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The burden of common perinatal mental disorders (CPMD) in low-and-middle-income countries is substantially higher than high-income countries, with low levels of detection, service provision and treatment in resource-constrained settings. We describe the development of an ultra-short screening tool to detect antenatal depression, anxiety disorders and maternal suicidal ideation.
A sample of 376 women was recruited at a primary-level obstetric clinic. Five depression and anxiety symptom-screening questionnaires, demographics and psychosocial risk questionnaires were administered. All participants were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a structured, diagnostic interview. Screening tool items were analysed against diagnostic data using multiple logistic regression and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis.
The prevalence of MINI-defined major depressive episode (MDE) and/or anxiety disorders was 33%. Overall, 18% of participants expressed suicidal ideation and behaviour, 54% of these had no depression or anxiety diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression identified four screening items that were independently predictive of MDE and anxiety disorders, investigating depressed mood, anhedonia, anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation. ROC analysis of these combined items yielded an area under the curve of 0.83 (95% CI 0.78–0.88). A cut-off score of 2 or more offered a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 82%.
This novel screening tool is the first measure of CPMD developed in South Africa to include depressed mood, anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation. While the tool requires further investigation, it may be useful for the early identification of mental health symptoms and morbidity in the perinatal period.
Project management expertise is employed across many professional sectors, including clinical research organizations, to ensure that efforts undertaken by the organization are completed on time and according to specifications and are capable of achieving the needed impact. Increasingly, project leaders (PLs) who possess this expertise are being employed in academic settings to support clinical and preclinical translational research team science. Duke University’s clinical and translational science enterprise has been an early adopter of project management to support clinical and preclinical programs. We review the history and evolution of project management and the PL role at Duke, examine case studies that illustrate their growing value to our academic research environment, and address challenges and solutions to employing project management in academia. Furthermore, we describe the critical role project leadership plays in accelerating and increasing the success of translational team science and team approaches frequently required for systems biology and “big data” scientific studies. Finally, we discuss perspectives from Duke project leadership professionals regarding the training needs and requirements for PLs working in academic clinical and translational science research settings.
The physical and mechanical properties of many industrially important polymers are profoundly influenced by their degree of crystallinity; such properties include flex modulus, tensile strength, percent elongation, and impact strength. Commonly used polymers influenced by their crystallinity level include polyethlene, polypropylene, polyesters, and nylons. Many of these materials are above their glass transition temperature at room temperature and would be useless were it not for their crystalline phase which typically has a melting point far above room temperature. The crystalline ‘ regions (domains) in these materials are frequently very small, typically in the nanometer range in diameter. These crystalline domains act as reinforcing fillers (in somewhat the same manner as carbon black In rubber) and give strength to the polymer.
We assessed whether paternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical factors influence the risk of an infant being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA). We examined the data on 3659 fathers of term offspring (including 662 LGA infants) born to primiparous women from Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE). LGA was defined as birth weight >90th centile as per INTERGROWTH 21st standards, with reference group being infants ⩽90th centile. Associations between paternal factors and likelihood of an LGA infant were examined using univariable and multivariable models. Men who fathered LGA babies were 180 g heavier at birth (P<0.001) and were more likely to have been born macrosomic (P<0.001) than those whose infants were not LGA. Fathers of LGA infants were 2.1 cm taller (P<0.001), 2.8 kg heavier (P<0.001) and had similar body mass index (BMI). In multivariable models, increasing paternal birth weight and height were independently associated with greater odds of having an LGA infant, irrespective of maternal factors. One unit increase in paternal BMI was associated with 2.9% greater odds of having an LGA boy but not girl; however, this association disappeared after adjustment for maternal BMI. There were no associations between paternal demographic factors or clinical history and infant LGA. In conclusion, fathers who were heavier at birth and were taller were more likely to have an LGA infant, but maternal BMI had a dominant influence on LGA.
