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In this article, Si nanoparticle (NP) films were prepared by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in the argon atmosphere of 10 Pa at room temperature under different pulse repetition rates from 1 to 40 Hz without the baffle. Different from the conventional PLA method, the substrates were placed below and parallel to the ablated plume axis. The obtained films containing NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectrometer. The experimental results under constant laser fluence demonstrate the strong dependence of the mean size and the area number density of NPs on the repetition rate. Specifically, with the increase of pulse repetition rate, the mean size of the NPs in the film first decreases and reaches its minimum at 20 Hz, and then increases after 20 Hz, and decreases again till 40 Hz. The area number density shows the contrary trend versus mean size. The in situ diagnostic results of Langmuir probe denote the ablated Si ion density increases monotonously with the increase of repetition rate, while the temperature is almost constant. Combining with the nucleation probability, the growth/aggregation duration of NPs in the “nucleation region” and the effect of the baffle, the influence of pulse repetition rate on the formation of NPs is addressed. It is found that the repetition rate impacts the growth modes of NPs (i.e., growth and aggregation). 1–20, 20–30, and 30–40 Hz, respectively, correspond to growth-, aggregation-, and growth-controlled rate ranges without the baffle; however, 1–10, 10–20, and 20–40 Hz, respectively, correspond to growth-controlled, aggregation/growth-coexisted, and aggregation-controlled rate ranges with the baffle.
Based on the experimentally determined framework structure of porous MnO2 octahedral molecular sieve (OMS)-5, we used density functional theory-based calculations to evaluate the effect of Na+ cation on pore dimensionality and structural stability, and the interaction between CO2 and OMS-5. We quantified the formation energy of one CO2/unit tunnel and two CO2/unit tunnel, and projected the electronic density of states on the OMS-5 framework, CO2 molecules, and Na+ cations to reveal their individual contributions and bonding nature. Partial charge densities were also calculated to investigate CO2 adsorption behavior in the OMS-5. Our studies predict the initial stage and driving force for the adsorption of CO2 in the OMS-5, guiding the OMS material design for carbon capture and storage applications.
Two phases of diabase-sill-forming magmatism are recorded within the Badu anticline where magmas were emplaced into upper Palaeozoic carbonates and clastic rocks of the Youjiang fold-and-thrust belt in the SW South China Block, China. Zircons from these diabase units yield weighted mean U–Pb ages of 249.2±2.0 Ma and 187.1±3.3 Ma, and magmatic oxygen fugacity values from ‒20 to ‒6 (average of ‒12, equating to FMQ +5) and ‒20 to ‒10 (average of ‒15, equating to FMQ +2), respectively. These data indicate that the sills were emplaced during Early Triassic and Early Jurassic times. The discovery of c. 250 Ma mafic magmatism in this area was probably related to post-flood-basalt extension associated with the Emeishan mantle plume or rollback of the subducting Palaeo-Tethys slab. The c. 190 Ma diabase sills indicate that the southwestern South China Block records Early Jurassic mafic magmatism and lithospheric extension that was likely associated with a transition from post-collisional to within-plate tectonic regimes. The emplacement of diabase intrusions at depth may have driven hydrothermal systems, enabling the mobilization of elements from sedimentary rocks and causing the formation of a giant epigenetic metallogenic domain. The results indicate that high-oxygen-fugacity materials within basement rocks caused crustal contamination of the magmas, contributing to the wide range of oxygen fugacity conditions recorded by the Au-bearing Badu diabase. In addition, data from inherited xenocrystic zircons within the Badu diabase and detrital zircons from basement rocks suggest that the Neoproterozoic Jiangshao suture extends to the south of the Badu anticline.
Superparasitism is an adaptive strategy in solitary parasitoids, yet insufficient evidence confirms this in gregarious ones. We here ask whether the gregarious parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii is able to discriminate in attack and progeny allocation between parasitized and unparasitized Plutella xylostella larvae, and how the parasitoid allocates brood size and sex to superparasitized hosts due to some circumstances. We found that female parasitoids preferred unparasitized to parasitized host larvae, and allocated a smaller brood with more males in the later than in the former host. Brood size and sex ratio decreased from superparasitized hosts with a 48 h interval since a previous attack compared with one without an interval; they also declined from the host superparasitized by the parasitoid with oviposition experience compared with one without it. Brood size and sex ratio did not differ between the host superparasitized by the same parasitoid as in the first attack and that by a different one. Our findings suggest that O. sokolowskii females may adjust their oviposition decisions on progeny allocation in response to parasitized P. xylostella larvae to maximize their fitness gains from superparasitism.
