To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Bay of Málaga is located in a high biodiversity and productivity area that harbours a wide variety of commercial species exploited by different fishing fleets. Benthic and demersal fauna from circalittoral soft bottoms have been studied using a benthic dredge (BD) (8 sampling stations) and an otter trawl (OT) (8 sampling stations on a seasonal basis). Some sediment and water column variables, as well as the trawling activity, have also been studied and used for analysing their linkage with the fauna. A total of 287 species have been found in these bottoms and fish, molluscs and crustaceans represented the most diverse and abundant faunistic groups. A new record of the decapod Hippolyte leptometrae for Spanish waters is also included in this study. Some multivariate analyses using BD samples indicated the presence of three assemblages, but these seem to represent different facies of a single benthic community due to the absence of acute sediment changes and significant differences in the fauna. OT samples only displayed differences related to seasons but not to sediment types or depth. These seasonal differences seem to be linked to biological and ecological features of both dominant and/or commercial species. Mud and organic matter contents (%OM) in sediment, as well as the temperature, were the main variables linked to the spatial distribution of the benthic community identified with BD, whereas medium and coarse sand as well as gravel contents were the main variables linked to the changes of the epibenthic and demersal assemblage resulting from OT samples. The information of this study is of importance for improving the knowledge on the biodiversity of circalittoral soft bottoms of the Mediterranean and Alboran Sea as well as for the potential creation of a Marine Fisheries Reserve in the Bay of Málaga.
Mud volcanoes are singular seafloor structures classified as ‘sensitive habitats’. Here we report on the sponge fauna from a field of eight mud volcanoes located in the Spanish margin of the northern Gulf of Cadiz (North-eastern Atlantic), at depths ranging from 380 to 1146 m. Thirty-eight beam-trawl samplings were conducted (covering over 61,000 m2) from 2010 to 2012, in the frame of a EC-LIFE + INDEMARES grant. A total of 1659 specimens were retrieved, belonging to 82 species, from which 79 were in the Class Demospongiae and three in Hexactinellida. Two species were new to science (Jaspis sinuoxea sp. nov.; Myrmekioderma indemaresi sp. nov.) and three others recorded for the first time in the Atlantic Ocean (Geodia anceps, Coelosphaera cryosi and Petrosia raphida). Five additional species were ‘Atlantic oddities’, since this study provides their second record in the Atlantic Ocean (Lanuginella cf. pupa, Geodia cf. spherastrella, Cladocroce spathiformis, Cladocroce fibrosa and Haliclona pedunculata). Basic numerical analyses indicated a significant linear relationship between the species richness per m2 and the number of sponge individuals per m2, meaning that in most volcanoes many species occur in equivalent, moderate abundance. Likewise, sponge species richness increased with depth, while the abundance of hard substrata resulting from carbonate precipitation and the fishing activities around the volcanoes had no detectable effect on the sponge fauna. However, in the latter case, a negative trend – lacking statistical support – underlaid the analyses, suggesting that a more extensive sampling would be necessary to derive more definitive conclusions in this regard.
Early, conforming antibiotic treatment in elderly patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a key factor in the prognosis and mortality. The objective was to examine whether empirical antibiotic treatment was conforming according to the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery guidelines in these patients. Multicentre study in patients aged ⩾65 years hospitalised due to CAP in the 2013–14 and 2014–15 influenza seasons. We collected socio-demographic information, comorbidities, influenza/pneumococcal vaccination history and antibiotics administered using a questionnaire and medical records. Bivariate analyses and multilevel logistic regression were made. In total, 1857 hospitalised patients were included, 82 of whom required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Treatment was conforming in 51.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 49.1–53.8%) of patients without ICU admission and was associated with absence of renal failure without haemodialysis (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% CI 1.15–1.95) and no cognitive dysfunction (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.25–2.35), when the effect of the autonomous community was controlled for. In patients with ICU admission, treatment was conforming in 45.1% (95% CI 34.1–56.1%) of patients and was associated with the hospital visits in the last year (<3 vs. ⩾3, OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.03–7.12) and there was some evidence that this was associated with season. Although the reference guidelines are national, wide variability between autonomous communities was found. In patients hospitalised due to CAP, health services should guarantee the administration of antibiotics in a consensual manner that is conforming according to clinical practice guidelines.