We sought to define the prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities in long-term survivors of paediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and determine the utility of screening in asymptomatic patients. We analysed echocardiograms performed on survivors who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from 1982 to 2006. A total of 389 patients were alive in 2017, with 114 having an echocardiogram obtained ⩾5 years post-infusion. A total of 95 patients had echocardiogram performed for routine surveillance. The mean time post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was 13 years. Of 95 patients, 77 (82.1%) had ejection fraction measured, and 10/77 (13.0%) had ejection fraction z-scores ⩽−2.0, which is abnormally low. Those patients with abnormal ejection fraction were significantly more likely to have been exposed to anthracyclines or total body irradiation. Among individuals who received neither anthracyclines nor total body irradiation, only 1/31 (3.2%) was found to have an abnormal ejection fraction of 51.4%, z-score −2.73. In the cohort of 77 patients, the negative predictive value of having a normal ejection fraction given no exposure to total body irradiation or anthracyclines was 96.7% at 95% confidence interval (83.3–99.8%). Systolic dysfunction is relatively common in long-term survivors of paediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation who have received anthracyclines or total body irradiation. Survivors who are asymptomatic and did not receive radiation or anthracyclines likely do not require surveillance echocardiograms, unless otherwise indicated.
A principal mode of corrosion in combustion or fuel cell environments is the formation of volatile hydroxides and oxyhydroxides from metal or oxide surfaces at high temperatures. It is important to determine the degree of volatility and accurate thermodynamic properties for these hydroxides. Significant gaseous metal hydroxides/oxyhydroxides are discussed, along with available experimental and theoretical methods of characterizing species and determining their thermodynamic properties.
Female family headship has strong implications for endemic poverty in the United States. Consequently, it is imperative to explore the chief factors that contribute to this problem. Departing from prior literature that places significant weight on welfare-incentive effects, our study highlights the role of male marriageability in explaining the prevalence of never-married female family headship for blacks and whites. Specifically, we examine racial differences in the effect of male marriageability on never-married female headship from 1980 to 2010. By exploiting data from IPUMS-USA (N = 4,958,722) and exogenous variation from state-level sentencing reforms, the study finds that the decline in the relative supply of marriageable males significantly increases the incidence of never-married female family headship for blacks but not for whites.
Emotional awareness is the ability to recognize, describe, and attend to emotions. A known correlate is emotional processing, the ability to orient to and use inner experiences for information. The goal was to examine emotional awareness during therapy among gynecologic cancer patients, identify baseline predictors, and explore the relationship between in-session emotional awareness and processing.
Psychotherapy and baseline data from a randomized controlled trial comparing a supportive counseling (SC) intervention and a cognitive-behavioral coping and communication (CCI) intervention were used. The sample was patients with gynecologic cancers randomized to either therapy (N = 246). Emotion episode transcripts from the first, middle, and sixth of seven in-person sessions were coded for emotional awareness using the Program for Open-Ended Scoring and emotional processing using the Experiencing Scale. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted.
Participants had moderate in-session emotional awareness. SC participants exhibited higher levels of awareness in the first (p < 0.001) and sixth (p = 0.002) sessions than CCI participants. Awareness was positively correlated with emotional processing in the first and sixth SC sessions (r = 0.25 and 0.24, respectively) and all CCI sessions (r = 0.29–0.31). Baseline negative emotion expression was associated with awareness during the sixth SC session. Baseline cancer-specific distress was associated with awareness during the sixth CCI session.
Significance of results
SC may facilitate emotional awareness. Greater emotional awareness in therapy may facilitate emotional processing, which is an important component of most psychotherapies. Patients who are psychologically distressed may exhibit more awareness than others. Similarly, greater emotional awareness may signal greater patient distress.
For the last four years we have been engaged on a program to look for intrinsic variations in the Microwave Background Radiation (MBR) at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO). We summarize here the results of this continuing search.
Except for the addition of modern material remains, the archaeological record is a finite resource, which means that, at some point in the future, there will be nothing left to find. In this paper, we model trends in archaeological discovery based on the growth of the field and the probability of site discovery. We compare this model to seven diverse datasets of archaeological discovery trends: (1) all sites from the state of Wyoming, USA; (2) high-altitude archaeological sites from the state of Colorado, USA; (3) mostly complete Neandertal crania; (4) monumental sites of the Maya Classic period; (5) proboscidean kill/scavenge sites globally; (6) Upper Paleolithic sites from Europe; and (7) a compilation of shipwreck discoveries. We forecast discovery trends over the current century. We show that, for all datasets, rates of discovery are in decline, and some segments of the record are near depletion.
Our aim was to compare changes in emotional processing by women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer enrolled in either a coping and communication skills intervention (CCI) or a supportive counseling (SC) intervention. We examined the association between in-session emotional processing and patient-rated therapeutic progress.
Three therapy sessions with 201 patients were rated for the depth of emotional processing (peak and mode) during emotion episodes (EEs) using the Experiencing Rating Scale (EXP). Participants completed measures of dispositional emotional expressivity, depressive symptoms, and cancer-related distress before treatment began, as well as ratings of perceived progress in therapy after each session.
