To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
Knowledge regarding association of dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the contribution of BCAA from meat to the risk of T2D are scarce. We evaluated associations between dietary BCAA intake, meat intake, interaction between BCAA and meat intake and risk of T2D. Data analyses were performed for 74 155 participants aged 50−79 years at baseline from the Women’s Health Initiative for up to 15 years of follow-up. We excluded from analysis participants with treated T2D, and factors potentially associated with T2D or missing covariate data. The BCAA and total meat intake was estimated from FFQ. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the relationship between BCAA intake, meat intake, and T2D, adjusting for confounders. A 20 % increment in total BCAA intake (g/d and %energy) was associated with a 7 % higher risk for T2D (hazard ratio (HR) 1·07; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·09). For total meat intake, a 20 % increment was associated with a 4 % higher risk of T2D (HR 1·04; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·05). The associations between BCAA intake and T2D were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for total meat intake. These relations did not materially differ with or without adjustment for BMI. Our results suggest that dietary BCAA and meat intake are positively associated with T2D among postmenopausal women. The association of BCAA and diabetes risk was attenuated but remained positive after adjustment for meat intake suggesting that BCAA intake in part but not in full is contributing to the association of meat with T2D risk.
Evaluating an intervention’s theoretical basis can inform design modifications to produce more effective interventions. Hence the present study’s purpose was to determine if effects from a multicomponent lifestyle intervention were mediated by changes in the psychosocial constructs decisional balance, self-efficacy and social support.
Delta Body and Soul III, conducted from August 2011 to May 2012, was a 6-month, church-based, lifestyle intervention designed to improve diet quality and increase physical activity. Primary outcomes, diet quality and aerobic and strength/flexibility physical activity, as well as psychosocial constructs, were assessed via self-report, interviewer-administered surveys at baseline and post intervention. Mediation analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares (continuous outcomes) and maximum likelihood logistic (dichotomous outcomes) regression path analysis.
Churches (five intervention and three control) were recruited from four counties in the Lower Mississippi Delta region of the USA.
Based upon results from the multiple mediation models, there was no evidence that treatment (intervention v. control) indirectly influenced changes in diet quality or physical activity through its effects on decisional balance, self-efficacy and social support. However, there was evidence for direct effects of social support for exercise on physical activity and of self-efficacy for sugar-sweetened beverages on diet quality.
Results do not support the hypothesis that the psychosocial constructs decisional balance, self-efficacy and social support were the theoretical mechanisms by which the Delta Body and Soul III intervention influenced changes in diet quality and physical activity.
The prevalence of anti-HEV isotype-specific antibodies and viraemia were investigated in serum samples collected from slaughter-age pigs (aged 22–24 weeks) from 23 farms in Scotland. Of 176 serum samples tested, 29·0% (n = 51) were anti-HEV IgG positive, 36·9% (n = 65) anti-HEV IgA positive and 29·0% (n = 51) anti-HEV IgM positive. Overall seroprevalence (anti-HEV IgG+ and/or IgA+ and/or IgM+) was 61·4% (n = 108). HEV RNA was detected in 72/162 serum samples (44·4%). Partial sequence of ORF2 (98 nt) was obtained from eight HEV RNA-positive samples and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that they were all of genotype 3. This is the first report on the prevalence of HEV in pigs in Scotland. Given the increasing incidence of locally acquired HEV infection in the UK, evidence that HEV is a foodborne zoonosis emphasizes the need for surveillance in pigs.
The homogeneous linear equation of the second order may be solved by means of a, continued fraction whose elements are coefficients in the equation. The two dimensional continued fraction is generalised to m dimensions and yields the solution of the equation of the mth order.
A general formula is obtained for the interference velocity when an aerofoil with elliptically distributed circulation is in a closed or open wind tunnel of any cross-section. The mapping of the section on the interior of a circle is given in terms of the Jacobian elliptic functions appropriate to the ellipse and rectangle. The result is worked out for an aerofoil which spans the focal distance in a tunnel whose section is an ellipse.