The main aim was to measure the incidence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and identify risk factors associated with infection. In addition, we determined the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify LTBI and active tuberculosis. We followed 129 prisoners for 2 years following a negative two-step tuberculin skin test (TST). The cumulative incidence of TST conversion over 2 years was 29·5% (38/129), among the new TST converters, nine developed active TB. Among persons with no evidence of LTBI, the NNS to identify a LTBI case was 3·4 and an active TB case was 14·3. The adjusted risk factors for LTBI conversion were incarceration in prison number 1, being formerly incarcerated, and overweight. In conclusion, prisoners have higher risk of LTBI acquisition compared with high-risk groups, such as HIV-infected individuals and children for whom LTBI testing should be performed according to World Health Organization guidance. The high conversion rate is associated with high incidence of active TB disease, and therefore we recommend mandatory LTBI screening at the time of prison entry. Individuals with a negative TST at the time of entry to prison are at high risk of acquiring infection, and should therefore be followed in order to detect convertors and offer LTBI treatment. This approach has a very low NNS for each identified case, and it can be utilized to decrease development of active TB disease and transmission.
We provide a kinematically-resolved analysis of 5000s QPOs found in the optical emission lines of GK Per during a dwarf nova outburst. These are consistent with models of reprocessing off blobs of gas orbiting within the inner accretion disc.
We quantified the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in mixed cattle-sheep populations and the effect of different vaccination strategies. The (partial) reproduction ratios (R) in groups of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle and/or sheep were estimated from (published) transmission experiments. A 4 × 4 next-generation matrix (NGM) was constructed using these estimates. The dominant eigenvalue of the NGM, the R for a mixed population, was determined for populations with different proportions of cattle and sheep and for three different vaccination strategies. The higher the proportion of cattle in a mixed cattle-sheep population, the higher the R for the mixed population. Therefore the impact of vaccination of the cattle is higher. After vaccination of all animals R = 0·1 independent of population composition. In mixed cattle-sheep populations with at least 14% of cattle, vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to reduce R to < 1.
The possibility to divide GRBs in different subclasses allow to understand better the
physics underlying their emission mechanisms and progenitors. The induced gravitational
collapse scenario proposes a binary progenitor to explain the time-sequence in GRBs-SNe.
We show the existence of a common behavior of the late decay of the X-ray afterglow
emission of this subclass of GRBs, pointing to a common physical mechanism of their late
emission, consistent with the IGC picture.
This systematic review described the criteria and main evaluations methods procedures used to classify neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) patients. Also, within the evaluations methods, this review aimed to identify the main contributions of neuropsychological measurements in neuroimaging studies. A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases with the terms related to neuropsychiatric syndromes, systemic lupus erythematosus, and neuroimaging techniques. Sixty-six abstracts were found; only 20 were completely analyzed and included. Results indicated that the 1999 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria is the most used to classify NPSLE samples together with laboratorial, cognitive, neurological and psychiatric assessment procedures. However, the recommended ACR assessment procedures to classify NPSLE patients are being used incompletely, especially the neuropsychological batteries. Neuropsychological instruments and neuroimaging techniques have been used mostly to characterize NPSLE samples, instead of contributing to their classifications. The most described syndromes in neuroimaging studies have been seizure/cerebrovascular disease followed by cognitive dysfunctions as well as headache disorder.
Polypyrrole has been electrocleposited in the interior of the pores that form the Porous Silicon structure, and a very significant increase of the electrical conductivity of the samples has been observed. The degree of filling by the polymer has been found to be highly dependent on the electropolymerization conditions. Micro-Raman Spectroscopy experiments have allowed us to measure the amount of polymer as a function to the distance from the outer PS surface.
DE CVn is a relatively unstudied eclipsing binary where one of the components is an M dwarf and the other is a white dwarf. Its brightness makes it an ideal system for a detailed study in the context of common-envelope evolution of a detached white dwarf – red dwarf binary with a relatively short orbital period (∼8.7 hours). We present a detailed study of the basic parameters (e.g. orbital period, components' masses and spectral types) for this system from photometric and spectroscopic studies. The eclipses observed during several photometric observing runs were used to derive the ephemeris. We have used spectroscopic data to derive the radial velocity variations of the emission lines and these are used to determine the components' masses and the orbital separation. The secondary component in DE CVn is an M3 main-sequence star and the primary star, which only contributes to the blue continuum, is a cool white dwarf with a temperature of ∼8000 K. From the photometry and spectroscopy together, we have set a limit on the binary inclination. This system is a post-common-envelope system where the progenitor of the present day white dwarf was a low-mass star (M≤2M⊙). The time before DE CVn becomes a semi-detached system is longer than the Hubble time.
Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) biotype 1, 2 and 3 populations maintained as stock cultures for several years showed distinct morphological segregation based on multiple discriminant analysis using Wilk's Lambda method. Morphological characters of the rostrum, legs and antennae of both brachypterous and macropterous males and females provided a significant degree of certainty in classifying the three biotypes. The predicted biotype composition of the brown planthopper populations formed separate clusters.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.