Task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormal repetitive movements or postures in a specific body part that is triggered and ends with a task, such as writing. Failing medications, surgery, specifically disruption of key nuclei in the thalamus, can provide excellent symptomatic relief. Transcranial magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focused ultrasound is an emerging incision-less thermoablation technique. We describe MR-guided focused ultrasound tandem ablation of the ventral intermediate and ventralis oralis posterior nuclei in a 60-year-old patient with writer’s cramp. The clinical improvement was immediate with incremental benefit from the latter lesion, which was sustained at 6 months follow-up.
Pressure ridges impact the mass, energy and momentum budgets of the sea-ice cover and present an obstacle to transportation through ice-infested waters. Quantifying ridge characteristics is important for understanding total sea-ice mass and for improving the representation of sea-ice dynamics in high-resolution models. Multi-sensor measurements collected during annual Operation IceBridge (OIB) airborne surveys of the Arctic provide new opportunities to assess the sea ice at the end of winter. We present a new methodology to derive ridge sail height from high-resolution OIB Digital Mapping System (DMS) visible imagery. We assess the efficacy of the methodology by mapping the full sail height distribution along 12 pressure ridges in the western and central Arctic. Comparisons against coincident Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) elevation anomalies are used to demonstrate the methodology and evaluate DMS-derived sail heights. Sail heights and elevation anomalies were correlated at 0.81 or above. On average mean and maximum sail height agreed with ATM elevation to within 0.11 and 0.49 m, respectively. Of the ridges mapped, mean sail height ranged from 0.99 to 2.16 m, while maximum sail height ranged from 2.1 to 4.8 m. DMS also delivered higher sampling along ridge crests than coincident ATM data.
The effects of Reynolds number (
) and Stokes number (
) on particle-pair relative velocity (RV) are investigated systematically using a recently developed planar four-frame particle tracking technique in a novel homogeneous and isotropic turbulence chamber. We compare the measured results with direct numerical simulation (DNS), verifying whether the conclusions of the DNS for simplified conditions and limited
are still valid in reality. Two experiments are performed: varying
between 246 and 357 at six
values, and varying
between 0.02 and 4.63 at five
values. The measured mean inward particle-pair RV
as a function of separation distance
is compared with the DNS under closely matched conditions. At all experimental conditions, an excellent agreement is achieved, except when the particle separation distance
is the Kolmogorov length scale), where the experimental
is consistently higher, possibly due to particle polydispersity and finite laser thickness in the experiments (Dou et al., arXiv:1712.07506, 2017). At any fixed
is essentially independent of
, echoing the DNS finding of Ireland et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 796, 2016, pp. 617–658). At any fixed
, showing dominance of the path-history effect in the dissipation range when
, but decreases with
, indicating dominance of inertial filtering. We further compare the
and RV variance
from experiments with DNS and theoretical predictions by Pan & Padoan (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 661, 2010, pp. 73–107). For
match these values well at
, but they are higher than both DNS and theory at
from all three match well, except for
, for which experimental values are higher, while
from experiment and DNS are much higher than theoretical predictions. We discuss potential causes of these discrepancies. What this study shows is the first experimental validation of
effect on inertial particle-pair
in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.
Suicide-related behaviours are common in schizophrenia and are significantly associated with premature death. The objective of this meta-analysis study was to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide-related behaviours in schizophrenia patients in China.
The relevant literature was searched systematically via the relevant electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Databases and Chinese Biological Medical Literature Database) from their inception until 14 September 2016. Only original studies that reported the prevalence of suicide-related behaviours including suicidal ideation (SI), suicide plan, suicide attempt (SA) and completed suicide were selected.
Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. The pooled lifetime prevalence of SI and SA were 25.8% (95% CI 14.7–41.1%) and 14.6% (95% CI 9.1–22.8%), respectively. The 1-month prevalence of SI was 22.0% (95% CI 18.2–26.4%). Subgroup analyses of lifetime SI and SA showed that gender, sample size, survey year, study location and source of patients have no significant mediating effects on the results.
Suicide-related behaviours are common in Chinese schizophrenia patients. Due to the high mortality risk, regular screening and effective suicide prevention programmes are warranted.
