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The fourth edition of Australian Intellectual Property Law provides a detailed and comprehensive, yet concise and accessible discussion of intellectual property law in Australia. This edition has been thoroughly revised to cover the most recent developments in intellectual property law, including significant case law and discussion of the proposed and enacted amendments to the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) and the Plant Breeder's Rights Act 1994 (Cth). The text has been restructured, but continues to provide a complete discussion of the black-letter aspects of the law. Commencing with copyright, then followed by design law, confidential information, patents, plant breeder's rights, then finally trade marks. The work ends with a chapter on enforcing legal rights and civil remedies. Written by highly-respected intellectual property law researchers this text is an invaluable resource for both undergraduate and postgraduate students, academics and other professionals working with intellectual property.
This chapter centers on the sociolinguistic situation of Germanic languages spoken in minority communities around the world. Following a descriptive typology formulated by a geographer (White 1987) and a social psychologist (Edwards 1992, 2004), 21 Germanic minority languages are analyzed with an eye to understanding which external factors promote their maintenance or lead to a shift to a majority language. Special attention is paid to the most successful cases of minority language maintenance, which are found in highly traditional Anabaptist Christian and orthodox Jewish communities. The Germanic heritage languages of these groups are not only surviving, they are growing at rates not matched by any other language, large or small, in the world.
We tested for plague (Yersinia pestis) in a puma population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) over 9 years, overlapping a case when a boy in the area became infected with plague. Antibodies to Y. pestis were detected in 8 of 17 (47%) pumas tested by complement-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the organism itself was detected in 4 of 11 (36%) pumas tested after necropsy. Neither puma sex nor age was significantly associated with Y. pestis exposure or mortality, although our sample size was small. The overall prevalence of exposure we recorded was similar to that found along the western slope of Colorado, which is adjacent to the Four Corners region, a known plague hotspot in the USA. This suggests that: (1) Y. pestis may be present at higher levels in the GYE than previously assumed; (2) plague is a significant source of mortality for local pumas (6.6% of sub-adult and adult mortality); and (3) pumas may be a useful sentinel for potential risk of plague exposure to humans throughout the West. We would also emphasize that hunters and others handling pumas in this region should be made aware of the possibility of exposure.
Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide and is the only sport where athletes purposely use their head to deflect the ball during play, termed “heading” the ball. These repetitive head impacts (RHI) are associated with worse neuropsychological function; however, factors that can increase risk of injury following exposure to such head impacts have been largely unexamined. The present study provided a novel examination of the modifying role of sleep on the relationship between RHI exposure and neuropsychological function in college-age soccer players.
Fifty varsity and intramural college soccer players completed questionnaires assessing recent and long-term heading exposure, a self-report measure of sleep function, and a battery of neuropsychological tests.
A high level of recent heading exposure was significantly associated with poorer processing speed, independent of concussion history. With reduced sleep duration, a high level of recent heading exposure was related to worse sustained attention. However, with greater hours of sleep duration, heading exposure was related to preserved neuropsychological outcome in sustained attention.
We replicated our earlier finding of an association between recent head impact exposure and worse processing speed in an independent sample. In addition, we found that sleep may serve as a risk or protective factor for soccer players following extensive exposure to head impacts. Ultimately, this study furthers the understanding of factors impacting neuropsychological function in soccer players and provides empirical support for sleep interventions to help ensure safer soccer play and recovery from injury.
We enumerate the number of isoclinism classes of semi-extraspecial p-groups with derived subgroup of order p2. To do this, we enumerate GL (2, p)-orbits of sets of irreducible, monic polynomials in 𝔽p[x]. Along the way, we also provide a new construction of an infinite family of semi-extraspecial groups as central quotients of Heisenberg groups over local algebras.
Balloon aortic valvuloplasty and open surgical valvotomy are procedures to treat neonatal aortic stenosis, and there is controversy as to which method has superior outcomes.
We reviewed the records of patients at our institution since 2000 who had a balloon aortic valvuloplasty or surgical valvotomy via an open commissurotomy prior to 2 months of age.
Forty patients had balloon aortic valvuloplasty and 15 patients had surgical valvotomy via an open commissurotomy. There was no difference in post-procedure mean gradient by transthoracic echocardiogram, which were 25.8 mmHg for balloon aortic valvuloplasty and 26.2 mmHg for surgical valvotomy, p = 0.87. Post-procedure, 15% of balloon aortic valvuloplasty patients had moderate aortic insufficiency and 2.5% of patients had severe aortic insufficiency, while no surgical valvotomy patients had moderate or severe aortic insufficiency. The average number of post-procedure hospital days was 14.2 for balloon aortic valvuloplasty and 19.8 for surgical valvotomy (p = 0.52). Freedom from re-intervention was 69% for balloon aortic valvuloplasty and 67% for surgical valvotomy at 1 year, and 43% for balloon aortic valvuloplasty and 67% for surgical valvotomy at 5 years (p = 0.60).