Peak EXP ratings averaged between 2.7 and 3.1, indicating that women discussed events, their emotional reactions, and their private experiences in sessions. A small proportion of patients had high levels of processing, indicating deeper exploration of the meaning of their feelings and experiences. Women in SC were able to achieve a higher level of emotional processing during the middle and later sessions, and during cancer-related EEs in the later session. However, emotional processing was not significantly associated with a patient's perceived therapeutic progress with SC. In the CCI group, higher levels of emotional processing were associated with greater session progress, suggesting that it may play an important role in patient-rated treatment outcomes.
Significance of results:
Newly diagnosed gynecological cancer patients are able to attend to their emotions and personal experiences, particularly when discussing cancer-related issues during both short-term SC and prescriptive coping skills interventions.
Pompe disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase. Patients have skeletal muscle and respiratory weakness with or without cardiomyopathy. The objective of our review was to systematically evaluate the quality of evidence from the literature to formulate evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with Pompe disease. The literature review was conducted using published literature, clinical trials, cohort studies and systematic reviews. Cardinal treatment decisions produced seven management guidelines and were assigned a GRADE classification based on the quality of evidence in the published literature. In addition, six recommendations were made based on best clinical practices but with insufficient data to form a guideline. Studying outcomes in rare diseases is challenging due to the small number of patients, but this is in particular the reason why we believe that informed treatment decisions need to consider the quality of the evidence.
The purpose of this study was to determine if season or weather affected the objectively measured trip distances of older drivers (≥ 70 years; n = 279) at seven Canadian sites. During winter, for all trips taken, trip distance was 7 per cent shorter when controlling for site and whether the trip occurred during the day. In addition, for trips taken within city limits, trip distance was 1 per cent shorter during winter and 5 per cent longer during rain when compared to no precipitation when controlling for weather (or season respectively), time of day, and site. At night, trip distance was about 30 per cent longer when controlling for season and site (and weather), contrary to expectations. Together, these results suggest that older Canadian drivers alter their trip distances based on season, weather conditions, and time of day, although not always in the expected direction.
This study examined a cohort of 227 older drivers and investigated the relationship between performance on the electronic Driver Observation Schedule (eDOS) driving task and: (1) driver characteristics; (2) functional abilities; (3) perceptions of driving comfort and abilities; and (4) self-reported driving restrictions. Participants (male: 70%; age: M = 81.53 years, SD = 3.37 years) completed a series of functional ability measures and scales on perceived driving comfort, abilities, and driving restrictions from the Year 2 Candrive/Ozcandrive assessment protocol, along with an eDOS driving task. Observations of participants’ driving behaviours during the driving task were recorded for intersection negotiation, lane-changing, merging, low-speed maneuvers, and maneuver-free driving. eDOS driving task scores were high (M = 94.74; SD = 5.70) and significantly related to participants’ perceived driving abilities, reported frequency of driving in challenging situations, and number of driving restrictions. Future analyses will explore potential changes in driving task scores over time.
In this paper we present a method for estimating soil pCO2 in ancient environments using the measured carbon-isotope values of pedogenic carbonates and plant-derived organic matter. The validity of soil pCO2 estimates proves to be highly dependent on the organic δ13C values used in the calculations. Organic matter should be sourced from the same paleosol profiles as sampled carbonates to yield the most reliable estimates of soil pCO2. In order to demonstrate the potential use of soil pCO2 estimates in paleoecological and paleoenvironmental studies, we compare samples from three Upper Jurassic localities. Soil pCO2 estimates, interpreted as a qualitative indicator of primary paleoproductivity, are used to rank the Late Jurassic terrestrial environments represented by the Morrison Formation in western North America, the informally named Lourinhã formation in Western Europe, and the Stanleyville Group in Central Africa. Because modern terrestrial environments show a positive correlation between primary productivity and faunal richness, a similar relationship is expected in ancient ecosystems. When the relative paleoproductivity levels inferred for each study area are compared with estimates of dinosaur generic richness, a positive correlation emerges. Both the Morrison and Lourinhã formations have high inferred productivity levels and high estimated faunal richness. In contrast, the Stanleyville Group appears to have had low primary productivity and low faunal richness. Paleoclimatic data available for each study area indicate that both productivity and faunal richness are positively linked to water availability, as observed in modern terrestrial ecosystems.