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Recent data suggest that organic broilers often score worse on footpad lesions than conventional broilers but also that the current scoring of organic broiler feet may be misleading. In order to characterise footpad lesions in organic broilers, this study assessed and compared footpad lesions in a sample of 2987 conventional and 3578 organic broiler feet obtained from a large Danish abattoir during summer and winter. The feet were scored according to two scoring systems: the modified Danish surveillance scoring system and a histopathology-based new scoring system specifically developed to target the ability to differentiate between broiler feet with hyperkeratosis and ulcers. For both systems, all broiler feet with visible lesions were cross-sectionally incised. Significant differences between the two production systems were found for both scoring systems (χ2 = 710; P < 0.001 and χ2 = 247; P < 0.001 for the new and the surveillance systems, respectively), showing that a larger proportion of the organic feet compared to conventional feet – summer and winter – exhibited signs of hyperkeratosis. In addition, a smaller fraction of the organic feet than of the conventional feet were given the outermost scores, that is, normal or ulcerated; 13.4% v. 25.3% broiler feet were given score 0 for organic v. conventional production systems, respectively (χ2 = 152; P < 0.001), and 18.4% v. 23.8% feet were given score 4 for organic v. conventional production systems, respectively (χ2 = 308; P < 0.001). Thus, the results suggest that surveillance scoring systems such as the one used in Denmark are useful for the examination of footpad lesions in broilers from both types of production systems. However, the results have also raised attention to a typical characteristic of the feet of organic broilers, that is, profound hyperkeratosis, which may underlie potential misclassifications in surveillance scoring systems like the one used in Denmark. Among the possible solutions to this challenge to the correctness and fairness of the scoring system are improved procedures (such as mandatory incision), training of technicians and calibration of results (especially for the organic footpads).
In the past few years, there has been an unprecedented increase in the number of forcibly displaced migrants worldwide, of which a substantial proportion is refugees and asylum seekers. Refugees and asylum seekers may experience high levels of psychological distress, and show high rates of mental health conditions. It is therefore timely and particularly relevant to assess whether current evidence supports the provision of psychosocial interventions for this population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions compared with control conditions (treatment as usual/no treatment, waiting list, psychological placebo) aimed at reducing mental health problems in distressed refugees and asylum seekers.
We used Cochrane procedures for conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs. We searched for published and unpublished RCTs assessing the efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions in adults and children asylum seekers and refugees with psychological distress. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive and anxiety symptoms at post-intervention were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes include: PTSD, depressive and anxiety symptoms at follow-up, functioning, quality of life and dropouts due to any reason.
We included 26 studies with 1959 participants. Meta-analysis of RCTs revealed that psychosocial interventions have a clinically significant beneficial effect on PTSD (standardised mean difference [SMD] = −0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.01 to −0.41; I2 = 83%; 95% CI 78–88; 20 studies, 1370 participants; moderate quality evidence), depression (SMD = −1.02; 95% CI −1.52 to −0.51; I2 = 89%; 95% CI 82–93; 12 studies, 844 participants; moderate quality evidence) and anxiety outcomes (SMD = −1.05; 95% CI −1.55 to −0.56; I2 = 87%; 95% CI 79–92; 11 studies, 815 participants; moderate quality evidence). This beneficial effect was maintained at 1 month or longer follow-up, which is extremely important for populations exposed to ongoing post-migration stressors. For the other secondary outcomes, we identified a non-significant trend in favour of psychosocial interventions. Most evidence supported interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapies with a trauma-focused component. Limitations of this review include the limited number of studies collected, with a relatively low total number of participants, and the limited available data for positive outcomes like functioning and quality of life.
Considering the epidemiological relevance of psychological distress and mental health conditions in refugees and asylum seekers, and in view of the existing data on the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, these interventions should be routinely made available as part of the health care of distressed refugees and asylum seekers. Evidence-based guidelines and implementation packages should be developed accordingly.