Balloon aortic valvuloplasty and surgical valvotomy provide similar short-term reduction in valve gradient. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty has a slightly shorter but not statistically significant hospital stay. Freedom from re-intervention is similar at 1 year. At 5 years, it is slightly higher in surgical valvotomy, though not statistically different. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty had a higher incidence of significant aortic insufficiency. Long-term comparisons cannot be made given the lack of long-term follow-up with surgical valvotomy.
Field trials were conducted in North Carolina in 2017 and Louisiana and Mississippi in 2018 to determine the effect of pre-transplanting applications of diquat on sweetpotato crop tolerance, yield, and storage root quality. At North Carolina treatments consisted of two rates of diquat (560 or 1,120 g ai ha-1) alone or mixed with 107 g ai ha-1 flumioxazin and applied 1 d before transplanting (DBP), sequential applications of diquat (560 or 1,120 g ha-1) 1 and 17 DBP, 107 g ha-1 flumioxazin alone, and a non-treated check. At Louisiana and Mississippi treatments consisted of diquat (560 or 1,120 g ha-1) applied 1 DBP either alone or followed by (fb) rehipping rows or 107 g ha-1 flumioxazin immediately prior to transplanting. Additional treatments included 546 g ha-1 paraquat applied 1 DBP and a non-treated check. At North Carolina injury was ≤ 3% for all treatments through 23 DAP, and no injury was observed after 23 DAP. Visual sweetpotato stunting pooled across Mississippi and Louisiana ranged from 1 to 14%, 0 to 6%, and 0 to 3% at 2, 4, and 6 WAP, respectively and no crop injury was observed after 6 WAP. Diquat applied 1 DBP and not fb rehipping resulted in greater crop injury (12%) than comparable treatments which were rehipped (2%). At North Carolina single and sequential diquat applications resulted in reduced no. 1 sweetpotato yield (24,230 and 24,280 kg ha-1, respectively) compared to the non-treated check, but no. 1 yield of diquat plus flumioxazin (26,330 kg ha-1) was similar to the non-treated check. No. 1 yield did not differ by treatment in Louisiana and Mississippi.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
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Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a complication unique to monochorionic (MC) twins and affects 10–15% of MC twins, including MC twin pairs in higher order multiple pregnancies. The disease has fascinated obstetric specialists since it was first described in 1875 , when it was recognized as a condition not amenable to treatment and with a very high perinatal loss rate. Since then, TTTS has provided many challenges, not only in terms of deciphering the underlying pathogenesis but also in attempting to alter the clinical course of a condition with a >90% perinatal loss rate untreated and very high (>50%) neurological morbidity in any surviving babies [2, 3]. Outcomes improve dramatically with treatment, which will be discussed in detail in Chapters 32, 33, and 35. However, even with treatment 12% of TTTS pregnancies will end with a double fetal loss, and only 62% with two survivors .
The Ross procedure involves using the native pulmonary valve for aortic valve replacement then replacing the pulmonary valve with an allograft or xenograft. We aimed to compare our age-matched experience with the bovine jugular vein conduit and the pulmonary homograft for pulmonary valve replacement during the Ross procedure in children.
Between 1998 and 2016, 15 patients <18 years of age underwent a Ross procedure using the bovine jugular vein conduit (Ross-Bovine Jugular Vein Conduit) at our institution. These patients were age-matched with 15 patients who had the Ross operation with a standard pulmonary homograft for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction (Ross-Pulmonary Homograft). Paper and electronic medical records were retrospectively reviewed.
The median age of the Ross-Bovine Jugular Vein Conduit and Ross-Pulmonary Homograft patients were 4.8 years (interquartile range 1.1–6.6) and 3.3 years (interquartile 1.2–7.6), respectively (p = 0.6). The median follow-up time for the Ross-Bovine Jugular Vein Conduit and Ross-Pulmonary Homograft groups were 1.7 years (interquartile range 0.5–4.9) and 6.8 years (interquartile range 1.9–13.4), respectively (p = 0.03). Overall, 5-year survival, freedom from redo aortic valve replacement, and freedom from pulmonary valve replacement were similar between groups.
The bovine jugular vein conduit and pulmonary homograft have favourable mid-term durability when used for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction for the Ross operation. The bovine jugular vein conduit may be a suitable replacement for appropriately sized patients undergoing a Ross aortic valve replacement, though longer follow-up is needed.
This chapter assesses the implications of UN SDG 16: ‘Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions’ for both forests and people. Particular focus is placed on three thematic areas: 1) peace and the reduction of armed conflict, 2) the rule of law, accountability, transparency, and access to justice and 3) inclusiveness and participation. Conflict is widely variable in its effects, and may either prevent agricultural expansion or drive illicit crop production, and foster migration in or out of forested areas; while peace is often accompanied by state-supported mining and expansion of commercial crops. Regarding rule of law, forest policy in many countries favours political elite, large-scale industry actors and international trade. Hence, if SDG implementation strengthens state institutions, the ‘rule of law’ and transparency linked with international trade, it is likely to reinforce existing inequalities, unless it is counter-balanced with legal reforms that strengthen local rights to land and resources. While there has been much recent progress in promoting ‘participatory’ forest management, this is often tightly controlled by the state, contributing to local administrative burdens without redistributing power and benefits. In sum, the impacts of SDG 16 on forests and people depend on how it shapes power and resource distribution.
