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Unnatural causes of death due to traffic accidents (TA) and suicide attempts (SA) constitute a major burden on global health, which remained stable in the last decade despite widespread efforts of prevention. Recently, latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) has been suggested to be a biological risk factor for both TA and SA. Therefore, a systematic search concerning the relationship of T. gondii infection with TA and/or SA according to PRISMA guidelines in Medline, Pubmed and PsychInfo was conducted collecting papers up to 11 February 2019 (PROSPERO #CRD42018090206). The random-effect model was applied and sensitivity analyses were subsequently performed. Lastly, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated. We found a significant association for antibodies against T. gondii with TA [odds ratio (OR) = 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20–2.38, p = 0.003] and SA (OR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.10–1.76, p = 0006). Indication of publication bias was found for TA, but statistical adjustment for this bias did not change the OR. Heterogeneity between studies on SA was partly explained by type of control population used (ORhealthy controls = 1.9, p < 0.001 v. ORpsychiatric controls = 1.06, p = 0.87) and whether subjects with schizophrenia only were analysed (ORschizophrenia = 0.87, p = 0.62 v. ORvarious = 1.8, p < 0.001). The association was significantly stronger with higher antibody titres in TA and in studies that did not focus on schizophrenia subjects concerning SA. PAF of a T. gondii infection was 17% for TA and 10% for SA. This indicates that preventing T. gondii infection may play a role in the prevention of TA or SA, although uncertainty remains whether infection and outcome are truly causally related.
New simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the archetypal mode-switching pulsar PSR B0943+10 have been carried out with XMM-Newton and the LOFAR, LWA and Arecibo radio telescopes in November 2014. They allowed us to better constrain the X-ray spectral and variability properties of this pulsar and to detect, for the first time, the X-ray pulsations also during the X-ray-fainter mode. The combined timing and spectral analysis indicates that unpulsed non-thermal emission, likely of magnetospheric origin, and pulsed thermal emission from a small polar cap are present during both radio modes and vary in a correlated way.
A spectral line survey for interstellar NH3 is being carried out using the 64-m telescopes at Parkes and Tidbinbilla. Both telescopes are equipped with K-band masers yielding system temperatures below 100 K. The preliminary survey was to be made with the Parkes antenna (beam = 1.5′ arc) with follow-up mapping of the more interesting sources at Tidbinbilla (beam = 0.9′ arc). Sources have in general been H II regions from the H2CO surveys made at Parkes. Approximately 70 sources (out of a target of (∼ 100) have been observed simultaneously in the metastable (1,1), (2,2) and (3,3) transitions. The (1,1) line has been detected in about 70% of the sources surveyed. The other lines which involve higher excitation are detected primarily in the more compact sources, particularly those associated with OH and H2O masers. Examples are given of spectra for different types of source.
Calving is a complex process subject to several cooperating atmospheric, oceanographic and glaciological forcings that vary in space and time, and whose relative effects are challenging to separate. Statistical ‘Systems Analysis’ is commonly used in engineering and economics to extricate complex ‘force–response’ relationships. Here we apply Systems Analysis to the Amery rift system, East Antarctica. We develop a scalable ‘System Model’ driven by a coarsely-sampled dataset characteristic of glaciological observations in remote locations, and validate it using rift lengths observed in 2000–06 and 2012. In this initial demonstration, we forecast a detachment date of ~2019 ± 5 years for the large tabular iceberg colloquially known as the ‘Loose Tooth’, for which relative humidity surprisingly emerges as the best statistical predictor. RACMO2 climate modelling reveals that relative humidity correlates best with surface albedo and snowmelt, both of which are intimately linked to firn compaction and ice shelf temperature and flow. We postulate that relative humidity can therefore serve as a proxy for internal stress, a known key control of ‘Loose Tooth’ calving. Although no physical causality is implied in Systems Analysis, postulates such as this can aid in setting priorities in studies of complex glaciological processes.
Mass is a key parameter in understanding the evolution and eventual fate of hot, luminous stars. Mass loss through a wind driven by UV-scattering forces is already known to reduce the mass of such stars by 10−10 − 10−4 M⊙/yr over the course of their lifetimes. However, high-mass stars already drive such strong winds while they are still in their accretion epoch. Therefore, stellar UV-scattering forces will efficiently ablate material off the surface of their circumstellar disks, perhaps even shutting off the final accretion through the last several stellar radii and onto a massive protostar. By using a three-dimensional UV-scattering prescription, we here quantify the role of radiative ablation in controlling the disk’s accretion rate onto forming high-mass stars. Particular emphasis is given to the potential impact of this process on the stellar upper mass limit.
