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Human trafficking is a crime and a human rights violation that involves various and simultaneous traumatic events (sexual and physical violence, coercion). Yet, it is unknown how the patterning of violence and coercion affects the mental health of female and male trafficking survivors.
We conducted a cross-sectional study using a sample of 1015 female and male survivors of trafficking who received post-trafficking assistance services in Cambodia, Thailand or Vietnam. We assessed symptoms of anxiety and depression with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Violence was measured with questions from the World Health Organization International Study on Women's Health. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify distinct patterns of violence and coercion in females and males. Novel multi-step mixture modelling techniques were employed to assess the association of the emergent classes with anxiety, depression and PTSD in females and males.
LCA identified two distinct classes of violence and coercion experiences in females (class I: severe sexual and physical violence and coercion (20%); class II: sexual violence and coercion (80%)) and males (class I: severe physical violence and coercion (41%); class II: personal coercion (59%)). Females in class I had a two-fold increase in the odds of anxiety (OR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.57–2.81) and PTSD (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.03–4.17) compared with females in class II, but differences in the prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD were not significant when comparing males in class I to class II.
Specific patterns of violence and coercion provide a more in-depth understanding of the role of gender in the experience of violence and coercion and its association with mental health in survivors of trafficking. This information could be useful to target comprehensive mental health services for female and male trafficking survivors.
We present our new graphite target production system, developed in the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating measurements. The system consists of a gas handling line and a graphite target production system. Results of AMS measurements, stable isotope mass spectrometry measurements, and gravimetric/pressure yield determinations have been used to find the proper conditions for the graphitization process. We have also investigated the 14C contamination and the memory effect of the system during the graphitization processes. This paper covers the details of these experiments and a discussion of the results.
The higher spatial resolution and sensitivity of ISO allowed several extragalactic surveys to be extended to greater depth than obtained with IRAS. With the extended wavelength range deep surveys were performed for the first time at wavelengths up to ~ 200 μm. They favour galaxy models with strong evolution. With ISO's new capabilities the spectral energy distributions of larger samples of ULIRGs in the local universe and those of quasars and radio galaxies were determined. These data are applicable as templates to the more distant universe. Foreground components from zodiacal light and cirrus to the intracluster dust emission were studied in connection with their separation from the extragalactic background radiation.
Grain boundaries (GB) are characterized by disorientation of the neighboring grains and the direction of the boundary plane between them. A new approach presented here determines the projection of GB that can be used to determine the latter one. The novelty is that an additional parameter of GB is quantified in addition to the ones provided by the orientation maps, namely the width of the projection of the GB is measured from the same set of diffraction patterns that were recorded for the orientation map, without the need to take any additional images. The diffraction patterns are collected in nanobeam diffraction mode in a transmission electron microscope, pixel-by-pixel, from an area containing two neighboring grains and the boundary between them. In our case, the diffraction patterns were recorded using the beam scanning function of a commercially available system (ASTAR). Our method is based on non-negative matrix factorization applied to the mentioned set of diffraction patterns. The method is encoded in a MATLAB environment, making the results easy to interpret and visualize. The measured GB-projection width is used to determine the orientation of the GB-plane, as given in the study by Kiss et al.
We study the velocities of specific stellar absorption lines of Cepheid-type variable stars determining line bisector velocities from newly obtained high-resolution echelle spectra. We compare these velocities with recent CORAVEL measurements of Cepheids to reveal systematic differences of 2 – 3 kms−1.
We present a progress report on a detailed analysis of long-term (70–90 years) visual observations for seven semiregular variables. Fundamental changes of the physical state (amplitude and/or frequency modulations, mode change and switching) are studied with conventional Fourier- and wavelet analyses. Besides two examples of repetitive mode changes we report a simple geometric model of a rotationally induced amplitude modulation in RY Ursae Majoris.
We have collected long data series of some SR and Mira stars from data banks. In many cases the light curves show strong fluctuation or variation in the period, phase and amplitude. The detection of the significant changes of these parameters is important from the point of view of pulsation theory and stellar evolution. We present here the analysis of V Boo. The used method is the Fourier and wavelet analysis in order to point out the modulations in the frequency and amplitude.