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate diet quality among Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) residents using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) and to identify the top five dietary sources contributing to HEI-2005 components. Demographic differences in HEI-2005 scores were also explored.
Diet quality was evaluated using HEI-2005. Demographic differences in HEI-2005 scores were investigated using multivariable regression models adjusting for multiple comparisons. The top five dietary sources contributing to HEI-2005 components were identified by estimating and ranking mean MyPyramid equivalents overall and by demographic characteristics.
Dietary data, based on a single 24 h recall, from the Foods of Our Delta Study 2000 (FOODS 2000) were used in the analyses.
FOODS 2000 adult participants 18 years of age or older.
Younger age was the largest determinant of low diet quality in the LMD with HEI-2005 total and seven component scores declining with decreasing age. Income was not a significant factor for HEI-2005 total or component scores. The top five dietary sources differed by all five of the demographic variables, particularly for total vegetables and energy from solid fats, alcoholic beverages and added sugars (SoFAAS). Soft drinks were the leading source of SoFAAS energy intake for all demographic groups.
The assessment of diet quality and identification of top dietary sources revealed the presence of demographic differences for selected HEI-2005 components. These findings allow identification of food patterns and culturally appropriate messaging and highlight the difficulties of treating this region as a homogeneous population.
Two complementary techniques are used to study the electrical transport properties related to the use of diamonds as materials for ionizing radiation detectors. Transient photoconductivity using soft x-rays is used to probe the first few microns of the material, while ionizing particle-excited conductivity is used to probe the entire bulk of the material (1 millimeter). Both techniques measure the mean drift distance of free carriers, or the collection distance d. In addition, transient photoconductivity is able to extract the lifetimes and mobilities of the excited carriers. The collection distance measured by the two methods are in agreement, suggesting the material is homogeneous. At an applied field of 10 kV/cm, d is 25 to 30 microns, and, up to a field of 25 kV/cm, d has not saturated. The lifetime varies between 100 and 600 ps, and the mobility varies between 1000 and 4000 cm2/V-s, the range due to natural variations from sample to sample. The primary defects limiting the lifetime are believed to be nitrogen impurities and dislocations.
Diamond is suitable for use as an ionizing particle detector for high rate, high radiation, and/or chemically harsh environments. A sampling calorimeter, a detector measuring the total energy of an incident particle, consisting of 20 alternating layers of diamond and tungsten has been constructed and tested. The diamond for the detector layers was grown by chemical vapor deposition with an averaged thickness of 500 μm. The active area of each layer was 3×3 cm2 with ohmic contacts on opposite faces forming a metal-insulator-metal structure. The calorimeter was tested with electrons of energies up to 5.0 GeV. The response of the diamond/tungsten calorimeter was found to be linear as a function of incident energy. A direct comparison of diamond/tungsten and silicon/tungsten calorimeters was made.
Theories of toughness of materials depend on an understanding of the characteristic instabilities of the crack tip, and their possible interactions. In this paper we examine the effect of dislocation emission on subsequent cleavage of a crack and on further dislocation emission. The work is an extension of the previously published Lattice Greens Function methodology[1, 2, 3]. We have developed a Cavity Greens Function describing a blunt crack and used it to study the effect of crack blunting under a range of different force laws. As the crack is blunted, we find a small but noticeable increase in the crack loading needed to propagate the crack. This effect may be of importance in materials where a dislocation source near the crack tip in a brittle material causes the crack to absorb anti-shielding dislocations, and thus cause a blunting of the crack. It is obviously also relevant to cracks in more ductile materials where the crack itself may emit dislocations.
