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Ruminants fed high-forage diets usually have a low feed efficiency, and their performances might be limited by methionine (Met) supply. However, the INRA feeding system for growing cattle does not give recommendation for this amino acid (AA). This study aimed to assess the effects of Met-balanced diets on animal performance and N metabolism in young bulls fed high-forage diets formulated at or above protein requirements. Four diets resulting from a factorial arrangement of two protein levels (Normal (13·5 % crude protein) v. High (16·2 % crude protein)) crossed with two Met concentrations (unbalanced (2·0 % of metabolisable protein) v. balanced (2·6 % of metabolisable protein)) were tested on thirty-four fattening Charolais bulls for 7 months before slaughter. Animal growth rate was greater in Met-balanced diets (+8 %; P = 0·02) with a trend for a greater impact in High v. Normal protein diets (P = 0·10). This trend was observed in lower plasma concentrations of branched-chain AA only when Met supplementation was applied to the Normal protein diet (P ≤ 0·06) suggesting another co-limiting AA at Normal protein level. Feed conversion efficiency and N use efficiency were unaffected by Met supplementation (P > 0·05). However, some plasma indicators suggested a better use of AA when High protein diets were balanced v. unbalanced in Met. The proportion of total adipose tissue in carcass increased (+5 percent units; P = 0·03), whereas that of muscle decreased on average 0·8 percent units (P = 0·05) in Met-balanced diets. Our results justify the integration of AA into dietary recommendations for growing cattle.
For their glucose supply, ruminants are highly dependent on the endogenous synthesis in the liver, but despite the numerous studies that evaluated hepatic glucose production, very few simultaneously measured hepatic glucose production and uptake of all precursors. As a result, the variability of precursor conversion into glucose in the liver is not known. The present study aimed at investigating by meta-analysis the relationships between hepatic glucose net release and uptake of precursors. We used the FLuxes of nutrients across Organs and tissues in Ruminant Animals database, which gathers international results on net nutrient fluxes at splanchnic level measured in catheterized animals. Response equations were developed for intakes up to 41 g DM intake/kg BW per day of diets varying from 0 to 100 g of concentrate/100 g DM in the absence of additives. The net hepatic uptake of propionate, α-amino-N and l-lactate was linearly and better related to their net portal appearance (NPA) than to their afferent hepatic flux. Blood flow data were corrected for lack of deacetylation of the para-aminohippuric acid, and this correction was shown to impact the response equations. To develop response equations between the availability of precursors (portal appearance and hepatic uptake) and net glucose hepatic release, missing data on precursor fluxes were predicted from dietary characteristics using previously developed response equations. Net hepatic release of glucose was curvilinearly related to hepatic supply and uptake of the sum of precursors, suggesting a lower conversion rate of precursors at high precursor supply. Factors of variation were explored for the linear portion of this relationship, which applied to NPA of precursors ranging from 0.99 to 9.60 mmol C/kg BW per h. Hepatic release of glucose was shown to be reduced by the portal absorption of glucose from diets containing bypass starch and to be increased by an increased uptake of β-hydroxybutyrate indicative of higher body tissue mobilization. These relationships were affected by the physiological status of the animals. In conclusion, we established equations that quantify the net release of glucose by the liver from the net availability of precursors. They provide a quantitative overview of factors regulating hepatic glucose synthesis in ruminants. These equations can be linked with the predictions of portal absorption of nutrients from intake and dietary characteristics, and provide indications of glucose synthesis from dietary characteristics.
Rotavirus (RV) is the main cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children. The San Luis province of Argentina introduced RV vaccination in May 2013. We estimate vaccine impact (RVI) using real-world data. Data on all-cause AGE cases and AGE-related hospitalisations for San Luis and the adjacent Mendoza province (control group) were obtained and analysed by interrupted time-series methods. Regardless of the model used for counterfactual predictions, we estimated a reduction in the number of all-cause AGE cases of 20–25% and a reduction in AGE-related hospitalisations of 55–60%. The vaccine impact was similar for each age group considered (<1 year, <2 years and <5 years). RV vaccination was estimated to have reduced direct medical costs in the province by about 4.5 million pesos from May 2013 to December 2014. Similar to previous studies, we found a higher impact of RV vaccination in preventing severe all-cause AGE cases requiring hospitalisation than in preventing all-cases AGE cases presenting for medical care. An assessment of the economic value of RV vaccination could take other benefits into account in addition to the avoided medical costs and the costs of vaccination.