The 20 → 3−1 E-type transition of 13CH3OH at 14.78 GHz has been detected towards four continuum sources: Sgr B2, two positions in Sgr A (the peaks of the ' + 20 km/s' and the '40 km/s' clouds), and W33. The NASA Deep Space Network 70-m antenna near Canberra, Australia, which has a 66 arcsec beam at this frequency, was used. A comparison of the 13C and 12C profiles for Sgr B2 indicates a rest frequency of 14,782.27 ± .03 MHz, 0.12 MHz above the laboratory value of Haque et al. (1974). For the Galactic Centre sources, the 12C/13C abundance ratios derived using the simplest assumptions lie in the range 30–40, higher than the 20–25 range derived from H2CO observations. For W33 the apparent value of ∼ 50 is lower than the value of ∼100 derived by Henkel et al. (1983) from H2CO. There may be no discrepancy, however, as W33 contains two velocity components — the higher velocity one at 36 km/s is more prominent in CH3OH and the lower 33 km/s more prominent in H2CO.
The Parkes 64-m antenna has been used to map ammonia emission in the (J,K = 1,1) and (J,K = 2,2) transitions toward molecular cloud complex NGC 6334. This complex contains a number of OH and H2O masers, HII regions and IR sources, and is a rich source of molecular line emission.
Distributions of observed and derived quantities are presented with a linear resolution of ∼ 1 pc. Velocity anomalies are present near the two OH masers NGC 6334A and B, and the source of ammonia emission located near the northernmost H2O maser is one of the most intense sources of NH3 emission in the Galaxy.
As part of an extensive southern survey of interstellar NH3 with the Parkes 64-m radio telescope (with a beamwidth of 81 arcsec), the (1, 1), (2, 2), and (3, 3) transitions have been observed towards the galactic centre molecular cloud G1.6-0.025. The cloud has an overall size of 10 arcmin, and contains several concentrations with differing velocities. It has several features also observed in other galactic centre clouds, e.g. high optical depths and kinetic temperatures above 50 K.
A spectral line survey for interstellar NH3 is being carried out using the 64-m telescopes at Parkes and Tidbinbilla. Both telescopes are equipped with K-band maser receivers yielding system temperatures below 100 K. The preliminary survey is being made with the Parkes antenna (beam = 1.35 arcmin), with follow-up mapping of the more interesting sources at Tidbinbilla (beam = 0.9 arcmin). The selected sources have in general been HII regions from the H2CO surveys made at Parkes. Statistical results from initial observations of the (1, 1), (2, 2), and (3, 3) lines in the preliminary survey are presented.
A K-band (18-25 GHz) reflected-wave ruby maser (Moore and Clauss 1979) has been borrowed from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory for radio astronomy use on the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Network at the Tidbinbilla Tracking Station, near Canberra. The purpose of the installation is to provide additional sensitive spectral line, continuum, and VLBI capabilities in the southern hemisphere. Previous measurements at 22.3 GHz (λ = 13.5 mm) determined that the Tidbinbilla 64-m antenna has a peak aperture efficiency of ˜22%, a well-behaved beam shape and consistent pointing (Fourikis and Jauncey 1979). Before installing the maser on the antenna a cooled (circulator) switch was added to provide a beam-switching capability, and a spectral line receiver following the maser was incorporated. The system was assembled and tested at JPL in late 1980 and installed at Tidbinbilla early in 1981. We give here a brief description and present some of the first line observations made in February and March 1981. Extensive line and continuum observations are planned with the present system and a program is under way to determine the telescope pointing characteristics.
The ALFA mission is designed to map the entire sky at frequencies between approximately 0.3 and 30 MHz with angular resolution limited by interstellar and interplanetary scattering. Most of this region of the spectrum is inaccessible from the ground because of absorption and refraction by the Earth’s ionosphere. A wide range of astrophysical questions concerning solar system, galactic, and extragalactic objects could be answered with high resolution images at low frequencies, where absorption effects and coherent emission processes become important and the synchrotron lifetimes of electrons are comparable to the age of the universe.
The Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (C-GRO) has completed a full-sky survey during which the number of known γ-ray pulsars has more than doubled. COMPTEL has observed the classical pulsars Crab and Vela on several occasions and has derived detailed pulse patterns and spectral parameters in the 0.7-30 MeV energy interval. The new C-GROγ-ray pulsars have different properties in terms of energy spectra and light-curve shapes, and, in fact, only the Crab is seen by all four C-GRO instruments. This raises intriguing questions about the particle acceleration processes and beaming taking place in the neutron magnetosphere. We have examined the COMPTEL data to add information on these objects in the 0.7-30 MeV energy interval and present evidence for the detection of one of them, PSR B1509-58. We have also undertaken a search for candidate radio pulsars whose ephemerides are well defined. The results of these analyses are presented.