This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
The heavy reliance on imported soybean meal (SBM) as a protein source makes it necessary for the European pig industry to search for alternatives and to develop pigs that perform efficiently when fed such ingredients. Digestion and metabolism are major physiological processes contributing to variation in feed efficiency. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to assess the effects of replacing SBM with increasing levels of rapeseed meal (RSM) in diets for young pigs on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients, nitrogen (N) balance, energy metabolism and carbohydrate, protein and fat oxidation. Four diets were fed to 32 pigs (22.7±4.1 kg initial BW) for three weeks. The diets consisted of a control cereal grain-SBM basal diet and three test diets where SBM and wheat were partially replaced with 10%, 20%, and 30% of expeller RSM. Increasing level of RSM in the diets linearly reduced ATTD of organic matter, CP, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber and energy. Utilization of digested nitrogen (DN) for N retention and total N excretion were not affected by RSM inclusion, however, RSM inclusion induced a shift in N excretion from urine to feces. Despite a linear increase in liver to metabolic BW ratio, heat production and utilization of metabolizable energy (ME) for retention were not affected by increasing RSM inclusion. In conclusion, replacing SBM with up to 30% of expeller RSM in nutritionally balanced diets for young pigs reduced the ATTD of most nutrients and energy, but did not affect N and energy retention in the body or efficiency of utilization of DN or ME for retention.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Lake et al. propose that people rely on “start-up software,” “causal models,” and “intuitive theories” built using compositional representations to learn new tasks more efficiently than some deep neural network models. We highlight the many drawbacks of a commitment to compositional representations and describe our continuing effort to explore how the ability to build on prior knowledge and to learn new tasks efficiently could arise through learning in deep neural networks.
For the deep ice-core drilling community, the 2005/06 Antarctic season was an exciting and fruitful one. In three different Antarctic locations, Dome Fuji, EPICA DML and Vostok, deep drillings approached bedrock (the ice–water interface in the case of Vostok), emulating what had previously been achieved at NorthGRIP, Greenland, (summer 2003 and 2004) and at EPICA Dome C2, Antarctica (season 2004/05). For the first time in ice-core drilling history, three different types of drill (KEMS, JARE and EPICA) simultaneously reached the depth of ‘warm ice’ under high pressure. After excellent progress at each site, the drilling rate dropped and the drilling teams had to deal with refrozen ice on cutters and drill heads. Drills have different limits and perform differently. In this comparative study, we examine depth, pressure, temperature, pump flow and cutting speed. Finally, we compare a few parameters of ten different deep drills.
Since snow avalanches are believed to release from zones of localized weakness, knowledge of snow-strength patterns is important for determining slope stability and for applying effective avalanche-control measures. In this study, the spatial variability of snow resistance (an index of snow strength) and depth were measured and compared with terrain features on two inclined slopes. A refined instrument allowed the strength of an entire snow slab to be characterized in a short time. The spatial pattern of trees appeared to affect the pattern of snow depth at one site, where a significant linear relationship was found between snow depth and average snow resistance. These results suggest that localized snow-depth variations may be important in snow-strength genesis. Although a linear relationship existed at that site, additional factors may be critically relevant. A second site with more complex terrain features and less localized wind drifting did not show a linear relationship between depth and average resistance. Instead, complex patterns of resistance demonstrated that many factors contribute to snow resistance. In particular, die snow overlying rocks was found to have significantly weaker resistance than that in adjacent areas not over rocks.
A statistical model characterizing the granular structure of snow is developed using quantitative stereology. The model is based on specific parameters (e.g. bond radius, grain-size, etc.) which take the form of internal-state variables in a constitutive theory for high-rate deformation of snow. In addition to parameters developed by other authors in previous investigations, a new parameter characterizing the mean bond length is developed. More significantly, general relations are derived for the mean number of bonds per grain and mean number of grains per unit volume without making any assumptions regarding the shape or size of the ice grains, or their respective distributions.
Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), whereas vegetable consumption has been found to be protective. The aim of this study was to investigate substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish with vegetables or potatoes for MI prevention. We followed up 29 142 women and 26 029 men in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study aged 50–64 years with no known history of MI at baseline. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for MI associated with specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for MI when replacing red meat with vegetables was 0·94 (95 % CI 0·90, 0·98). Replacing fatty fish with vegetables was associated with a higher risk of MI (HR 1·23; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·45), whereas an inverse, statistically non-significant association was found for lean fish (HR 0·93; 95 % CI 0·83, 1·05). Substituting poultry with vegetables was not associated with risk of MI (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·90, 1·11). Findings for substitution with potatoes were similar to findings for vegetables. Among men, a similar pattern was observed, but the associations were weak and mostly statistically non-significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat with vegetables or potatoes is associated with a lower risk of MI, whereas replacing fatty fish with vegetables or potatoes is associated with a higher risk of MI.
The aim was to explore the extent to which a Danish prevention centre catered to marginalised groups within the catchment area. We determined whether the district’s socio-economic vulnerability status and distance from the citizens’ residential sector to the centre influenced referrals of citizens to the centre, their attendance at initial appointment, and completion of planned activities at the centre.
Disparities in access to health care services is one among many aspects of inequality in health. There are multiple determinants within populations (socio-economic status, ethnicity, and education) as well as the health care systems (resource availability and cultural acceptability).
A total of 347 participants referred to the centre during a 10-month period were included. For each of 44 districts within the catchment area, the degree of socio-economic vulnerability was estimated based on the citizens’ educational level, ethnicity, income, and unemployment rate. A socio-economic vulnerability score (SE-score) was calculated. Logistic regression was used to calculate the probability that a person was referred to the centre, attended the initial appointment, and completed the planned activities, depending on sex, age, SE-score of district of residence, and distance to the centre.
Citizens from locations with a high socio-economic vulnerability had increased probability of being referred by general practitioners, hospitals, and job centres. Citizens living further away from the prevention centre had a reduced probability of being referred by their general practitioners. After referral, there was no difference in probability of attendance or completion as a function of SE-score or distance between the citizens’ district and the centre. In conclusion, the centre is capable of attracting referrals from districts where the need is likely to be relatively high in terms of socio-economic vulnerability, whereas distance reduced the probability of referral. No differences were found in attendance or completion.
To characterize meal patterns across ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study.
Cross-sectional study utilizing dietary data collected through a standardized 24 h diet recall during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined intake occasions across a 24 h period were assessed during the interview. In the present descriptive report, meal patterns were analysed in terms of daily number of intake occasions, the proportion reporting each intake occasion and the energy contributions from each intake occasion.
Twenty-seven centres across ten European countries.
Women (64 %) and men (36 %) aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
Pronounced differences in meal patterns emerged both across centres within the same country and across different countries, with a trend for fewer intake occasions per day in Mediterranean countries compared with central and northern Europe. Differences were also found for daily energy intake provided by lunch, with 38–43 % for women and 41–45 % for men within Mediterranean countries compared with 16–27 % for women and 20–26 % for men in central and northern European countries. Likewise, a south–north gradient was found for daily energy intake from snacks, with 13–20 % (women) and 10–17 % (men) in Mediterranean countries compared with 24–34 % (women) and 23–35 % (men) in central/northern Europe.
We found distinct differences in meal patterns with marked diversity for intake frequency and lunch and snack consumption between Mediterranean and central/northern European countries. Monitoring of meal patterns across various cultures and populations could provide critical context to the research efforts to characterize relationships between dietary intake and health.
