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Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
Dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) is a zoonosis, considered an endemic disease of dogs and cats in several countries of Western Europe, including Portugal. This study assesses the levels of D. immitis exposure in humans from Northern Portugal, to which end, 668 inhabitants of several districts belonging to two different climate areas (Csa: Bragança, Vila Real and Csb: Aveiro, Braga, Porto, Viseu) were tested for anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia surface proteins (WSP) antibodies. The overall prevalence of seropositivity to both anti-D. immitis and WSP antibodies was 6.1%, which demonstrated the risk of infection with D. immitis in humans living in Northern Portugal. This study, carried out in a Western European country, contributes to the characterisation of the risk of infection with D. immitis among human population in this region of the continent. From a One Health point of view, the results of the current work also support the close relationship between dogs and people as a risk factor for human infection
To examine the frequency of television (TV) food and beverage advertisements (F&B ads) to which children (4–11 years) are likely exposed and the nutrient profile of products advertised.
TV broadcasting between September and November 2016 was recorded (288 h of children’s programming; 288 h of family programming) resulting in 8980 advertisements, of which 1862 were F&B ads. Of those, 1473 could be classified into one of the seventeen food groups, and into permitted/non-permitted according to the WHO-EU nutrient profile model. Persuasive marketing techniques used were also identified.
TV programming was recorded for four weekdays and four weekend days, between 06.00 and 00.00 hours (576 total hours), for four channels (two national and two cable), in Costa Rica.
Mean (sd) number of F&B ads/h was greater in cable than national channels (3·7 (0·4) v. 2·8 (0·4), P < 0·05) and during children’s peak viewing hours (4·4 (0·4) v. 2·9 (0·3)). Of F&B ads classified with WHO-EU nutrient profile model (n 1473, 71·1 %), 91·1 % were non-permitted to be marketed to children. Categories most frequently advertised were ready-made/convenience foods (16 %), chocolates/confectionery/desserts (15 %), breakfast cereals (14 %), beverages (15 %), edible ices (9 %) and salty snacks (8 %). Non-permitted F&B ads were more likely to use promotional characters, brand benefit claims, and nutrition and health claims than permitted F&B ads.
Children watching popular TV channels in Costa Rica are exposed to a high number of unhealthy F&B ads daily. Our findings help justify the need for regulatory actions by national authorities.
In this study we determined the presence of IgM/IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sera of 155 and 300 pregnant women from Lisbon (Portugal) and Luanda (Angola), respectively, and evaluated the potential risk factors associated with this infection. DNA detection was performed by PCR assays targeting T. gondii regions (RE/B1). Overall, 21·9% (10·9% IgG, 10·9% IgG/IgM) of the Lisbon women and 27·3% (23·7%, IgG, 2% IgM, 1·7% IgG/IgM) of the Luanda women had antibodies to T. gondii. Single variable and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Based on the latter, contacts with cats (family/friends), and having more than two births were identified as risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in Lisbon women. In Luanda, the risk factors for T. gondii infection suggested by the single variable analysis (outdoor contact with cats and consumption of pasteurized milk/dairy products) were not confirmed by binary logistic regression. This study shows original data from Angola, and updated data from Portugal in the study of infection by T. gondii in pregnant women, indicating that the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies is high enough to alert the government health authorities and implement appropriate measures to control this infection.
La Commission vient de subir une lourde perte en la personne de George Ellery Hale, Directeur honoraire de l’Observatoire du Mont Wilson, décédé le 21 février 1938, à l’âge de 70 ans.
L’enregistrement des phénomènes chromosphériques qui sert de base aux relevés et statistiques publiés régulièrement par divers observatoires, a été poursuivi sans changements notables depuis le dernier congrès. Le tableau reproduit dans Trans. I.A.U. 5, 59, 1935 et dans lequel sont groupés les renseignements relatifs à ces travaux d’observation courante, est donc toujours valable.
At the 1932 meeting three proposals before the Commission were referred to the directors of the national ephemerides (Trans. I.A.U. 4, 222, 282).
(1)That the equation of time be given with the same sign in all almanacs.
(2)The question of duplicate printing.
(3)The possibility of adopting a uniform system for star positions.
Although the directors have discussed these by correspondence, they wish to take the opportunity of verbal discussion in Paris before presenting their final report. The proposal that duplicate printing of apparent places of stars should be eliminated has been favourably received. A joint meeting with Commission 8 is being arranged for the purpose of discussing the selection and positions of future fundamental stars; at present the general trend of opinion favours the adoption of the FK3 of the Berliner Jahrbuch.
Au cours des trois années 1932,1933 et 1934, les relevés et statistiques habituels des flocculi, des protubérances et de l’épaisseur de la chromosphère, ont été poursuivis et publiés régulièrement. Ils se répartissent de la manière suivante:
(1)Report on the progress of the FK3 catalogue, and the volume of apparent places of the stars in this catalogue.