Subject headings: gamma rays: observations — pulsars: general
We report on the likely detection of pulsed high-energy γ-rays from the binary millisecond pulsar PSR J0218+4232 in 100–1000 MeV data from CGRO EGRET. Imaging analysis demonstrates that the highly significant γ-ray source 2EG J0220+4228 (∼ 10σ) is for energies > 100 MeV positionally consistent with both PSR J0218+4232 and the BL Lac 3C66A. However, above 1 GeV 3C66A is the evident counterpart, whereas between 100 and 300 MeV PSR J0218+4232 is the most likely one. Timing analysis using one ephemeris valid for all EGRET observations yields in the 100-1000 MeV range a double-pulse profile at a ∼ 3.5σ significance level. The phase separation is similar to the component separation of ∼ 0.47 observed at X-rays. A comparison of the γ-ray profile with the 610 MHz radio profile in absolute phase shows that the two γ- ray pulses coincide with two of the three emission features in the complex radio profile.
Attachment theory proposes that psychological functioning and affect regulations are influenced by the attachment we form with others. Early relationships with parents or caregivers lay the foundations for attachment styles. These styles are proposed to influence how we relate to others during our life can be modified by the relationships and events we experience in our lifespan. A secure attachment style is associated with a capacity to manage distress, comfort with autonomy and the ability to form relationships with others, whereas insecure attachment can lead to dysfunctional relationships, emotional and behaviour avoidance. Attachment theory provides a useful framework to inform our understanding of relationship difficulties in people with psychosis. This paper aims to complement recent systematic reviews by providing an overview of attachment theory, its application to psychosis, including an understanding of measurement issues and the clinical implications offered.
A narrative review was completed of the measures of attachment and parental bonding in psychosis. Its clinical implications are also discussed. The paper also explores the link between insecure attachment styles and illness course, social functioning and symptomatology. The following questions are addressed: What are the key attachment measures that have been used within the attachment and psychosis literature? What are the results of studies that have measured attachment or parental bonding in psychosis and what clinical implications can we derive from it? What are some of the key questions for future research from these findings in relation to the onset of psychosis research field?
The most commonly used measures of attachment in psychosis research are reviewed. Self-report questionnaires and semi-structured interviews have mainly been used to examine attachment styles in adult samples and in recent years comprise a measure specifically developed for a psychosis group. The review suggests that insecure attachment styles are common in psychosis samples. Key relationships were observed between insecure, avoidant and anxious attachment styles and psychosis development, expression and long-term outcome.
Attachment theory can provide a useful framework to facilitate our understanding of interpersonal difficulties in psychosis that may predate its onset and impact on observed variability in outcomes, including treatment engagement. Greater attention should be given to the assessment of attachment needs and to the development of interventions that seek to compensate for these difficulties. However, further investigations are required on specifying the exact mechanisms by which specific attachment styles impact on the development of psychosis and its course.
Being physically assaulted is known to increase the risk of the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms but it may also skew judgements about the intentions of other people. The objectives of the study were to assess paranoia and PTSD after an assault and to test whether theory-derived cognitive factors predicted the persistence of these problems.
At 4 weeks after hospital attendance due to an assault, 106 people were assessed on multiple symptom measures (including virtual reality) and cognitive factors from models of paranoia and PTSD. The symptom measures were repeated 3 and 6 months later.
Factor analysis indicated that paranoia and PTSD were distinct experiences, though positively correlated. At 4 weeks, 33% of participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD, falling to 16% at follow-up. Of the group at the first assessment, 80% reported that since the assault they were excessively fearful of other people, which over time fell to 66%. Almost all the cognitive factors (including information-processing style during the trauma, mental defeat, qualities of unwanted memories, self-blame, negative thoughts about self, worry, safety behaviours, anomalous internal experiences and cognitive inflexibility) predicted later paranoia and PTSD, but there was little evidence of differential prediction.
Paranoia after an assault may be common and distinguishable from PTSD but predicted by a strikingly similar range of factors.
Previous studies have suggested that beliefs about voices mediate the relationship between actual voice experience and behavioural and affective response.
