To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Tympanostomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in otolaryngology, and its complexity is challenging for trainee surgeons. Investing in medical education is a cornerstone of good patient safety practices. For trainees, use of simulators before operating on actual patients helps mitigate risks. This study aimed to develop a three-dimensional printed model simulator for myringotomy, tympanostomy and ventilation tube placement.
An articulated model with a detachable portion, base and plastic bag to simulate the external auditory canal, middle ear and tympanic membrane, respectively, was modelled and printed.
The final simulator was made from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer and measured 4 × 4 × 12 cm. It was designed to mimic the angulation of patient anatomy in the myringotomy position and simulate the texture and colour of the tissues of interest. The cost was low, and testing with an operating microscope and endoscope yielded satisfactory results. The advent of three-dimensional printing technology has made surgical simulation more accessible and less expensive, providing several advantages for medical education.
The proposed model fulfilled expectations as a safe, inexpensive, reproducible, user-friendly and accessible surgical education tool that can be improved and reassessed for further research.
The production of specialty coffee has several factors and parameters that are added up in the course of production, so that the quality is expressed in the act of consumption. Based on this scenario, this study included the analysis of ten genotypes of arabica coffee, the materials being subjected to irrigated and rainfed water regimes, in a low altitude region, to identify responses for sensory and physical–chemical quality. The genotypes were evaluated in a split-plot scheme with a randomized block design, with three replications. Arabica coffee fruits were harvested with 80% cherry seeds and processed by the wet method. Subsequently, the characteristics related to physical–chemical and sensory analyses were evaluated. The genotypes of the Paraíso group showed great variability for the physical–chemical and sensory variables for rainfed and irrigated regimes. The genotypes of the Catuaí group, however, showed less variability for sensory characteristics in both cultivation environments and for physical–chemical characteristics in the irrigated regime. In the sensorial data set, the genotypes Catuaí 144 CCF and Catuaí 144 SFC (when irrigated) and Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-2, Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-11 and Catucaí 24-137 (rainfed cultivation), are more favourable to the production of specialty coffee at low altitude.
Eriocitrin is a citrus flavonoid with a high capacity to reduce the oxidative stress related to metabolic disorders and obesity. We assessed the effects of low doses of eriocitrin on the oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolism of glucose and lipids of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. Fifty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into five groups (n 10). The mice were fed an HFD (45 % kcal from fat, i.e. lard) for 4 weeks for obesity induction. After this period, the mice continued receiving the same HFD, but supplemented with eriocitrin at 10, 25 or 100 mg/kg body weight (bw) for an additional 4 weeks. Control groups were fed with standard diet (10 % kcal of fat, i.e. soy oil) or with HFD without eriocitrin, for eight consecutive weeks. At the end of the study, mice supplemented with eriocitrin showed lower levels of blood serum glucose and blood and liver triacylglycerols (P < 0⋅05). There was also improved levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, total-cholesterol, resistin and lipid peroxidation in the supplemented mice. It was concluded that the 25 mg dose of eriocitrin improved all the parameters studied and had positive effects on oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and metabolism of lipids and glucose in general.
Background: Loss of a spouse is a frequent occurrence in later life, with about 10% of the individuals finding themselves unable to cope and progressing to prolonged grief, risking further mental and physical problems.
Objective: The development and implementation of an online grief program, such as LEAVES (optimizing the menta L hEalth and resilience of older Adults that haVe lost th Eir spou Se via blended, online therapy), intends to improve prevention and treatment of prolonged grief, so that elderly mourners can continue to lead an active, meaningful and dignified life.
Methods: The LEAVES program, a project under AAL (Active and Assisted Living) 2019 Call for Sustainable Smart Solutions for Ageing Well, is in development by an international consortium and integrates academical, clinical and technical experts. The project will take place between February 2020 and January 2023 and involve real-life evaluation of 315 end-users. The Psychiatric Department at the Health Unit of Baixo Alentejo (ULSBA) will offer the service to its primary users, blending online services with telephone, video calls and face-to-face sessions. Widowed older adults >65 that express the need for help in mourning their spouse will be recruited in the community as well as via the geriatric psychiatry team and primary care.
Results: With LEAVES program we aim for older adults to process the loss of a spouse in a blended online/presential environment, detecting olders at risk for complications, reveal negative trends in their emotional life, and act to counter such trends. The evaluation will focus on wellbeing and involve several measures to assess grief symptoms, loneliness, hopelessness, satisfaction and quality of life. Conclusions: ULSBA will use LEAVES to improve clinical practice on preventing and managing prolonged grief as well as, after testing and validating it in this project, to save economical costs and improve effectiveness, both to hospital and patients.