Epitaxially grown GaN by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on SiC were implanted with 100 keV Si+ (for n-type) and 80 keV Mg+ (for p-type) with various fluences from 1×1012 to 7×1015 ions/cm2 at liquid nitrogen temperature (LT), room temperature (RT), and 700 °C (HT). High temperature (1200 °C and 1500 °C) annealing was carried out after capping the GaN with epitaxial AIN by MOCVD to study damage recovery. Samples were capped by a layer of AIN in order to protect the GaN surface during annealing. Effects of implant temperature, damage and dopant activation are critically studied to evaluate a role of ion implantation in doping of GaN. The damage was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channeling, spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence. Results show dependence of radiation damage level on temperature of the substrate during implantation: implantations at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C decrease the lattice disorder; “hot implants” above 550 °C can not be useful in doping of GaN due to nitrogen loss from the surface. SE measurements have indicated very high sensitivity to the implantation damage. PL measurements at LT of 80 keV Mg+ (5×1014 cm-2) implanted and annealed GaN showed two peaks : one ∼100 meV and another ∼140 meV away from the band edge.
Theories of toughness of materials depend on an understanding of the characteristic instabilities of the crack tip, and their possible interactions. In this paper we examine the effect of dislocation emission on subsequent cleavage of a crack and on further dislocation emission. The work is an extension of the previously published Lattice Greens Function methodology[l, 2, 3]. We have developed a Cavity Greens Function describing a blunt crack and used it to study the effect of crack blunting under a range of different force laws. As the crack is blunted, we find a small but noticeable increase in the crack loading needed to propagate the crack. This effect may be of importance in materials where a dislocation source near the crack tip in a brittle material causes the crack to absorb anti-shielding dislocations, and thus cause a blunting of the crack. It is obviously also relevant to cracks in more ductile materials where the crack itself may emit dislocations.
Height profiles spaced 0.008 μm apart across the fracture surface of TNT melt-cast in polycarbonate sleeves have been obtained with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Spatial power spectra (wavelengths of 0.016 μm to 4.0 μm) have been calculated using both a prolate spheroidal data window and a Kaiser window in the horizontal space domain prior to using a fast Fourier transform algorithm. Results based on topographical profiles across the surface include the following. The power spectral density of the individual fracture surface profiles is found to decrease with increasing spatial frequency over the dimensional region examined, ≈ 1.0 μm−1 to ≈ 10.0 μm−1. The spectral amplitudes are found to have a frequency dependence proportional to f s. The determined values of s in the dimensional region 1–10 μm−1 scatter in the range -1 < s < -4. Those values of s outside the range -3 < s < -2 indicate non-fractal fracture. There is significant structure in the spectra even for those with slopes within the range of a fractal dependence. Both observations are consistent with the appearance of numerous peaks in the spectra that indicate that a substantial amount of the fracture occurs at grain boundaries in the form of large clusters of TNT. Such a fracture process is deterministic.
We have studied the formation of titanium silicides in the presence of an ultra-thin layer of Ta, interposed between Ti and Si. In-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD), resistance measurements and elastic light scattering were used to study the thin film reactions in real time during ramp anneals to 1000°C. On poly-Si substrates the Ta thickness was varied from 0 to 1.5 nm while the Ti thickness was held constant at ∼27 nm. The time-resolved XRD shows that the volume fraction of C40 and metal-rich silicide phases grows with increasing Ta layer thickness. Increased Ta layer thicknesses also delay the growth of the C49 disilicide phase to higher temperatures. Among the Ta thicknesses we examined, 0.3 nm is the most effective in lowering the C49-C54 transformation temperature. Films with Ta layers thicker than 0.5 nm do not completely transform into the C54 phase. The texture of the C54 phase is also sensitive to the Ta thickness. The C54 disilicide film is predominantly (010) textured for the Ti / 0.3 nm Ta sample. The final C54 texture is significantly different for Ta layers thinner or thicker than the optimal 0.3 nm. This suggests that the most effective thickness for lowering the C54 formation temperature is related to the development of a strong (010) texture. The possibility of a template effect by the C40 or metal-rich Ti5Si3 phases is also discussed on the basis of texture considerations.