, middle, and latter triads from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Mental Control subtest (Boston Revision). For letter fluency, slope was steeper for dMCI compared to aMCI and NC groups. Between-group Mental Control analyses for triad 1 revealed worse dMCI performance than NC participants. On triad 2, dMCI scored lower than aMCI and NCs; on triad 3, mxMCI performed worse versus NCs. Within-group Mental Control analyses yielded equal performance across all triads for aMCI and NC participants. mxMCI scored lower on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3. dMCI participants also performed worse on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3, but scored higher on triad 3 versus triad 2. These data suggest impaired temporal gradients may provide a useful heuristic for understanding dysexecutive impairment in MCI. (JINS, 2012, 18, 20–28)
Using cluster analysis Libon et al. (2010) found three verbal serial list-learning profiles involving delay memory test performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Amnesic MCI (aMCI) patients presented with low scores on delay free recall and recognition tests; mixed MCI (mxMCI) patients scored higher on recognition compared to delay free recall tests; and dysexecutive MCI (dMCI) patients generated relatively intact scores on both delay test conditions. The aim of the current research was to further characterize memory impairment in MCI by examining forgetting/savings, interference from a competing word list, intrusion errors/perseverations, intrusion word frequency, and recognition foils in these three statistically determined MCI groups compared to normal control (NC) participants. The aMCI patients exhibited little savings, generated more highly prototypic intrusion errors, and displayed indiscriminate responding to delayed recognition foils. The mxMCI patients exhibited higher saving scores, fewer and less prototypic intrusion errors, and selectively endorsed recognition foils from the interference list. dMCI patients also selectively endorsed recognition foils from the interference list but performed similarly compared to NC participants. These data suggest the existence of distinct memory impairments in MCI and caution against the routine use of a single memory test score to operationally define MCI. (JINS, 2011, 17, 905–914)
In many biological applications, such as cell therapy and drug delivery, there is a need to enhance diffusion by enabling chemical transport in all three dimensions. We highlight this need by comparing diffusion in a conventional two-dimensional (2D) microwell with diffusion in a three-dimensional (3D) cubic microwell using numerical simulations. We also describe the fabrication of hollow polymeric (and biocompatible) cubic microwells and microwell arrays. We emphasize that since the assembly process is compatible with 2D lithographic patterning, porosity can be precisely patterned in all three dimensions. Hence, this platform provides considerable versatility for a variety of applications.
The following article is based on the Symposium X presentation given by David A. Weitz (Harvard University) on April 11, 2007, at the Materials Research Society Spring Meeting in San Francisco. The article describes how simple microfluidic devices can be used to control fluid flow and produce a variety of new materials. Based on the concepts of coaxial flow and hydrodynamically focused flow, used alone or in various combinations, the devices can produce precisely controlled double emulsions (droplets within droplets) and even triple emulsions (double emulsions suspended in a third droplet). These structures, which can be created in a single microfluidic device, have various applications such as encapsulants for drugs, cosmetics, or food additives.
To determine whether environmental cultures for Legionella increase the index of suspicion for legionnaires' disease (LD).
Five-year prospective study.
Twenty hospitals in Catalonia, Spain.
From 1994 to 1996, the potable water systems of 20 hospitals in Catalonia were tested for Legionella, Cases of hospital-acquired LD and availability of an “in-house” Legionella test in the previous 4 years were assessed. After the hospitals were informed of the results of their water cultures, a prospective 5-year-study was conducted focusing on the detection of new cases of nosocomial legionellosis and the availability and use of Legionella testing.
Before environmental cultures were started, only one hospital had conducted active surveillance of hospital-acquired pneumonia and used Legionella tests including Legionella urinary antigen in all pneumonia cases. Only one other hospital had used the latter test at all. In six hospitals, Legionella tests had been completely unavailable. Cases of nosocomial LD had been diagnosed in the previous 4 years in only two hospitals. During prospective surveillance, 12 hospitals (60%) used Legionella urinary antigen testing in house and 11 (55%) found cases of nosocomial legionellosis, representing 64.7% (11 of 17) of those with positive water cultures. Hospitals with negative water cultures did not find nosocomial LD.
The environmental study increased the index of suspicion for nosocomial LD. The number of cases of nosocomial LD increased significantly during the prospective follow-up period, and most hospitals began using the Legionella urinary antigen test in their laboratories.
To investigate the presence and clonal distribution of Legionella species in the water supply of 20 hospitals in Catalonia, Spain.
20 hospitals in Catalonia, an area of 32,000 km2, located in northeast Spain.
Environmental cultures of 186 points of potable water supply and 10 cooling towers were performed for the presence of Legionella species. Following filtration and acid treatment, the samples were seeded in selective MWY (modified Wadowsky Yee)-buffered charcoal yeast extract-a agar. All isolates obtained were characterized microbiologically and genotyped by Sfil pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
73 of 196 water samples, representing 17 of the 20 hospitals included in the study, were positive for Legionella pneumophila (serogroups 1, 2-14, or both). The degree of contamination ranged from 200 to 74,250 colony-forming units/L. Twenty-five chromosomal DNA subtypes were detected by PFGE. A single DNA subtype was identified in 10 hospitals, 2 DNA subtypes were observed in 6 hospitals, and 1 hospital exhibited 3 different DNA subtypes. Each hospital had its own Legionella DNA subtype, which was not shared with any other hospitals.
Legionella was present in the water of most of the hospitals studied; each such hospital had a unique, dominant chromosomal DNA subtype. The verification of several genomic DNA restriction profiles in such a small geographic area demonstrates the great genetic diversity of Legionella in the aquatic environment.