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data obtained in the baseline of the Longitudinal Study on the Lifestyle and Health of University Students (n 685) carried out in a public Brazilian university. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Dietary patterns (DP) for breakfast, lunch and dinner were identified using principal component analysis. Generalised linear models were used to analyse the variables associated with each DP. Three DP were extracted for each meal: breakfast: ‘White bread and butter/margarine’, ‘Coffee and tea’ and ‘Sausages, whole wheat bread and cheese’; lunch: ‘Traditional’, ‘Western’ and ‘Vegetarian’ and dinner: ‘Beans, rice and processed juice’, ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ and ‘White meat, eggs and natural juice’. Students who had meals at the campus showed greater adherence to the ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ (exp (βadj) = 1·15, 95 % CI 1·11, 1·19) and ‘Coffee and tea’ (exp (βadj) = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·10) breakfast patterns; ‘Western’ lunch pattern (exp (βadj) = 1·04, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·08) and to the ‘Beans, rice and processed juice’ dinner pattern (exp (βadj) = 1·10, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14). Having meals at the campus was associated with lower adherence to the ‘Sausages, whole wheat bread and cheese’ breakfast pattern (exp (βadj) = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·89, 0·97), ‘Traditional’ lunch pattern (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and to the ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and ‘White meat, eggs and natural juice’ (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) dinner pattern. The food environment at campus may influence students’ DP. Recognising meal eating patterns is important to support healthy eating promotion strategies on campus. Adjustments in the University Canteen menu could contribute to healthier eating choices among students.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
This article assesses the nutritional status of Indigenous women from 14 to 49 years of age in Brazil.
Sample size was calculated for each region considering a prevalence of 50 % for all disease outcomes, a relative error of 5 % and a CI of 95 %. In the initial data analysis, the prevalence of excess weight and obesity was calculated according to independent variables. Multivariate multilevel hierarchical analyses were conducted based on a theoretical model of two ranked blocks.
The 2010 Indigenous population in Brazil was 896 000, with approximately 300 Indigenous ethnic groups, making Brazil one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the Americas and the world.
Of the total target sample of 6722 women evaluated by the National Survey, thirty did not participate, 939 were not eligible for analyses due to pregnancy or unknown pregnancy status, and thirty-nine were excluded due to missing anthropometric data.
The evaluation of nutritional status was completed for 5714 non-pregnant women (99·3 % of eligible participants for this outcome). High prevalence rates were encountered for both excess weight (46·2 %) and obesity (15·8 %) among the sampled women. In the multivariate analyses, higher socioeconomic indicators, market-integrated living conditions and less reliance on local food production, as well as increased age and parity were associated with excess weight and obesity.
Results point to distinct patterns of associations between socioeconomic indicators and the occurrence of excess weight and obesity among Indigenous women, which have potentially significant implications from a public policy perspective for Indigenous peoples in Brazil.
Executive functions (EF) are associated to frontal lobes and cognitive decline (CD) with worse results on EF tests.
Analyze if the Frontal Assessment Battery/FAB assessing EF discriminates elders with CD (vs. with no CD; Montreal Cognitive Assessment/MoCA), and if the results obtained with the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure Test/ROCF (copy's quality, immediate, and delayed memory) are associated with the CD presence/absence. Moreover, we wanted to assess if copy's quality and 3 minutes memory test are associated with FAB results, since these two tests are supposedly associated with EF and with frontal lobes assessed by the FAB, contrarily to the 20 minutes memory (supposedly related to the temporal area).
556 institutionalized elders (age: M ± SD =80.2 ± 5.23; range=60-100) filled in voluntarily a sociodemographic questionnaire, ROCF, MoCA and FAB.
FAB and all ROCF tests were associated with the absence/presence of CD. Regarding variables stratified by age and education, FAB was associated with immediate memory but not with copy's quality nor with delayed memory. With no stratified ROCF and FAB, correlations confirmed the previous associations, but also between FAB and copy's quality.
Results follow the literature regarding the association between immediate memory and EF (associated to frontal lobes), in contrast to the long-term memory which is associated with the temporal area and that was not associated with FAB. Results concerning copy's quality (ROCF) are not consensual.
Affectivity is related to cognitive impairment, but it is not known whether positive affect and negative affect increase/decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. In this study, we sought to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment, and the potential role of positive and negative affectivity on cognitive functioning in institutionalized portuguese elderly, controlling the potential role of demographic and emotional factors.