(2)At the meeting in Paris it was suggested that the value of the Gaussian constant k should be fixed, and the President was asked to consult people known to be interested. As complete agreement appears to have been reached, the following resolution will be moved: “That the value of the Gaussian constant k shall be taken as 0-01720 20989 50000, the unit of time being the mean solar day for 1900·0”
In a background of interest in staging models in psychiatry, we tested the validity of a simple staging model of cognitive impairment to predict incident dementia.
A large community sample of adults aged ≥55 years (N = 4803) was assessed in the baseline of a longitudinal, four-wave epidemiological enquiry. A two-phase assessment was implemented in each wave, and the instruments used included the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE); the History and Aetiology Schedule and the Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT. For the standardised degree of cognitive impairment Perneczky et al's MMSE criteria were applied. A panel of psychiatrists diagnosed cases of dementia according to DSM-IV criteria, and cases and sub-cases of dementia were excluded for the follow-up waves. Competing risk regression models, adjusted by potential confounders, were used to test the hypothesised association between MMSE levels and dementia risk.
Out of the 4057 participants followed up, 607 (14.9%) were classified as ‘normal’ (no cognitive impairment), 2672 (65.8%) as ‘questionable’ cognitive impairment, 732 (18.0%) had ‘mild’ cognitive impairment, 38 (0.9%) had ‘moderate’ cognitive impairment and eight (0.2%) had ‘severe’ impairment.
Cognitive impairment was associated with risk of dementia, the risk increasing in parallel with the level of impairment (hazard ratio: 2.72, 4.78 and 8.38 in the ‘questionable’, ‘mild’ and ‘moderate’ level of cognitive impairment, respectively).
The documented gradient of increased risk of dementia associated with the severity level of cognitive impairment supports the validity of the simple staging model based on the MMSE assessment.
Bioeroding sponges of the Cliona viridis species complex play a large role in carbonate cycling and reef health. In the present study we provide the first record and a description of a Mediterranean lineage of C. viridis (Schmidt, 1862) in the south-western Atlantic. Specimens were collected in Maricás Archipelago, Rio de Janeiro State in September 2010 by scuba diving at 10–12 m depth and deposited in the Porifera collection of Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Morphologically, the specimens presently examined are very similar to those described in the beta and gamma growth form from the Mediterranean. The Brazilian and Mediterranean specimens share large and irregular papillae over 2 cm in diameter, megasclere tylostyles up to 500 µm long and microsclere spirasters with up to five twists and 34 µm long. A Maximum Likelihood analysis of 28S rDNA of C. viridis, C. aprica, C. jullieni, C. schmidti and C. varians was performed for a genetic identification of the Brazilian specimens. The Brazilian material is phylogenetically closer to the Mediterranean C. viridis than to the Caribbean and Indian Ocean members of this species complex included in the present analysis. Our results suggest that C. viridis is a cryptogenic species with a distribution extending from the Mediterranean to the eastern Atlantic and in the SE Brazilian coast or further.
To test the hypothesis that cognitive impairment in older adults is associated with all-cause mortality risk and the risk increases when the degree of cognitive impairment augments; and then, if this association is confirmed, to report the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of mortality due to cognitive impairment.
A representative random community sample of individuals aged over 55 was interviewed, and 4557 subjects remaining alive at the end of the first year of follow-up were included in the analysis. Instruments used in the assessment included the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), the History and Aetiology Schedule (HAS) and the Geriatric Mental State (GMS)-AGECAT. For the standardised degree of cognitive impairment Perneczky et al's MMSE criteria were applied. Mortality information was obtained from the official population registry. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to test the association between MMSE degrees of cognitive impairment and mortality risk. We also estimated the PAF of mortality due to specific MMSE stages.
Cognitive impairment was associated with mortality risk, the risk increasing in parallel with the degree of cognitive impairment (Hazard ratio, HR: 1.18 in the ‘mild’ degree of impairment; HR: 1.29 in the ‘moderate’ degree; and HR: 2.08 in the ‘severe’ degree). The PAF of mortality due to severe cognitive impairment was 3.49%.
A gradient of increased mortality-risk associated with severity of cognitive impairment was observed. The results support the claim that routine assessment of cognitive function in older adults should be considered in clinical practice.
