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Since IVF led to the first successful birth over 40 years ago, it has transformed from a medical innovation focused on women with tubal occlusion to a far broader infertility and, in many instances, noninfertility therapy. The field of reproductive medicine today is nothing like what it was when it first started. As with many new technologies, the early decades were spent honing the craft, adapting laboratory and clinical innovations from animal experimentation to one that has provided a revolution in the development of complex hormonal treatments and laboratory practices (Chapters 2 and 3), including extended culture, ICSI, vitrification, and oocyte cryopreservation (Chapters 5 and 10).
The correlation between objective and subjective nasal obstruction is poor, and dissatisfaction rates after surgery for nasal obstruction are high. Accordingly, novel assessment techniques may be required. This survey aimed to determine patient experience and preferences for the measurement of nasal obstruction.
Prospective survey of rhinology patients.
Of 72 questionnaires distributed, 60 were completed (response rate of 83 per cent). Obstruction duration (more than one year) (χ2 = 13.5, p = 0.00024), but not obstruction severity, affected willingness to spend more time being assessed. Questionnaires (48 per cent) and nasal inspiratory peak flow measurement (53 per cent) are the most commonly used assessment techniques. Forty-nine per cent of participants found their assessment unhelpful in understanding their obstruction. Eighty-two per cent agreed or strongly agreed that a visual and numerical aid would help them understand their blockage.
Many patients are dissatisfied with current assessment techniques; a novel device with visual or numerical results may help. Obstruction duration determines willingness to undergo longer assessment.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Cardiac complications are common after hospital admission for sepsis, and elevated troponin has been associated with increased all-cause mortality. However, little is known about clinical or imaging factors that predict these cardiac events. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an easily identifiable imaging finding, even on nongated CT scans. The goal of this study is to identify if CAC predicts all cause mortality and acute myocardial infarction. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This is a single center, nonconcurrent cohort study including 899 patients who were admitted for sepsis and had a detectable TnI level from January 2013 to December 2013. Patients with a CT scan of the chest or abdomen done for other clinical indications within 6 months of this admission were reviewed for the presence or absence of CAC. Medical records were individually reviewed for mortality and type I acute myocardial infarctions at 1 year. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In total, 144 patients (mean age 57±14.8 years, 48% female) were included in the analysis. CAC was seen in 59% of these scans. Compared to those without detectable CAC, the CAC group had similar APACHE score (18 vs. 16.6, p=0.259), peak TnI (3.64 vs. 2.11 mg/dL, p=0.363), aspirin (63% vs. 51%, p=0.144), and β blocker use (90% vs. 85%, p=0.357) and had higher statin use (48% vs. 27%, p=0.013). CAC was associated with increased all-cause mortality (59.5% vs. 38.9%, p=0.016) and type I myocardial infarctions (10.6% vs. 1.7%, p=0.039) compared with those without CAC. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Coronary artery calcification is often seen when patients present with a noncardiac acute illness, such as sepsis, often making a new diagnosis for these patients. Mortality and acute MI after sepsis can be predicted by coronary calcification, and identify patients who should be targeted for therapy and close follow-up.
To assess the level of all-hazards disaster preparedness and training needs of emergency department (ED) doctors and nurses in Hong Kong from their perspective, and identify factors associated with high perceived personal preparedness.
This study was a cross-sectional territory-wide online survey conducted from 9 September to 26 October, 2015.
The participants were doctors from the Hong Kong College of Emergency Medicine and nurses from the Hong Kong College of Emergency Nursing.
We assessed various components of all-hazards preparedness using a 25-item questionnaire. Backward logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with perceived preparedness.
A total of 107 responses were analyzed. Respondents lacked training in disaster management, emergency communication, psychological first aid, public health interventions, disaster law and ethics, media handling, and humanitarian response in an overseas setting. High perceived workplace preparedness, length of practice, and willingness to respond were associated with high perceived personal preparedness.
Given the current gaps in and needs for increased disaster preparedness training, ED doctors and nurses in Hong Kong may benefit from the development of core-competency-based training targeting the under-trained areas, measures to improve staff confidence in their workplaces, and efforts to remove barriers to staff willingness to respond. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 329–336)
Nasal obstruction is a common ENT complaint; however, decisions on its management are challenging, with high rates of dissatisfaction following surgery. This study investigated the practice of UK clinicians in the evaluation of nasal patency.
