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The unsteady global dynamics of a gravitational liquid sheet interacting with a one-sided adjacent air enclosure (commonly referred to as nappe oscillation configuration) is addressed under the assumptions of potential flow and the presence of surface tension effects. From a theoretical viewpoint the problem is challenging, because from previous literature it is known that the equation governing the evolution of small disturbances exhibits a singularity at the vertical station where the local flow velocity equals the capillary wave velocity (local critical condition), although the solution to the problem has not yet been found. The equation governing the local dynamics resembles one featuring the forced vibrations of a string of finite length, formulated in the reference frame moving with the flow velocity, and exhibits both slow and fast characteristic curves. From the global system perspective the nappe behaves as a driven damped spring–mass oscillator, where the inertial effects are linked to the liquid sheet mass and the spring is represented by the equivalent stiffness of the air enclosure acting on the displacement of the compliant nappe centreline. A suited procedure is developed to remove the singularity of the integro-differential operator for Weber numbers less than unity. The investigation is carried out by means of a modal (i.e. time asymptotic) linear approach, which is corroborated by numerical simulations of the governing equation and supported by systematic comparisons with experimental data from the literature, available in the supercritical regime only. As regards the critical regime for the unit Weber number, the major theoretical result is a sharp increase in oscillation frequency as the flow Weber number is gradually reduced from supercritical to subcritical values due to the shift of the prevailing mode from the slow one to the fast one.
ECT outpatient program recently created in the Psychiatric Day Hospital in Ávila was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of continuation/maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients after ECT remission.
Description of the activity and objectives of an ECT outpatient program in a Psychiatric Day Hospital.
Retrospective cross-sectional descriptive Study. The three patients who received the continuation/maintenance electroconvulsive therapy during the 10 months this unit has been opened were chosen as a sample.
From the opening of Psychiatric Day Hospital 10 months ago, 58 patients have been admitted; among them, three patients come to the hospital monthly to receive the electroconvulsive therapy, maintaining their psychopathological stability over time.
With the creation of this new program we considered three types of objectives:
– therapeutic: a therapy applied in a more comfortable and satisfactory for the patient and family regime. To prevent relapse and exacerbations;
– management: benefits on the best use of existing resources:
– reduction in hospital admissions and readmissions,
– decrease in the average stay,
– reduction in visits to Emergency Services,
– allow referrals from outpatient department,
– individual monitoring of patients that complements the check at their Mental Health Team;
– teaching, training and investigation.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Innate-like B1a lymphocytes arise from long-lived progenitors produced exclusively by fetal stem cells. Any insults coinciding with this early lymphopoietic wave could have a permanent impact on the B1a population and its unique protein products, the natural antibodies (NAb). We investigated early life nutritional influences on NAb concentrations of pre-adolescent children (n=290) in rural Nepal for whom we had extensive information on exposures from pregnancy and early infancy. Infant size and growth were strongly associated with NAb concentrations at 9–13 years of age among males (e.g., for neonatal weight: βBOYS=0.43; P<0.001), but not females (e.g., for neonatal weight: βGIRLS=−0.16; P=0.26). In females, season of birth was associated with NAb concentrations, with marked reductions among girls born during the pre-monsoon (March–May; βGIRLS=−0.39; P=0.01) and pre-harvest (September–November; βGIRLS=−0.35; P=0.03) seasons. Our findings suggest that nutritional or other environmental influences on immune development may vary by sex, with potential consequences for immune function during infancy and long-term risk of immune-mediated disease.
Research into age of onset in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has indicated significant differences between patients with early and late onset of the disorder. However, multiple criteria have been used arbitrarily for differentiating between early- and late-onset OCD, rendering inconsistent results that are difficult to interpret.
In the current study, admixture analysis was conducted in a sample of 377 OC patients to determine the number of underlying populations of age of onset and associated demographic and clinical characteristics. Various measures of anxiety, depression, co-morbidity, autism, OCD, tics and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms were administered.
A bimodal age of onset was established and the best-fitting cut-off score between early and late age of onset was 20 years (early age of onset ⩽19 years). Patients with early age of onset were more likely to be single. Early age of onset patients demonstrated higher levels of OCD severity and increased symptoms on all OCD dimensions along with increased ADHD symptoms and higher rates of bipolar disorder.
It is suggested that 20 years is the recommended cut-off age for the determination of early versus late age of onset in OCD. Early age of onset is associated with a generally graver OCD clinical picture and increased ADHD symptoms and bipolar disorder rates, which may be related to greater functional implications of the disorder. We propose that age of onset could be an important marker for the subtyping of OCD.
To evaluate the effects of total intravenous anaesthesia vs. volatile anaesthesia on cardiac troponin release in coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass, we performed a multicentre randomized controlled study to compare postoperative cardiac troponin release in patients receiving two different anaesthesia plans.
We randomly assigned 75 patients to propofol (intravenous anaesthetic) and 75 patients to desflurane (volatile anaesthetic) in addition to an opiate-based anaesthesia for coronary artery bypass grafting. Peak postoperative troponin I release was measured as a marker of myocardial necrosis.
There was a significant (P < 0.001) difference in the postoperative median (25th–75th percentiles) peak of troponin I in patients receiving propofol 5,5 (2,3–9,5) ng dL−1 when compared to patients receiving desflurane 2,5 (1,1–5,3) ng dL−1. The median (interquartile) troponin I area under the curve analysis confirmed the results: 68 (30.5–104.8) vs. 36.3 (17.9–86.6) h ng dL−1 (P = 0.002). Patients receiving volatile anaesthetics had reduced need for postoperative inotropic support (24/75, 32.0% vs. 31/75, 41.3%, P = 0.04), and tends toward a reduction in number of Q-wave myocardial infarction, time on mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and overall hospital stay.
Myocardial damage measured by cardiac troponin release could be reduced by volatile anaesthetics in coronary artery bypass surgery.
We present the preliminary results of a statistical analysis carried out on a 1° × 1° CO(1-0) map of the intermediate mass star forming region Vela-D Cloud. Our goal is to determine statistical parameters suitable to quantify the structure of the observed cloud, in particular the power-law exponent of the map power spectrum. Furthermore, to help in removing the degeneracy implied in using a single parameter, we also resort to the multifractal approach.
In the present study, the rôle of gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT) during lactation has been investigated in the water buffalo. GGT activity has been evaluated in the mammary tissue at 4 and 6 months after calving and during the non-lactating period. The highest GGT activity levels were found at day 120 (32·57±7·41 U per g) of lactation and were statistically higher than those at 180 (10·76±3·6 U per g) or during the non-lactating period (9·86±7·94 U per g). Histochemistry confirmed these findings and revealed that GGT reactivity was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of alveolar epithelial cells. Such results showed that the GGT production is high during lactation thus supporting the hypothesis that this enzyme plays a rôle in determining milk production in water buffalo by supporting milk protein synthesis.
The analysis of seven different age cohorts (697 individuals from
10 to 109 years old) revealed age-related changes in the 3′APOB-VNTR
genotype pool. By recoding the 3′APOB-VNTR alleles into
three size-classes (small, S, 26–34 repeats; medium, M, 35–39
large, L, 41–55 repeats), an
age-related convex trajectory of the frequency of SS homozygotes was found.
The frequency of SS
in the genotype pool increased from the group aged 10–19 years
(3.06±1.74%) to that aged 40–49
years (8.51±4.07%). Then it declined reaching the minimum value
The observed trajectory is in agreement with that expected by assuming
crossing of mortality curves
relevant to subgroups of individuals having different genotypes.
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