In most studies on beef cattle longevity, only the cows reaching a given number of calvings by a specific age are considered in the analyses. With the aim of evaluating all cows with productive life in herds, taking into consideration the different forms of management on each farm, it was proposed to measure cow longevity from age at last calving (ALC), that is, the most recent calving registered in the files. The objective was to characterize this trait in order to study the longevity of Nellore cattle, using the Kaplan–Meier estimators and the Cox model. The covariables and class effects considered in the models were age at first calving (AFC), year and season of birth of the cow and farm. The variable studied (ALC) was classified as presenting complete information (uncensored = 1) or incomplete information (censored = 0), using the criterion of the difference between the date of each cow's last calving and the date of the latest calving at each farm. If this difference was >36 months, the cow was considered to have failed. If not, this cow was censored, thus indicating that future calving remained possible for this cow. The records of 11 791 animals from 22 farms within the Nellore Breed Genetic Improvement Program (‘Nellore Brazil’) were used. In the estimation process using the Kaplan–Meier model, the variable of AFC was classified into three age groups. In individual analyses, the log-rank test and the Wilcoxon test in the Kaplan–Meier model showed that all covariables and class effects had significant effects (P < 0.05) on ALC. In the analysis considering all covariables and class effects, using the Wald test in the Cox model, only the season of birth of the cow was not significant for ALC (P > 0.05). This analysis indicated that each month added to AFC diminished the risk of the cow's failure in the herd by 2%. Nonetheless, this does not imply that animals with younger AFC had less profitability. Cows with greater numbers of calvings were more precocious than those with fewer calvings.
A new Brazilian endemic Monanchora is described, M. brasiliensis sp. nov. It is clearly distinct from any other species in the genus by the monodentate shape of its anchorate isochelae, and its smooth, centrotylote and strongyloid microrhabds. Monodentate anchorate isochelae are relatively common, normally abundant, and represent the main diagnostic character for recognizing the new species, but microrhabds are usually rare and may be even absent. Monanchora brasiliensis sp. nov. can be further differentiated from other Atlantic species of the genus in eventually showing tetralobate branches and a skeleton formed by well-defined honey-coloured spongin fibres. The affinities of the new species with other crambeids and the nature of anchorate isochelae, microrhabds as well as the megascleres in defining Monanchora are discussed. An amended diagnosis for the genus is proposed.
The objective of this study was to estimate (co)variance components using random regression on B-spline functions to weight records obtained from birth to adulthood. A total of 82 064 weight records of 8145 females obtained from the data bank of the Nellore Breeding Program (PMGRN/Nellore Brazil) which started in 1987, were used. The models included direct additive and maternal genetic effects and animal and maternal permanent environmental effects as random. Contemporary group and dam age at calving (linear and quadratic effect) were included as fixed effects, and orthogonal Legendre polynomials of age (cubic regression) were considered as random covariate. The random effects were modeled using B-spline functions considering linear, quadratic and cubic polynomials for each individual segment. Residual variances were grouped in five age classes. Direct additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects were modeled using up to seven knots (six segments). A single segment with two knots at the end points of the curve was used for the estimation of maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. A total of 15 models were studied, with the number of parameters ranging from 17 to 81. The models that used B-splines were compared with multi-trait analyses with nine weight traits and to a random regression model that used orthogonal Legendre polynomials. A model fitting quadratic B-splines, with four knots or three segments for direct additive genetic effect and animal permanent environmental effect and two knots for maternal additive genetic effect and maternal permanent environmental effect, was the most appropriate and parsimonious model to describe the covariance structure of the data. Selection for higher weight, such as at young ages, should be performed taking into account an increase in mature cow weight. Particularly, this is important in most of Nellore beef cattle production systems, where the cow herd is maintained on range conditions. There is limited modification of the growth curve of Nellore cattle with respect to the aim of selecting them for rapid growth at young ages while maintaining constant adult weight.
In this paper we report on the ability of rapid thermal annealing (1050C, 45s) and furnace annealing (900C, 30min) to partially break up the interfacial oxide in bipolar transistors with different oxide thicknesses at the polysilicon/silicon interface. We have obtained the different oxide thicknesses either by performing different ex situ cleans (RCA clean or RCA clean + HF dip) before Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) of polysilicon, or by using a cluster tool for polysilicon deposition with the ability to perform an in situ clean and then allowing the growth of different oxide thicknesses at the interface prior to polysilicon deposition. For the in situ cleaned devices, it is observed that after the interface anneal, the current gain increases with increasing oxide thicknesses, but with little penalty in terms of higher emitter resistance, Re. This indicates that by controllably increasing the interfacial oxide thickness and by subsequent annealing to partially break up the interfacial oxide, higher current gains can be obtained with little sacrifice in terms of higher Re.
Microporous zeolites can be synthesized using organic structure-directing
molecules whose function is to organize inorganic species into particular
topologies that then spontaneously self-assemble into the final crystalline
materials. Extension of the zeolite assembly process to the use of organic
molecular aggregates as structure-directing agents yields ordered mesoporous
materials like MCM–41 and MCM–48. A unifying picture of the assembly
processes ocurring in the syntheses of micro- and mesoporous materials is
Barium titanate ceramics have been obtained by sol-gel methods. The
dielectric investigations of these materials revealed the existence of
diffuse ferroelectric transitions. By using a phenomenological model, we
could demonstrate the existence of a simple relationship between the diffuse
character of the transition and the sample grain-size. This effect has been
attributed to interactions between charged defects on the grain surfaces and
the spontaneous polarization of the material.