Clinical Enterobacteriacae isolates with a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥4 mg/L from a United States hospital were screened for the mcr-1 gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Four colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates contained mcr-1. Two isolates belonged to the same sequence type (ST-632). All subjects had prior international travel and antimicrobial exposure.
Animal’s feed efficiency in growing cattle (i.e. the animal ability to reach a market or adult BW with the least amount of feed intake), is a key factor in the beef cattle industry. Feeding systems have made huge progress to understand dietary factors influencing the average animal feed efficiency. However, there exists a considerable amount of animal-to-animal variation around the average feed efficiency observed in beef cattle reared in similar conditions, which is still far from being understood. This review aims to identify biological determinants and molecular pathways involved in the between-animal variation in feed efficiency with particular reference to growing beef cattle phenotyped for residual feed intake (RFI). Moreover, the review attempts to distinguish true potential determinants from those revealed through simple associations or indirectly linked to RFI through their association with feed intake. Most representative and studied biological processes which seem to be connected to feed efficiency were reviewed, such as feeding behaviour, digestion and methane production, rumen microbiome structure and functioning, energy metabolism at the whole body and cellular levels, protein turnover, hormone regulation and body composition. In addition, an overall molecular network analysis was conducted for unravelling networks and their linked functions involved in between-animal variation in feed efficiency. The results from this review suggest that feeding and digestive-related mechanisms could be associated with RFI mainly because they co-vary with feed intake. Although much more research is warranted, especially with high-forage diets, the role of feeding and digestive related mechanisms as true determinants of animal variability in feed efficiency could be minor. Concerning the metabolic-related mechanisms, despite the scarcity of studies using reference methods it seems that feed efficient animals have a significantly lower energy metabolic rate independent of the associated intake reduction. This lower heat production in feed efficient animals may result from a decreased protein turnover and a higher efficiency of ATP production in mitochondria, both mechanisms also identified in the molecular network analysis. In contrast, hormones and body composition could not be conclusively related to animal-to-animal variation in feed efficiency. The analysis of potential biological networks underlying RFI variations highlighted other significant pathways such as lipid metabolism and immunity and stress response. Finally, emerging knowledge suggests that metabolic functions underlying genetic variation in feed efficiency could be associated with other important traits in animal production. This emphasizes the relevance of understanding the biological basis of relevant animal traits to better define future balanced breeding programmes.
We present ALMA band 7 data of the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6. In addition to lines of CO and its isotopologues, the circumstellar envelope also exhibits a number of emission lines due to metal-containing molecules, e.g., NaCl and KCl. A lack of C18O is expected, but a non-detection of C17O is puzzling given the strengths of H217O in Herschel spectra of the star. However, a line associated with Si17O is detected. We also report a tentative detection of a gas-phase emission line of MgS. The ALMA spectrum of this object reveals intriguing features which may be used to investigate chemical processes and dust formation during a high mass-loss phase.