Seventy-eight UK-based rhinologists were surveyed at the 2015 British Academic Conference in Otolaryngology.
Clinical history and examination are almost universally used to evaluate nasal blockage. The most commonly used test was the nasal misting pattern (73 per cent), followed by peak nasal inspiratory flow (19 per cent). The Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 or 23 was utilised by 29 per cent of respondents. Sixty-three per cent of respondents reported that a lack of equipment was the principle reason for not using objective measures, followed by time constraints and a lack of correlation with symptom scores.
British clinicians rely on clinical skills to evaluate nasal blockage. There is a desire for a simple, non-invasive device that objectively measures airflow for nasal breathing during physiological resting and correlates with subjective symptom scores.
Mycobacterium marinum, a bacterium found in freshwater and saltwater, can infect persons with direct exposure to fish or aquariums. During December 2013, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene learned of four suspected or confirmed M. marinum skin or soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among persons who purchased whole fish from Chinese markets. Ninety-eight case-patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) SSTIs were identified with onset June 2013–March 2014. Of these, 77 (79%) were female. The median age was 62 years (range 30–91). Whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates revealed two main clusters and marked genetic diversity. Environmental samples from distributors yielded NTM though not M. marinum. We compared 56 case-patients with 185 control subjects who shopped in Chinese markets, frequency-matched by age group and sex. Risk factors for infection included skin injury to the finger or hand (odds ratio [OR]: 15·5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6·9–37·3), hand injury while preparing fish or seafood (OR 8·3; 95% CI 3·8–19·1), and purchasing tilapia (OR 3·6; 95% CI 1·1–13·9) or whiting (OR 2·7; 95% CI 1·1–6·6). A definitive environmental outbreak source was not identified.
To study the association between gastrointestinal colonization of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).
We analyzed 31,526 patients with prospective collection of fecal specimens for CPE screening: upon admission (targeted screening) and during hospitalization (opportunistic screening, safety net screening, and extensive contact tracing), in our healthcare network with 3,200 beds from July 1, 2011, through December 31, 2015. Specimens were collected at least once weekly during hospitalization for CPE carriers and subjected to broth enrichment culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.
Of 66,672 fecal specimens collected, 345 specimens (0.5%) from 100 patients (0.3%) had CPE. The number and prevalence (per 100,000 patient-days) of CPE increased from 2 (0.3) in 2012 to 63 (8.0) in 2015 (P<.001). Male sex (odds ratio, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.15–3.18], P=.013), presence of wound or drain (3.12 [1.70–5.71], P<.001), and use of cephalosporins (3.06 [1.42–6.59], P=.004), carbapenems (2.21 [1.10–4.48], P=.027), and PPIs (2.84 [1.72–4.71], P<.001) in the preceding 6 months were significant risk factors by multivariable analysis. Of 79 patients with serial fecal specimens, spontaneous clearance of CPE was noted in 57 (72.2%), with a median (range) of 30 (3–411) days. Comparing patients without use of antibiotics and PPIs, consumption of both antibiotics and PPIs after CPE identification was associated with later clearance of CPE (hazard ratio, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.17–0.73], P=.005).
Concomitant use of antibiotics and PPIs prolonged duration of gastrointestinal colonization by CPE.
Some studies demonstrated that physical activity may have beneficial effect on cognitive function. The objective of the study was to estimate the association between physical activity and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong (HK) and Guangzhou (GZ).
In the neighborhood of HK and GZ, a convenience sample of 557 (260 in HK and 297 in GZ) older persons without dementia aged over 60 years (73.4 ± 6.5) was recruited. Physical activity was measured using a checklist. Information on physical activity participation, cognitive function, and other variables were collected. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between physical activity and cognitive function.
Total number of physical activities showed significant association with the delayed recall test (p < 0.01) and category verbal fluency test (CVFT) (p < 0.01). However, with further adjustment for participation in intellectual activity, the coefficients were no longer statistically significant (p > 0.05)
Physical activity may not be associated with better cognitive function among elderly Chinese independently of other factors.