The Herschel Space Observatory was the fourth cornerstone mission in the European Space Agency (ESA) science programme with excellent broad band imaging capabilities in the sub-mm and far-infrared part of the spectrum. Although the spacecraft finished its observations in 2013, it left a large legacy dataset that is far from having been fully scrutinised and still has a large potential for new scientific discoveries. This is specifically true for the photometric observations of the PACS and SPIRE instruments. Some source catalogues have already been produced by individual observing programs, but there are many observations that risk to remain unexplored. To maximise the science return of the SPIRE and PACS data sets, we are in the process of building the Herschel Point Source Catalogue (HPSC) from all primary and parallel mode observations. Our homogeneous source extraction enables a systematic and unbiased comparison of sensitivity across the different Herschel fields that single programs will generally not be able to provide. The catalogue will be made available online through archives like the Herschel Science Archive (HSA), the Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), and the Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center (CDS).
We created the Herschel1 Footprint Database and web services for the Herschel Space Observatory imaging data. For this database we set up a unified data model for the PACS and SPIRE Herschel instruments, from the pointing and header information of each observation, generated and stored sky coverages (footprints) of the observations in their exact geometric form. With this tool we extend the capabilities of the Herschel Science Archive by providing an effective search tool that is able to find observations for selected sky locations (objects), or even in larger areas in the sky.
A new approach for measurement of local thickness and characterization of grain boundaries is presented. The method is embodied in a software tool that helps to find and set sample orientations useful for high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) examination of grain boundaries in polycrystalline thin films. The novelty is the simultaneous treatment of the two neighboring grains and orienting both grains and the boundary plane simultaneously. The same metric matrix-based formalism is used for all crystal systems. Input into the software tool includes orientation data for the grains in question, which is determined automatically for a large number of grains by the commercial ASTAR program. Grain boundaries suitable for HRTEM examination are automatically identified by our software tool. Individual boundaries are selected manually for detailed HRTEM examination from the automatically identified set. Goniometer settings needed to observe the selected boundary in HRTEM are advised by the software. Operation is demonstrated on examples from cubic and hexagonal crystal systems.
To build on prior correlational research into personal best (PB) goals and motivational outcomes, an experimental study was conducted to assess the role of PB goal setting in gains (or declines) in students’ motivation in science (viz. biology, anatomy, health). The study (comprising N = 71 elementary/primary and secondary school students) applied a pre/post-treatment/control group experimental design to test whether setting a PB learning goal in a self-paced science education program (conducted in a museum context) leads to growth in science valuing and science aspirations. The treatment group (PB goal setting), but not the control group, demonstrated significant growth in science aspirations (but not valuing) between pre- and post-testing. This study provides support for the proposition that PB learning goals are associated with motivational growth in students’ lives. Findings also hold implications for museum-based education programs for students.
Valvular heart disease is a multifactorial disorder. Twin studies may help to better understand both genetic and environmental determinants contributing to the development of valve lesions. We describe the case of a 45-year-old female asymptomatic triplet with multiple valvular heart lesions, with a somewhat different pattern between the dizygotic twin pairs compared with the monozygotic twin pair. After thorough assessment of medical history and physical examination, the triplet underwent two- and three-dimensional transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic examinations to assess the pathomechanism and severity of their heart valve lesions. The monozygotic twin pair (second-born twin B and third-born twin C) showed the same pattern of valvular lesions: mild mitral, tricuspidal, and aortic regurgitation of the same pathomechanism (posterior mitral valve cleft and aortosclerosis). Interestingly, the examination of first-born twin (twin A), who was dizygotic to twins B and C, revealed mild protosystolic mitral and mild tricuspidal regurgitation, but neither aortic insufficiency nor mitral cleft or indentation could be detected. Beyond the genetic effect, we presume that the intrauterine twinning process might also play a role in the development of congenital valvular heart disease. In order to verify this, further investigation should be performed on larger twin populations. Nevertheless, when one twin is affected, the other asymptomatic twin should also be examined for valvular heart disease.