As lack of forage resource, alternative roughage sources have been developed for ruminant production and their inclusion would exert a great effect on the dietary nutrition, consequently affecting animal performance. Four silages (corn silage (CS), corn stalk silage (SS), inoculated CS and inoculated SS) were separately offered to 60 Bohai Black cattle (15 cattle/group) during a 24-week finishing period, in which the growth performance, carcass trait, beef quality and oxidative stability of steers were determined. Neither silage material nor silage inoculant exerted a significant effect on the growth performance, carcass trait and oxidative stability of beef cattle (P>0.05). As to beef quality, cattle offered CS had higher (P<0.05) contents of intramuscular fat than those offered SS along with a lower moisture content (P<0.05). The contents (mg/g muscle) of C10 : 0, C12 : 0, C14 : 1, C16 : 0, C16 : 1, C18 : 1n9c, C18 : 2n6c, C18 : 3n3, C20 : 1n9, C20 : 2, C20 : 3n6, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6 fatty acids were higher (P<0.05) in the beef muscle of animals offered CS than those offered SS, whereas inoculated treatment made no difference (P>0.05) on the proximate components and fatty acids profile of beef muscle. There was neither an interaction (P>0.05) between inoculated treatment and silage material. There were no differences (P>0.05) in cholesterol content and meat quality traits in animals fed alternative silages. The collective findings suggest that it is not economical to substitute high-quality forage for relative low-quality forage in a high-concentrate finishing ration of beef cattle and silage inoculant inclusion would not exert a direct effect on animal performance.
Based on the definition of divisibility of Markovian quantum dynamics, we discuss the Markovianity of tensor products, multiplications and some convex combinations of Markovian quantum dynamics. We prove that the tensor product of two Markovian dynamics is also a Markovian dynamics and propose a new witness of non-Markovianity.
To extrapolate the influence of plant cultivars varying in resistance levels to hosts on parasitoid life history traits, we estimated variation in parasitoid developmental and reproductive performances as a function of resistance in soybean cultivars, which were randomly chosen from a line of resistant genotypes. Our study showed that the parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis varied widely in offspring survival and lifetime fecundity, but varied slightly in development time and adult body size, in response to the soybean cultivars that varied in resistance to the host Spodoptera litura. Furthermore, the variability in survival and lifetime fecundity was different between attacking the 2nd and the 4th instar host larvae, varying more in survival but less in lifetime fecundity when attacking the 4th than 2nd instar larvae. Our study provides further evidence supporting that plant resistance to herbivorous hosts have variable effects on different life history traits of higher trophic level parasitoids.
We present LAMOST observations and radial velocity measurements of about 1500 planetary nebulae (PNe) in M31 and M33. Most of the PNe are previously known, but 36 of them are newly discovered in the outskirts of M31, and the furthest one has a projected distance larger than 50 kpc away from the galaxy center. Eighteen objects in the area of M33 are probably newly discovered PNe, and quite a few of them are associated with previously known clusters. For all the 1500 PNe, homogeneous radial velocities are measured from the LAMOST spectra, with a typical uncertainty of a few km s−1.
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute contagious condition caused by a spectrum of human enteroviruses. HFMD reinfection is common in the absence of cross-protection from other virus subtypes. This study focused on reinfection in children in Anhui province, China between 2008 and 2013 using surveillance system data. We classified 8960 cases as reinfected, corresponding to a rate of 2·02%. The reinfection rate was higher in boys than in girls [odds ratio (OR) 1·27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·21–1·32, P < 0·001], children aged < 3 years (OR 3·82, 95% CI 3·58–4·07, P < 0·001), and children living in rural areas (OR 1·09, 95% CI 1·04–1·14, P = 0·001). The reinfection rate in children who were originally infected with non-enterovirus A71 (non-EVA71) enteroviruses was higher than those infected with EVA71 (OR 1·36, 95% CI 1·02–1·80, P = 0·034). Influential factors of reinfection rate included annual incidence (β coefficient = 0·715, P = 0·002) and the proportion of EVA71 in patients with mild HFMD (β coefficient = −0·509, P = 0·018). These results demonstrate that boys aged <3 years, especially those in rural areas or regions with a lower EVA71 proportion are more prone to reinfection, and specific health education programmes should be developed to protect these susceptible populations.