Animal proteins are naturally 15N enriched relative to the diet and the extent of this difference (Δ15Nanimal-diet or N isotopic fractionation) has been correlated to N use efficiency (NUE; N gain or milk N yield/N intake) in some recent ruminant studies. The present study used meta-analysis to investigate whether Δ15Nanimal-diet can be used as a predictor of NUE across a range of dietary conditions, particularly at the level of between-animal variation. An additional objective was to identify variables related to N partitioning explaining the link between NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet. Individual values from eight publications reporting both NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet for domestic ruminants were used to create a database comprising 11 experimental studies, 41 treatments and individual animal values for NUE (n=226) and Δ15Nanimal-diet (n=291). Data were analyzed by mixed-effect regression analysis taking into account experimental factors as random effects on both the intercept and slope of the model. Diets were characterized according to the INRA feeding system in terms of N utilization at the rumen, digestive and metabolic levels. These variables were used in a partial least squares regression analysis to predict separately NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet variation, with the objective of identifying common variables linking NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet. For individuals reared under similar conditions (within-study) and at the same time (within-period), the variance of NUE and Δ15Nanimal-diet not explained by dietary treatments (i.e. between-animal variation plus experimental error) was 35% and 55%, respectively. Mixed-effect regression analysis conducted with treatment means showed that Δ15Nanimal-diet was significantly and negatively correlated to NUE variation across diets (NUE=0.415 −0.055×Δ15Nanimal-diet). When using individual values and taking into account the random effects of study, period and diet, the relationship was also significant (NUE=0.358 −0.035×Δ15Nanimal-diet). However, there may be a biased prediction for animals close to zero, or in negative, N balance. When using a novel statistical approach, attempting to regress between-animal variation in NUE on between-animal variation in Δ15Nanimal-diet (without the influence of experimental factors), the negative relationship was still significant, highlighting the ability of Δ15Nanimal-diet to capture individual variability. Among the studied variables related to N utilization, those concerning N efficiency use at the metabolic level contributed most to predict both Δ15Nanimal-diet and NUE variation, with rumen fermentation and digestion contributing to a lesser extent. This study confirmed that on average Δ15Nanimal-diet can predict NUE variation across diets and across individuals reared under similar conditions.
Outstanding problems concerning mass-loss from evolved stars include initial wind acceleration and what determines the clumping scale. Reconstructing physical conditions from maser data has been highly uncertain due to the exponential amplification. ALMA and e-MERLIN now provide image cubes for five H2O maser transitions around VY CMa, at spatial resolutions comparable to the size of individual clouds or better, covering excitation states from 204 to 2360 K. We use the model of Gray et al. 2016, to constrain variations of number density and temperature on scales of a few au, an order of magnitude finer than is possible with thermal lines, comparable to individual cloud sizes or locally almost homogeneous regions. We compare results with the models of Decin et al. 2006 and Matsuura et al. 2014 for the circumstellar envelope of VY CMa; in later work this will be extended to other maser sources.
Personality dimensions related with drug use are novelty seeking, impulsivity and harm avoidance. Studies predicting drug of choice over personality variables are controversial.
To describe personality profile of drug users in relation to substance of choice.
To know personality dimension differences according to drug used.
Cloninger's TCI-R was administered to 218 patients in a dual diagnosis unit.
SPSS was applied.
Of the patients, 33.94% had personality disorder. Principal substances used were alcohol, cocaine and cannabis.
Most of drug users had normal scores in each dimension. No high scores were found in reward dependence, self-directedness and cooperativeness with any drug.
High scores were observed for novelty seeking in 42.9% of timulants users; for arm avoidance in a quarter of cocaine, alcohol and methadone users and for persistence in 18.2% of hypnotics users.
Low scores were observed for reward dependence in 45% of heroine and hypnotics users; for persistence in 50% of methadone and 32% of cocaine users; for self-directedness in most of types of drug users and for cooperativeness in up to 50% in heroine, hypnotics, stimulants and cocaine users.
Statistical significant differences were observed for cocaine use and high novelty seeking and low cooperation; for non cannabis use and high harm avoidance; for non anfetamine use and low scores in reward dependence; for opiate use and low self-directedness.
Most of patients had normal scores in the different dimensions.