We investigated the diel vertical distribution patterns of microcrustacean zooplankton (Cladocera, Copepoda) in a shallow pond (max. depth: 70 cm) of the Öreg-turján peatland (Ócsa, Central Hungary) during three 24-h periods in July (19–20th), August (17–18th) and September (11–12th) 2011. Environmental variables showed remarkable vertical stratification. Oxygen concentration was close to zero in the entire water column from night until sunrise, while the lower strata (from 20 cm below the surface) were close to anoxic during all three diel cycles. It proved to be the main determinant of the vertical distribution of microcrustaceans. Accordingly, the highest proportion of individuals was present in the surface layer. Chlorophyll-a concentration and phytoplankton biomass were inversely distributed compared to zooplankton. Microcrustaceans (mainly Daphnia curvirostris) migrated to the middle layer only in August, which could be explained by a trade-off between food resources, dissolved oxygen (DO) and competition with littoral zooplankters. The diurnal density patterns of microcrustaceans suggested horizontal migration into the aquatic macrophytes during night, which could be a strategy to avoid Chaoborus predation. Our results show that strong vertical gradients of abiotic and biotic factors occur even in such shallow waterbodies. Among them, DO can maintain constant vertical aggregation of zooplankters by limiting their occurrence to the surface layers.
Electron microscopy (EM), cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) are essential techniques used for characterizing basic virus morphology and determining the three-dimensional structure of viruses. Enveloped viruses, which contain an outer lipoprotein coat, constitute the largest group of pathogenic viruses to humans. The purification of enveloped viruses from cell culture presents certain challenges. Specifically, the inclusion of host-membrane-derived vesicles, the complete destruction of the viruses, and the disruption of the internal architecture of individual virus particles. Here, we present a strategy for capturing enveloped viruses on affinity grids (AG) for use in both conventional EM and cryo-EM/ET applications. We examined the utility of AG for the selective capture of human immunodeficiency virus virus-like particles, influenza A, and measles virus. We applied nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid lipid layers in combination with molecular adaptors to selectively adhere the viruses to the AG surface. This further development of the AG method may prove essential for the gentle and selective purification of enveloped viruses directly onto EM grids for ultrastructural analyses.
Our study based on the continuous, high-precision observations covering more than three years provided by the Kepler mission reveals a new systematic effect in the data, a possible transition region between solar-like and Mira-like oscillations, and gives an overview of M giant variability on a wide range of time-scales (hours to years).
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. The atmospheric conditions at Dome C deliver a high sensitivity, high photometric precision, wide-field, high spatial resolution, and high-cadence imaging capability to the PILOT telescope. These capabilities enable a unique scientific potential for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents a series of projects dealing with the nearby Universe that have been identified as key science drivers for the PILOT facility. Several projects are proposed that examine stellar populations in nearby galaxies and stellar clusters in order to gain insight into the formation and evolution processes of galaxies and stars. A series of projects will investigate the molecular phase of the Galaxy and explore the ecology of star formation, and investigate the formation processes of stellar and planetary systems. Three projects in the field of exoplanet science are proposed: a search for free-floating low-mass planets and dwarfs, a program of follow-up observations of gravitational microlensing events, and a study of infrared light-curves for previously discovered exoplanets. Three projects are also proposed in the field of planetary and space science: optical and near-infrared studies aimed at characterising planetary atmospheres, a study of coronal mass ejections from the Sun, and a monitoring program searching for small-scale Low Earth Orbit satellite debris items.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ∼30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice as good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILOT and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e. studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e. studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System).
The 18O(p, α)15N reaction rate has been extracted by means of the Trojan-Horse method. For the first time the contribution of the 20-keV peak has been directly evaluated, giving a value about 35% larger than previously estimated. The present approach has allowed to improve the accuracy of a factor 8.5, as it is based on the measured strength instead of educated guesses or spectroscopic measurements. The contribution of the 90-keV resonance has been determined as well, which turned out to be of negligible importance to astrophysics.
We suggest a model explaining nonlinear dependences of critical current Jc in YBCO epitaxial films. Two features of YBCO are taken into account: twin domain structure in orthorhombic phase and the anisotropy of uniaxial strain dependence of Tc. Applied strain changes elementary pinning force of the defects located at low-angle dislocation boundaries between differently oriented twin domains. Account of Tc dependence on strain this leads to approximately parabolic strain behavior of Jc. We have obtained analytical expressions for the “initial strain”, which actually describes a natural misbalance between numbers of grain boundaries separating a and b oriented domains, as well as for “strain sensitivity”, which is determined by Tc dependence on uniaxial a and b strains and by the effective redistribution of vortices. Other experimentally observed effects, such as temperature, magnetic field and two-peak strain dependences of Jc, are shown to be described in the framework of suggested model.