Introduction: Serum lactate levels are useful indicators of illness severity such as sepsis. Previous investigations have shown that lactate is a potential biomarker for glioma malignancy; mechanism of which may be related to Warburg effect - accelerated lactate production when tumors uniquely undergo aerobic glycolysis. Our study reveals a correlation between serum lactate and meningioma WHO grade. We also observed a relationship between radiation effect on metastatic brain tumors and lactate levels. Methods: Data was collected from the charts of 14 patients with grade I meningiomas, 6 grade II meningiomas, and 9 metastatic brain tumors who underwent resection at our institution from 2013-2014. T test and ANCOVA were carried using R software controlling for base deficit. Results: The mean age was 53 years, with 75% females. There was a statistically significant change in intra- and post-operative lactate during meningioma resections, which had a strong positive correlation with grade (p<0.005). Interestingly, the lactate rise was not significant for metastatic brain tumors (p=0.13), but had a positive correlation with tumors that received pre-operative radiation (p<0.05). Conclusion: Lactate is a potential non-invasive biomarker for brain tumor malignancy, as demonstrated in gliomas and meningiomas. Identifying metabolic biomarkers and their relationship to tumor pathology is important to understanding disease processes and improving patient care.
Introduction: Surgical removal is the standard treatment for Cushing’s disease. Although endoscopic transsphenoidal surgical (ETS) approach has grown in popularity, its efficacy has not yet been established. Furthermore, achieving long-term remission remains challenging. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 39 consecutive patients who underwent ETS for Cushing’s disease at our institution between 2005 and 2014. Univariate analysis using Pearson’s χ2 test was carried out on variables of patient demographics, radiology, pathology, biochemical markers versus recurrence. Results: The mean age was 40, with 82% females. Average length of follow-up was 44.8 months. Based on serum cortisol level, 28 patients (71%) achieved mid to long-term remission after ETS. Of them, 25 experienced an immediate remission, and 3 achieved a delayed remission as long as 4 months postoperatively. MRI findings of (1) microadenomas or no detectable abnormality, (2) adjacency to the cavernous sinus wall were associated with significantly higher recurrence rate (p<0.05). Histologically, MIB-1 >5% was not a significant variable (p=0.55). Conclusion: We found ETS resection to be an effective and safe procedure for majority of the ACTH-secreting adenomas, with remission rates >70%. Additionally, patients with microadenomas, negative preoperative MR, and cavernous sinus adjacency were less likely to achieve remission.
We have developed efficient numerical algorithms for solving 3D steady-state Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations with excess chemical potentials described by the classical density functional theory (cDFT). The coupled PNP equations are discretized by a finite difference scheme and solved iteratively using the Gummel method with relaxation. The Nernst-Planck equations are transformed into Laplace equations through the Slotboom transformation. Then, the algebraic multigrid method is applied to efficiently solve the Poisson equation and the transformed Nernst-Planck equations. A novel strategy for calculating excess chemical potentials through fast Fourier transforms is proposed, which reduces computational complexity from O(N2) to O(NlogN), where N is the number of grid points. Integrals involving the Dirac delta function are evaluated directly by coordinate transformation, which yields more accurate results compared to applying numerical quadrature to an approximated delta function. Numerical results for ion and electron transport in solid electrolyte for lithiumion (Li-ion) batteries are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data and the results from previous studies.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
A new route for atom-economical synthesis of functional polymers was developed. Oxidative polycoupling of 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole with 4,4’-(α,ω-alkylenedioxy) bis(diphenylacetylene)s and 1,2-diphenyl-1,2-bis[4-(phenylethynyl)phenyl]ethene, respectively, were catalyzed by [Cp*RhCl2]2, 1,2,3,4-tetraphenylcyclopenta-1,3-diene and copper(II) acetate in dimethylformamide under stoichiometric imbalance conditions, affording soluble poly(pyrazolylnaphthalene)s in satisfactory yields (isolation yield up to 82%) with high molecular weights (Mw up to 35700). All the polymers were thermally stable, losing little of their weight at high temperatures of 323–422 oC. They possessed good film-forming property and their thin solid films showed high refractive indices (RI = 1.747–1.593) in a wide wavelength region of 400−1000 nm. The polymer carrying tetraphenylethene unit displayed a phenomenon of aggregation-induced emission and showed enhanced light emission in the aggregated state.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.