Presence of comorbid personality disorder led us to consider the results with caution.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
For energy feeding systems for ruminants to evolve towards a nutrient-based system, dietary energy supply has to be determined in terms of amount and nature of nutrients. The objective of this study was to establish response equations of the net hepatic flux and net splanchnic release of acetate, butyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate to changes in diet and animal profiles. A meta-analysis was applied on published data compiled from the FLuxes of nutrients across Organs and tissues in Ruminant Animals database, which pools the results from international publications on net splanchnic nutrient fluxes measured in multi-catheterized ruminants. Prediction variables were identified from current knowledge on digestion, hepatic and other tissue metabolism. Subsequently, physiological and other, more integrative, predictors were obtained. Models were established for intakes up to 41 g dry matter per kg BW per day and diets containing up to 70 g concentrate per 100 g dry matter. Models predicted the net hepatic fluxes or net splanchnic release of each nutrient from its net portal appearance and the animal profile. Corrections were applied to account for incomplete hepatic recovery of the blood flow marker, para-aminohippuric acid. Changes in net splanchnic release (mmol/kg BW per hour) could then be predicted by combining the previously published net portal appearance models and the present net hepatic fluxes models. The net splanchnic release of acetate and butyrate were thus predicted from the intake of ruminally fermented organic matter (RfOM) and the nature of RfOM (acetate: residual mean square error (RMSE)=0.18; butyrate: RMSE=0.01). The net splanchnic release of β-hydroxybutyrate was predicted from RfOM intake and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.035), or from the net portal appearance of butyrate and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.050). Models obtained were independent of ruminant species, and presented low interfering factors on the residuals, least square means or individual slopes. The model equations highlighted the importance of considering the physiological state of animals when predicting splanchnic metabolism. This work showed that it is possible to use simple predictors to accurately predict the amount and nature of ketogenic nutrients released towards peripheral tissues in both sheep and cattle at different physiological status. These results provide deeper insight into biological processes and will contribute to the development of improved tools for dietary formulation.
We present the optical/infrared counterpart to GT0106+613, a transient gamma-ray source believed to be a blazar. Long-term differential photometry and satellite information was used to confirm the variability in optical/infrared wavelengths, correlated with gamma-ray flares from the source. An intense optical flare with no counterpart in gamma-rays is also remarkable.
The Geriatric Anxiety Scale (GAS; Segal et al. (Segal, D. L., June, A., Payne, M., Coolidge, F. L. and Yochim, B. (2010). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 709–714. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.002) is a self-report measure of anxiety that was designed to address unique issues associated with anxiety assessment in older adults. This study is the first to use item response theory (IRT) to examine the psychometric properties of a measure of anxiety in older adults.
A large sample of older adults (n = 581; mean age = 72.32 years, SD = 7.64 years, range = 60 to 96 years; 64% women; 88% European American) completed the GAS. IRT properties were examined. The presence of differential item functioning (DIF) or measurement bias by age and sex was assessed, and a ten-item short form of the GAS (called the GAS-10) was created.
All GAS items had discrimination parameters of 1.07 or greater. Items from the somatic subscale tended to have lower discrimination parameters than items on the cognitive or affective subscales. Two items were flagged for DIF, but the impact of the DIF was negligible. Women scored significantly higher than men on the GAS and its subscales. Participants in the young-old group (60 to 79 years old) scored significantly higher on the cognitive subscale than participants in the old-old group (80 years old and older).
Results from the IRT analyses indicated that the GAS and GAS-10 have strong psychometric properties among older adults. We conclude by discussing implications and future research directions.
Nitrogen emissions from dairy cows can be readily decreased by lowering the dietary CP concentration. The main objective of this work was to test whether the milk protein yield reduction associated with low N intakes could be partially compensated for by modifying the dietary carbohydrate composition (CHO). The effects of CHO on digestion, milk N efficiency (milk N/N intake; MNE) and animal performance were studied in four Jersey cows fed 100% or 80% of the recommended protein requirements using a 4×4 Latin square design. Four iso-energetic diets were formulated to two different CHO sources (starch diets with starch content of 34.3% and NDF at 32.5%, and fiber diets with starch content of 5.5% and NDF at 49.1%) and two CP levels (Low=12.0% and Normal=16.5%). The apparent digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) and the protein supply (protein digestible in the small intestine; PDIE) were similar between starch and fiber diets. As planned, microbial N flow (MNF) to the duodenum, estimated from the urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, was similar between Low and Normal CP diets. However, the MNF and the efficiency of microbial synthesis (g of microbial N/kg apparently DOMI) were higher for starch v. fiber diets. Milk and milk N fractions (CP, true protein, non-protein N (NPN)) yield were higher for starch compared with fiber diets and for Normal v. Low CP diets. Fecal N excretion was similar across dietary treatments. Despite a higher milk N ouput with starch v. fiber diets, the CHO modified neither the urinary N excretion nor the milk urea-N (MUN) concentration. The milk protein yield relative to both N and PDIE intakes was improved with starch compared with fiber diets. Concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, urea and Glu increased and those of glucose and Ala decreased in plasma of cows fed starch v. fiber diets. On the other hand, plasma concentration of albumin, urea, insulin and His increased in cows fed Normal compared with Low CP diets. This study showed that decreasing the dietary CP proportion from 16.5% to 12.0% increases and decreases considerably the MNE and the urinary N excretion, respectively. Moreover, present results show that at similar digestible OM and PDIE intakes, diets rich in starch improves the MNE and could partially compensate for the negative effects of Low CP diets on milk protein yield.
