X-ray powder diffraction was used to study the phase composition of human renal calculi. The stones were collected from 56 donors in Vitória, Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. An XRD phase quantification revealed that 61% of the studied renal stones were composed exclusively of calcium oxalate [34% formed only by calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and 27% presents both monohydrate and dihydratate calcium oxalate]. The 39% multi-composed calculi have various other phases such as uric acid and calcium phosphate. Rietveld refinement of XRD data of one apparent monophasic (COM) renal calculus revealed the presence of a small amount of hydroxyapatite. The presence of this second phase and the morphology of the stone (ellipsoidal) indicated that this calculus can be classified as non-papillary type and its nucleation process developed in closed kidney cavities. In order to show some advantages of the X-ray powder diffraction technique, a study of the phase transformation of monohydrate calcium oxalate into calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was carried out by annealing of a monophasic COM calculi at 200, 300, and 400 °C for 48 h in a N2 gas atmosphere. The results of the XRD for the heat treated samples is in good agreement with the thermogravimetric analysis found in the literature and shows that X-ray powder diffraction can be used as a suitable technique to study the composition and phase diagram of renal calculi.