We investigated beliefs about voice power (omnipotence), voice intent (malevolence/benevolence) and emotional and behavioural response (resistance/engagement) using the Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire – Revised (BAVQ-R) in 46 voice hearers. Distress was assessed using a wide range of measures: voice-related distress, depression, anxiety, self-esteem and suicidal ideation. Voice topography was assessed using measures of voice severity, frequency and intensity. We predicted that beliefs about voices would show a stronger association with distress than voice topography.
Omnipotence had the strongest associations with all measures of distress included in the study whereas malevolence was related to resistance, and benevolence to engagement. As predicted, voice severity, frequency and intensity were not related to distress once beliefs were accounted for.
These results concur with previous findings that beliefs about voice power are key determinants of distress in voice hearers, and should be targeted specifically in psychological interventions.
A method of fabricating oriented single-crystalline SrRuO3 nanowire arrays using a bottom-up approach relying on diffusion-controlled self-organization is demonstrated. DyScO3 substrates exhibiting an ordered striped phase of DyO and ScO2 chemical termination are used as a template for pulsed laser deposition growth of SrRuO3. Here SrRuO3 preferentially nucleates on one type of termination. The resulting nanowires are single crystalline, conducting and isolated from each other, typically 100 nm wide and 5–10 nm high. This preferential growth is studied using a kinetic Monte Carlo model, which provides a guide to optimize growth conditions and tune the dimensions of the nanowires.
Background: Paranoia is a common experience in the non-clinical population. We use a novel experimental methodology to investigate paranoid ideas in individuals without a history of mental illness. Aims: We aimed to determine whether this paradigm could elicit unfounded paranoid thoughts and whether these thoughts could be predicted by factors from a cognitive model. Method: Fifty-eight individuals took part and completed measures assessing trait paranoia, mood, self and other schema and attributional style. They were exposed to two experimental events: 1) an interruption to the testing session by a stooge, and 2) a recording of laughter played outside the testing room and subsequently asked about their explanations for these events. Results: 15.5% (n = 9) of the sample gave a paranoid explanation for at least one of the experimental events. The remainder reported generally neutral explanations. Individuals with a paranoid explanation reported significantly higher levels of trait paranoia. Factors predictive of a paranoid interpretation were interpersonal sensitivity and attributional style. Conclusions: The results show that spontaneous paranoid explanations can be elicited in non-clinical individuals, even for quite neutral events. In line with current theories, the findings suggest that emotional processes contribute to paranoid interpretations of events, although, as a novel study with a modest sample, it requires replication.
Paranoia is increasingly being studied in clinical and non-clinical populations. However there is no multi-dimensional measure of persecutory ideas developed for use across the general population-psychopathology continuum. This paper reports the development of such a questionnaire: the ‘Green et al. Paranoid Thought Scales’. The aim was to devise a tool to assess ideas of persecution and social reference in a simple self-report format, guided by a current definition of persecutory ideation, and incorporating assessment of conviction, preoccupation and distress.
A total of 353 individuals without a history of mental illness, and 50 individuals with current persecutory delusions completed a pool of paranoid items and additional measures to assess validity. Items were devised from a recent definition of persecutory delusions, current assessments of paranoia, the authors' clinical experience, and incorporated dimensions of conviction, preoccupation and distress. Test–retest reliability in the non-clinical group was assessed at 2 weeks follow-up, and clinical change in the deluded group at 6 months follow-up.
Two 16-item scales were extracted, assessing ideas of social reference and persecution. Good internal consistency and validity was established for both scales and their dimensions. The scales were sensitive to clinical change. A hierarchical relationship between social reference and persecution was found. The data provide further evidence for a continuum of paranoid ideas between deluded and healthy individuals.
A reliable and valid tool for assessing paranoid thoughts is presented. It will provide an effective way for researchers to ensure consistency in research and for clinicians to assess change with treatment.
Insight in psychosis has previously been associated with both depression and cognitive ability. Some studies have found a curvilinear relationship between insight and cognitive ability but the roles of self-esteem and depression have not been taken into account.
To investigate the relationships between insight and IQ, depression, and self-esteem.
Correlations between self-reported and observer-rated insight, and measures of IQ, depression and self-esteem were examined in 67 people with psychosis.
Better self-reported insight was associated with higher IQ and poorer self-esteem, but not depression. There was some evidence for a curvilinear relationship between IQ and self-reported insight, specifically the ‘awareness of illness' dimension, which survived correction for symptom variables.
The relationship between insight and IQ might reflect both the basis of insight in intellectual ability and the influence of a psychological mechanism that preserves self-esteem.