The aims of this study were to identify Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization prevalence, behavioural risk factors, and to determine staphylococcal protein A (spa) types in community-based injection drug users (IDUs). Nasal swabs were collected and methicillin susceptibility testing and spa/SCCmec typing were performed on S. aureus isolates. Generalized estimating equations were used to report adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 440 participants, 24·1% were colonized and 5·7% had methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Colonization was associated with age, employment/marital status, and the presence of scabs but not with sexually transmitted disease co-infection, HIV status, antibiotic use, hospitalization, or drug treatment programme participation. The USA300 MRSA clone spa types were most common, but 15/49 spa types were new to one of the international databases. Community-based IDUs appear to have different risk factors compared to IDUs from clinical studies. In addition, the number of newly identified spa types indicates a diverse, understudied population.
We discuss different methods to separate high- from low-redshift galaxies based on a combination of spectroscopic and photometric observations. Our baseline scenario is the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy eXperiment (HETDEX) survey, which will observe several hundred thousand Lyman Alpha Emitting (LAE) galaxies at 1.9 < z < 3.5, and for which the main source of contamination is [OII]-emitting galaxies at z < 0.5. Additional information useful for the separation comes from empirical knowledge of LAE and [OII] luminosity functions and equivalent width distributions as a function of redshift. We consider three separation techniques: a simple cut in equivalent width, a Bayesian separation method, and machine learning algorithms, including support vector machines. These methods can be easily applied to other surveys and used on simulated data in the framework of survey planning.
To evaluate and extend climato-economic theory, the use of more micro units of analysis, such as cities and families, may open up new data sources. The consideration of environmental demands other than thermal climate may also broaden the range of useful data. Longitudinal designs can provide causal evidence, and so can experiments if the theory can be applied to individuals.
In this paper we present systematic investigations on the growth of SnS van der Waals epitaxies (vdWEs) on different substrates, including crystalline and layered substrates, by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Experimental growth of SnS on conventional 3D substrates, such as GaAs, indicates strong interaction between the SnS layer and the substrate resulting in poor crystallinity in general. Substantial improvement in the film crystallinity can be obtained when the deposition is made on layered substrates, with saturated surface bonds, as observed in SnS films deposited on mica and crystalline substrates with a graphene buffer layer. Crystal size as large as one micron and rocking curve FWHM of 0.118° was observed despite the large lattice mismatches. This represents significant improvement over the reported value of ∼3°. Several symmetric growth orientations are observed for films grown on mica substrates. The results indicate that weak vdW interactions between the saturated bonds of the substrate surface and the SnS unit layer which is an important factor for achieving high quality epitaxy layered materials.
Potassium (K) ions have been implanted in hydrothermally grown ZnO to a dose of 1 × 1015 cm-2, followed by isochronal annealing in a tube furnace (30min) and by rapid thermal annealing (30s) on two separate samples. For annealing temperatures below 700°C, only a minor redistribution of Li is observed behind the projected range of the K+ ions. At temperatures between 700 and 750°C, however, both annealing treatments show a wide region behind the implantation peak which is depleted of Li, and this depletion is used as a tracer to monitor diffusion of intrinsic defects like the Zn interstitial. The results are interpreted as Zn interstitials being released from the implanted region in a burst at temperatures above ∼700°C, followed by rapid migration, replacement of Li on Zn site through the kick-out mechanism, and migration of Li away from the active region.
During the early phase of the influenza pandemic in 2009, all cases of laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pH1N1) infection required compulsory isolation in hospital. These cases were offered oseltamivir treatment and only allowed to be discharged from the hospital when three consecutive respiratory specimens were negative for the virus by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). We reviewed the case records of these patients to assess the viral shedding kinetics of the pH1N1 virus. We defined viral shedding duration as the interval from illness onset date to the date of collection of the last positive specimen from the patients. Fifty-six patients were included in the study, of whom 96% received oseltamivir. The median viral shedding duration of pH1N1 virus by viral culture and RT–PCR were 3 days and 4 days, respectively. Patients who started oseltamivir treatment >48 h after onset had a significantly longer median viral shedding duration by viral culture than those who started treatment within 48 h of onset (4 days vs. 2 days, P=0·014).