A cross sectional investigation has been conducted with a portuguese institutionalized sample at Coimbra’s Council. We inquired 412 healthy elderly with a mean age of 80.38 years (SD = 7.24) using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI). Demographic (76.9% women, 14.3% > 4 years of education, 99.1% manual occupation, 82.2% without partner) and other self-reported related factors were taken into consideration (GDS mean 14.30 ± 6.31; GAI mean = 12.49 ± 5.93).
The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 66.6% (youngest-old: 1.4%; young-old: 24.7%, old-old: 36.5%, oldest-old: 3.9%). We found that only the positive affect was significantly related with the MMSE (r = 0.22). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that positive affect predicted impairment in cognitive performance (OR = 0.96, CI 95% = 0.93-0.98; p < 0.001). These relationships were significant even after controlling for depression and anxiety status, age, education, and occupation.
These findings suggest that positive affect is a variable to attend to when evaluating cognitive functioning in institutionalized elderly.
Psychiatry wards are witness to violent behavior. Mental health professionals are called upon to prevent/deescalate potential violence.
Understand the causal factors that led to a serious group violence event in a psychiatric ward and review strategies to minimize the risk.
Provide a better understating and review current evidence.
Description of a group violence event. Non-systematic literature review concerning violence on psychiatric wards.
In a 29-bed acute closed-door mixed-gender general-hospital psychiatry ward staff had detected that a small group of patients increasingly defied instructions, refused treatment and intimidated users. Later, two of these patients, on cue from the psychotic content of another user with schizophrenia, intruded patients’ bedrooms and assaulted a 63 year-old female patient. These two patients, with bipolar disorder, were unemployed and had a history of previous psychiatric admissions, drug abuse, criminal offenses and treatment drop-out. De-escalation techniques failed and security was summoned. Offending patients were admitted to seclusion bedrooms and restrained. Upon a crisis meeting these two patients were transferred to two nearby psychiatric departments. There are several risk factors for violence in psychiatry wards, pertaining to the ward, staff, patients and psychopathology. Prevention measures are typically related to the timely detection of these variables and deescalation techniques. When these fail, seclusion, forced medication or mechanical restraint may be necessary.
This case report confirms that violence rarely erupts without warning. Additional staff training on violence prevention and tackling is required. Some variables (e.g. overcrowding) are current structural weaknesses of the health system.
When cognitive decline (CD) is present, attention is one of the impaired mental functions. CD is also associated with anxious/depressive symptoms and with some demographic variables, particularly, age.
Investigate the associations between selective attention (Stroop Test: Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Difference between Stroop_Word and Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word, Stroop Ratio_Color and Difference between Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_ Color) and CD (Montreal Cognitive Assessment/MoCA) in institutionalized elders; explore the predictive value of Stroop variables for CD, controlling anxious/depressive symptoms and sociodemographic variables.
140 institutionalized elders (mean age, M = 78.4, SD = 7.48, range = 60-97) voluntarily answered to sociodemographic questions, the MoCA, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory/GAI, the Geriatric Depression Scale/GDS and Stroop test.
73 elders (52, 1%) had CD. Dichotomized MoCA was associated with Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word, Stroop Ratio_Color, GDS and the sociodemographic variable schooling × profession. Age and education were not tested, since MoCA was stratified according to those variables. GDS, Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color showed to predict CD.
There was an association between Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color and CD, confirming that selective attention is smaller when the elderly reveal CD. GDS and CD were, also, associated. However, there was no association between MoCA dichotomized and differences between the correct answers (Stroop_Word and Stroop_Color) and Ratios (Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color). Selective attention and depressive symptoms predicted CD. It would be important to intervene through cognitive rehabilitation with the elders to improve their attention.
Research has shown the importance of social support on mental health, however, this investigation has not been done in elder population.
Our aim is to study the relationship between perceived social support, satisfaction with life, anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms.
We collected a sample of 46 institutionalized elderly aged between 65 and 95 years old. We used the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) to assess anxious and depressive symptoms. To assess social support we used the Older Americans Resources and Services Program (OARS), which evaluated the social resources, and to assess the life satisfaction we used the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS).
We found that 91.3% of subjects were illiterate or with low education and only 4 (8.7%) had studied beyond the fourth grade. The elders showed an high average of anxiety and depression symptoms, and dissatisfaction with life. Regarding the perception of social support, the elderly essentially reveal high dissatisfaction with the extent of contact with others and the availability of help. We also found that perceived social support is related with GAI, GDS, and SWLS.