Triatoma virus (TrV) is a small, non-enveloped virus that has a+ssRNA genome and is currently classified under the Cripavirus genus of the Dicistroviridae family. TrV infects haematophagous triatomine insects (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), which are vectors of American trypanosomosis (Chagas disease). TrV can be transmitted through the horizontal faecal–oral route, and causes either deleterious sublethal effects or even the death of laboratory insect colonies. Various species of triatomines from different regions of Latin America are currently being reared in research laboratories, with little or no awareness of the presence of TrV; therefore, any biological conclusion drawn from experiments on insects infected with this virus is inherently affected by the side effects of its infection. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to estimate the sample size required for detecting a TrV infection. We applied this model to screen the infection in the faeces of triatomines belonging to insectaries from 13 Latin American countries, carrying out the identification of TrV by using RT-PCR. TrV was detected in samples coming from Argentina, which is where the virus was first isolated from Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) several years ago. Interestingly, several colonies from Brazil were also found infected with the virus. This positive result widens the TrV's host range to a total of 14 triatomine species. Our findings suggest that many triatomine species distributed over a large region of South America may be naturally infected with TrV.
N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) are subject of growing interest as they are of particular relevance for meat quality and human health. However, their content in the muscles of cattle is generally low probably as the complex result of their biosynthesis from dietary n-3 PUFA in the muscle and/or in other tissues/organs and of their subsequent uptake by the muscle. In view of this, this study aimed at understanding whether the changes in the muscle n-3 LCPUFA content, depending on the diet (maize silage v. grass) or the muscle type (Rectus abdominis, RA v.Semitendinosus, ST) in 12 Charolais steers, were related to variations in the gene expression of proteins involved in n-3 LCPUFA biosynthesis or cellular uptake. Tissue fatty acid composition was analysed by gas-liquid chromatography and mRNA abundance of proteins by quantitative real-time PCR. The grass-based diet resulted in a 2.3-fold (P < 0.0002) increase in both RA and ST n-3 LCPUFA content compared with the maize silage-based diet, whereas no difference in the expression of genes involved in n-3 LCPUFA biosynthesis and uptake was observed between diets. ST exhibited a 1.5-fold higher n-3 LCPUFA content than RA (P < 0.003), whereas the gene expression of proteins involved in n-3 LCPUFA biosynthesis and uptake was 1.3- to 18-fold higher in RA than in ST (P < 0.05). In conclusion, diet- or muscle type-dependent changes in the muscle n-3 LCPUFA content of Charolais steers did not seem to be mediated by the gene expression regulation of proteins involved in the biosynthesis or uptake of these fatty acids.
This study describes the results of the health programme implemented in the Valencian Community (Spain) to achieve an early diagnosis of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin American women and their newborns. During 2009 and 2010, 1975 women living in the health districts of three university hospitals were enrolled via midwives or at the time of delivery. Diagnosis of disease was performed using two serological tests with different antigens. Congenital infection was diagnosed by parasitological, molecular or serological methods from blood samples obtained at birth or in subsequent controls. The overall seroprevalence of Chagas infection in pregnant women from 16 different endemic countries was 11·4%. Infection was higher in those from countries in the Gran Chaco Region (Bolivia, 34·1%; Paraguay, 7·4%; Argentina, 5·3%). Eight newborn infants from Bolivian mothers had congenital Chagas which represents a vertical transmission rate of 3·7%. In conclusion, this work supports the benefits of offering an early diagnosis to pregnant women and newborns during routine prenatal healthcare.