Pennsylvania German (known as Pennsylvania Dutch by most of its speakers) is a North American language that developed in colonial Pennsylvania and is most similar to the dialects of the southeastern Palatinate (Vorderpfalz) (Louden 2016).
Background: Adults are at risk of being exposed to influenza from many sources. Healthcare personnel (HCP) have the additional risk of being exposed to ill patients.
To determine whether HCP were at higher risk than adults working in nonhealthcare roles (non-HCP).
Prospective cohort study.
Acute-care hospitals and other businesses in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Adults aged 18–69 years were enrolled for 1 or more of the 2010/2011, 2011/2012, and 2012/2013 influenza seasons. Swabs collected during acute respiratory illnesses were tested for influenza and pre- and postseason blood samples were tested for influenza-specific immune response.
The adjusted odds of influenza were similar for HCP and non-HCP (odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–2.63). Older adults and those vaccinated against influenza had lower odds, and those who shared their workspace and who used corrective eyewear had higher odds of influenza.
HCP and other working adults are at similar risk of influenza infection.
I use the examples of medical devices, clinical trials and health data, to look at the framing of harm through the language of technological risk and failure. Across the examples, there is little or no suggestion of failure by those formally responsible. Failure is seen as arising when harm becomes refracted through calculative techniques and judgments, and reaches a point where the expectations of safety built into technological framings of regulation are thwarted. Technological framings may marginalise the contribution patients, research participants and others can make to regulation, which may in turn underlie harm and lead to the construction of failure. This marginalisation may amount to epistemic injustice. Epistemic injustice and its link to failure, which has normative weight over and above harm, can present a risk to organisational standing and reputation. This risk can be used to improve the knowledge base to include stakeholder knowledges of harm, and to widen responsibilities and accountabilities. This promises to allow regulation to better anticipate and prevent harm and failure, and improve the efficacy and legitimacy of the health research enterprise.
Prevention and control of respiratory disease is a major contributor to antibiotic use in swine. A systematic review was conducted to address the question, ‘What is the comparative efficacy of antimicrobials for the prevention of swine respiratory disease?’ Eligible studies were controlled trials published in English evaluating prophylactic antibiotics in swine, where clinical morbidity, mortality, or total antibiotic use was assessed. Four databases and the gray literature were searched for relevant articles. Two reviewers working independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility followed by full-text articles, and then extracted data and evaluated risk of bias for eligible trials. There were 44 eligible trials from 36 publications. Clinical morbidity was evaluated in eight trials where antibiotics were used in nursery pigs and 10 trials where antibiotics were used in grower pigs. Mortality was measured in 22 trials in nursery pigs and 12 trials in grower pigs. There was heterogeneity in the antibiotic interventions and comparisons published in the literature; thus, there was insufficient evidence to allow quantification of the efficacy, or relative efficacy, of antibiotic interventions. Concerns related to statistical non-independence and quality of reporting were noted in the included trials.
A systematic review and network meta-analysis (MA) was conducted to address the question, ‘What is the efficacy of bacterial vaccines to prevent respiratory disease in swine?’ Four electronic databases and the grey literature were searched to identify clinical trials in healthy swine where at least one intervention arm was a commercially available vaccine for one or more bacterial pathogens associated with respiratory disease in swine, including Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia, Actinobacillus suis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, Stretococcus suis, Haemophils parasuis, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. To be eligible, trials had to measure at least one of the following outcomes: incidence of clinical morbidity, mortality, lung lesions, or total antibiotic use. There were 179 eligible trials identified in 146 publications. Network MA was undertaken for morbidity, mortality, and the presence or absence of non-specific lung lesions. However, there was not a sufficient body of research evaluating the same interventions and outcomes to allow a meaningful synthesis of the comparative efficacy of the vaccines. To build this body of research, additional rigor in trial design and analysis, and detailed reporting of trial methods and results are warranted.
To promote good governance, citizens can inform governments directly and routinely about the implementation of policies and the delivery of public services. Yet citizens lack incentives to provide information when they do not expect governments to be responsive, and citizen disengagement in turn often prevents governments from providing public goods effectively. In two field experiments, we studied potential remedies to this dilemma related to solid waste services in Uganda. We randomly assigned reporters to be recruited by community nomination and to be recognized by community leaders in an attempt to select for and motivate information sharing. We also randomly assigned reporters to hear from the government about how their reports were used to make real improvements to waste services. Community nominations and public announcements did not increase reporting. However, responsiveness boosted participation over several months for reporters who had been recruited earliest and had been reporting longest, highlighting the critical role of timely government responsiveness in sustaining information flows from citizens.
By protecting vulnerable people from poverty and debt, welfare systems can be powerful tools for promoting mental health. However, the details of how welfare systems are implemented determine whether they also cause harm. Here, we review evidence and principles that might guide the development of mental health-promoting welfare systems.