Intervention strategies should involve the integration of elder population in social life.
The diagnosis of a primary psychiatric disorder requires the exclusion of an organic etiology. However, Brazilian public hospitals commonly lack resources. Diagnostic precision requires also the congruence of the clinical history and the natural history of the investigated disorder.
This study reports a rare case of hallucinations and retrograde amnesia, due to organic brain lesion but without other cognitive impairments.
Fifty-three-years-old male Brazilian, was evaluated after one year in Brazil after being missing for 25 years in USA. Encountering his family, he did not recognize his mother, did not remember his life in Brazil, including his infancy, nationality and mother language. He was found as a homeless in poor hygiene. In the exam, he only presented retrograde amnesia, without any disturbances of fixation memory, intelligence, formal thought, affect or psychomotor function. Patient reported hallucinations. Blood tests showed no abnormalities. EEG showed diffuse slow rhythms. Brain MRI showed cortical and hippocampal atrophy. After weekly evaluations for 5 months, he remained stable despite lack of prescription. Some weeks after MRI, patient reported frequent alcohol and inhalant use when missing. No hints of secondary gain were found until present.
Organic etiology was suspected due to atypical presentation: hallucinations, evocative amnesia, with no further cognitive and affect disturbances. This is not compatible with schizophrenia, dementia or dissociative disorder. The brain abnormalities and recent data highly suggest this etiological hypothesis.
Since this clinical presentation does not fit into any specific psychiatric category, the case will continue to be studied.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Disgust propensity (DP) and disgust sensitivity (DS) contribute to individual differences in the experience of disgust. Studies have shown that DP and DS are predictive of some anxiety (e.g., spider phobia and blood-injection-injury phobia) and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a Portuguese version of the Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised (DPSS-R; van Overveld= et al., 2006) for use in Portuguese-speaking populations.
Two hundred and six participants (162 females), with ages between 18 and 47 (M = 25.92; SD = 8.75), filled in the DPSS-R, which was first translated and adapted into Portuguese language by individuals highly proficient in English and then back-translated by a bilingual with no prior knowledge of the scale. Finally, the DPSS-R was subjected to a think-aloud procedure.
The results showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alfa = .833) for a DPSS-R. The two subscales displayed an adequate internal consistency (DPCronbach'salfa = .776; DSCronbach'salfa = .790). Test-retest analysis documented good intraclass correlation coefficient for the two subscales (ICCPropensity = .889; ICC Sensitivity = .900). We also confirmed the bifactorial structure using a confirmatory factor analysis, since we obtained appropriate values in all goodness of fit indices (χ2df = 1,906; CFI = .94; PCFI = .736; GFI = .93; PGFI = .607; RMSEA = .067).
DPSS-R obtained good psychometric properties and may therefore be proposed as a valid instrument to assess DS and DP in the Portuguese population. This instrument may provide an important contribute to study the development and maintenance of psychopathology associated with disgust.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Sensory processing is the individual's ability to receive, process and integrate sensory information from the environment and body movement in the central nervous system, in order to produce adaptive responses. Sensory processing disorders (SPD) are associated to difficulties in regulating emotions and behaviours as well as motor abilities in response to sensory stimulation that lead to impairment in development and functioning. It is estimated that SPD affect 5–16% of school-aged children. Although these diseases constitute a primary diagnostic category in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Development Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: DC0-3, they have not yet been validated by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-DSM. In the latest edition of DSM, SPD were only included as one of the diagnostic criteria of autism-spectrum disorders. However, several studies have suggested that SPD may present themselves solely or coexist with other clinical conditions.
The aim of this study was to review systematically the relationship between SPD and psychopathology.
Articles indexed in the Pubmed database were analyzed.
Although sensory processing problems are well known to occur in association with autism, their relationship with other mental disorders is not a well studied area. Some studies have related them with ADHD, behavioural disorders and learning disorders. Some studies also comproved that SPD are a valid diagnosis and that there are individuals with SPD who do not meet the criteria for other known disorder. One study found an abnormal white matter microstructure in children with SPD. Despite these findings SPD need to be further studied.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
The relative contribution of imported vs. locally acquired infections to urban malaria burden remains largely unexplored in Latin America, the most urbanised region in the developing world. Here we use a simple molecular epidemiology framework to examine the transmission dynamics of Plasmodium vivax in Mâncio Lima, the Amazonian municipality with the highest malaria incidence rate in Brazil. We prospectively genotyped 177 P. vivax infections diagnosed in urban residents between June 2014 and July 2015 and showed that local parasites are structured into several lineages of closely related microsatellite haplotypes, with the largest genetic cluster comprising 32% of all infections. These findings are very unlikely under the hypothesis of multiple independent imports of parasite strains from the rural surroundings. Instead, the presence of an endemic near-clonal parasite lineage circulating over 13 consecutive months is consistent with a local P. vivax transmission chain in the town, with major implications for malaria elimination efforts in this and similar urban environments across the Amazon.