Two experiments studied the effects of dietary chicory against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In Experiment (Exp.) 1, stabled calves were fed chicory silage (CHI1; n = 9) or ryegrass/clover hay (CTL1; n = 6) with balanced protein/energy intakes between groups. After 16 days, all calves received 10 000 Ostertagia ostertagi and 66 000 Cooperia oncophora third-stage larvae (L3) [day (D) 0 post-infection (p.i.)]. In Exp. 2, calves were assigned to pure chicory (CHI2; n=10) or ryegrass/clover (CTL2; n = 10) pastures. After 7 days, animals received 20 000 O. ostertagi L3/calf (D0 p.i.) and were moved regularly preventing pasture-borne infections. Due to poor regrowth of the chicory pasture, CHI2 was supplemented with chicory silage. At D40 p.i. (Exp. 1) and D35 p.i. (Exp. 2) calves were slaughtered for worm recovery. In Exp.1, fecal egg counts (FEC) were similar between groups. However, O. ostertagi counts were significantly reduced in CHI1 by 60% (geometric mean; P < 0·01), whereas C. oncophora burdens were unaffected (P = 0·12). In Exp. 2, FEC were markedly lowered in CHI2 from D22 p.i onwards (P < 0·01). Ostertagia ostertagi adult burdens were significantly reduced in CHI2 by 66% (P < 0·001). Sesquiterpene lactones were identified only in chicory (fresh/silage). Chicory shows promise as an anti-Ostertagia feed for cattle and further studies should investigate its on-farm use.
Efforts to develop the next generation of aircraft with ever-increasing levels of performance – higher, farther, faster, cheaper – face great technical challenges. One of these technical challenges is to reduce structural weight of the aircraft. Another is to look to aircraft configurations that have been unrealizable to date. Both of these paths can lead to a rigid flex coupling phenomenon that can result in anything from poor flying qualities to the loss of an aircraft due to flutter. This has led to a need to develop an integrated flight and aeroelastic control capability where structural dynamics are included in the synthesis of flight control laws. Studies have indicated that the application of an integrated flight and aeroelastic control approach to a SensorCraft high-altitude long-endurance vehicle would provide substantial performance improvement(1,2). Better flying qualities and an expanded flight envelope through multi-flutter mode control are two areas of improvement afforded by integrated flight and aeroelastic control. By itself, multi-flutter mode control transforms the flutter barrier from a point of catastrophic structural failure to a benign region of flight. This paper discusses the history and issues associated with the development of such an integrated flight and aeroelastic control system for the X-56A aircraft.
In view of the considerable ground covered by the Commission at its Paris meetings and the fairly complete record of the activities of institutes and observatories, etc. published in the Minutes, it has not been deemed profitable by the president to call for further reports in advance of the Stockholm meeting. At the Paris meeting it was agreed that such reports be printed independently before each meeting of the Union and that reprints of or references to the published reports be sent to the president. It is hoped that all such reports if ready will be made available before the Stockholm meeting so that they may be summarized by the representatives in attendance or by the president and recorded in the Minutes. With reference to the pronouncement at the Paris meeting “that it is eminently desirable that more attention be given to the development of accurate general perturbations and mean elements on the basis of accurate osculating elements”, the president has visited the Planeten-Institut at Frankfurt and the Rechen-Institut at Berlin and has been in correspondence with the Leningrad Institute. From these sources particularly valuable material has been received.
(1)Report on the progress of the FK3 catalogue, and the volume of apparent places of the stars in this catalogue.
(2)At the meeting in Paris it was suggested that the value of the Gaussian constant k should be fixed, and the President was asked to consult people known to be interested. As complete agreement appears to have been reached, the following resolution will be moved: “That the value of the Gaussian constant k shall be taken as 0-01720 20989 50000, the unit of time being the mean solar day for 1900·0”
In accordance with action taken by the Commission at the 1932 meeting of the Union, the President has taken steps to ascertain the general opinion of computers and observers in regard to the co-operation of the Nautical Almanac offices in furnishing data for the equinox of 1900. The question under discussion is that of the adoption of the standard equinox to which observations and elements should be referred, e.g. 1900, 1950, etc. The opinion is being ascertained through a questionnaire, the results of which will be reported at the meeting. In this connection Commission 4 proposes discussion of the following resolution in co-operation with Commission 20:
“That, as from 1938 January 1, the equinox used for expressing the elements of cometary orbits and for cometary ephemerides shall be that of 1950.0. Further that, as from the same date, the equinox used in giving observed positions of comets shall be that of 1950.0, unless the observer, for good reasons, used some other equinox and expressly draws attention to the equinox used.”