Modern lifestyle increases the prevalence of obesity and its co-morbidities in the young population. High-salt (HS) diets are associated with hypertension and cardiac remodelling. The present study evaluated the potential effects of cardiometabolic programming induced by HS intake during puberty in lean and obese rats. Additionally, we investigated whether HS could exacerbate the impairment of cardiovascular parameters in adult life due to postnatal early overnutrition (PO). At postnatal day 3 (PN3), twenty-four litters of Wistar rats were divided into two groups: normal litter (NL, nine pups/dam) and small litter (SL, three pups/dam) throughout the lactation period; weaning was at PN21. At PN30, the pups were subdivided into two more groups: NL plus HS (NLHS) and SL plus HS (SLHS). HS intake was from PN30 until PN60. Cardiovascular parameters were evaluated at PN120. SL rats became overweight at adulthood due to persistent hyperphagia; however, HS exposure during puberty reduced the weight gain and food intake of NLHS and SLHS. Both HS and obesity raised the blood pressure, impaired baro- and chemoreflex sensitivity and induced cardiac remodelling but no worsening was observed in the association of these factors, except a little reduction in the angiotensin type-2 receptor in the hearts from SLHS animals. Our results suggest that the response of newborn offspring to PO and juveniles to a HS diet leads to significant changes in cardiovascular parameters in adult rats. This damage may be accompanied by impairment of both angiotensin signalling and antioxidant defence in the heart.
Sitophilus zeamais is a key pest of stored grains. Its control is made, usually, using synthetic insecticides, despite their negative impacts. Botanical insecticides with fumigant/repellent properties may offer an alternative solution. This work describes the effects of Anethum graveolens, Petroselinum crispum, Foeniculum vulgare and Cuminum cyminum essential oils (EOs) and (S)-carvone, cuminaldehyde, estragole and (+)-fenchone towards adults of S. zeamais. Acute toxicity was assessed by fumigation and topical application. Repellence was evaluated by an area preference bioassay and two-choice test, using maize grains. LC50 determined by fumigation ranged from 51.8 to 535.8 mg L−1 air, with (S)-carvone being the most active. LD50 values for topical applications varied from 23 to 128 µg per adult for (S)-carvone > cuminaldehyde > A. graveolens > C. cyminum > P. crispum. All EOs/standard compounds reduced significantly the percentage of insects attracted to maize grains (65–80%) in the two-choice repellence test, whereas in the area preference bioassay RD50 varied from 1.4 to 45.2 µg cm−2, with cuminaldehyde, (S)-carvone and estragole being strongly repellents. Petroselinum crispum EO and cuminaldehyde affected the nutritional parameters relative growth rate, efficiency conversion index of ingested food and antifeeding effect, displaying antinutritional effects toward S. zeamais. In addition, P. crispum and C. cyminum EOs, as well as cuminaldehyde, showed the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in vitro (IC50 = 185, 235 and 214.5 µg mL−1, respectively). EOs/standard compounds exhibited acute toxicity, and some treatments showed antinutritional effects towards S. zeamais. Therefore, the tested plant products might be good candidates to be considered to prevent damages caused by this pest.
Twins Research Australia (TRA) is a community of twins and researchers working on health research to benefit everyone, including twins. TRA leads multidisciplinary research through the application of twin and family study designs, with the aim of sustaining long-term twin research that, both now and in the future, gives back to the community. This article summarizes TRA’s recent achievements and future directions, including new methodologies addressing causation, linkage to health, economic and educational administrative datasets and to geospatial data to provide insight into health and disease. We also explain how TRA’s knowledge translation and exchange activities are key to communicating the impact of twin studies to twins and the wider community. Building researcher capability, providing registry resources and partnering with all key stakeholders, particularly the participants, are important for how TRA is advancing twin research to improve health outcomes for society. TRA provides researchers with open access to its vibrant volunteer membership of twins, higher order multiples (multiples) and families who are willing to consider participation in research. Established four decades ago, this resource facilitates and supports research across multiple stages and a breadth of health domains.