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In semiarid conditions, feed is often scarce and variable with underfeeding being common; these factors can potentially induce fertility reductions in both sexes. Sexually active bucks are able to very efficiently fertilize out-of-season goats, but we do not know whether underfeeding would reduce the ability of bucks to fertilize goats during these periods. Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) testicular size and change of odor intensity of undernourished bucks exposed to long days and (ii) the ability of these bucks to stimulate reproductive activity in seasonally anestrous goats. In experiment 1, bucks (n = 7) were fed 1.5 times the normal maintenance requirements from September to May and formed the well-fed group. Another group of bucks (n = 7) were fed 0.5 times the maintenance requirements and formed the undernourished group. All bucks were subjected to artificially long days from 1 November to 15 January; this period was followed by a natural photoperiod until 30 May. Body weight, scrotal circumference and male odor intensity changes were determined every 2 weeks. In experiment 2, two groups of female goats (n = 26 each) were exposed to well-fed (n = 2) or undernourished bucks (n = 2) on 31 March. Ovulations and pregnancy rates were determined by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment 1, a treatment by time interaction was detected for BW, scrotal circumference and odor intensity changes (P < 0.001). The BWs of well-fed bucks were greater than those of the undernourished bucks from October to May (P < 0.01), as were the scrotal circumferences from December to March (P < 0.05) and odor intensities from February to May (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, the proportions of females that ovulated at least once (100% v. 96%) or those that were diagnosed as pregnant (85% v. 77%; P > 0.05) did not differ significantly between the goats exposed to well-fed or undernourished bucks. The interval between the introduction of bucks and the onset of estrous behavior was shorter in goats exposed to well-fed bucks compared to the interval for those goats exposed to undernourished bucks (2.5 ± 0.2 v. 9.5 ± 0.6 days; P < 0.05). We conclude that undernourishment reduces the testicular size and odor intensity responses in bucks exposed to long days, but that undernourished bucks are still able to stimulate reproductive activity in seasonally anestrous goats, as is also the case for well-fed bucks.
The continuous presence of active male small ruminants prevents seasonal anestrus in females, but evidence of the same mechanism operating from the females to the males is scarce. This study assessed the effects of the continuous presence of ewes in estrus in spring on ram sexual activity, testicular size and echogenicity, and LH and testosterone concentrations. On 1 March, 20 rams were assigned to two groups (n = 10 each): isolated (ISO) from other sheep, or stimulated (STI) by 12 ewes, which were separated from the rams by an openwork metal barrier, allowing contact between sexes. Each week, four ewes were induced into estrus by intravaginal sponges. Live weight, scrotal circumference, testicular width (TW) and length (TL) were recorded at the beginning and at the end of the experiment, and testicular volume (TV) was calculated; at the same time, testicular ultrasonography and color Doppler scanning were performed. Blood samples (March to May) were collected once per week for testosterone determinations, and at the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for 6 h at 20-min intervals for LH analysis. Rams were exposed to four estrous ewes in a serving-capacity test. Scrotal circumference, TW and TL were higher in the STI than in the ISO rams (P < 0.05) in May, and TV was higher (P < 0.05) in the STI (391 ± 17 cm3) than in the ISO rams (354 ± 24 cm3). In ISO rams, the number of white pixels was higher (P < 0.01) in May (348 ± 74) than in March (94 ± 21) and differed significantly (P < 0.01) from that of the STI rams in May (160 ± 33). In ISO rams, the number of grey pixels was higher (P < 0.05) in May (107 ± 3) than it was in March (99 ± 1). Stimulated and ISO rams did not differ significantly in mean LH plasma concentrations (0.8 ± 0.5 v. 0.9 ± 0.4 ng/ml), LH pulses (2.1 ± 0.5 v. 2.2 ± 0.2) and amplitude (2.0 ± 0.4 v. 3.2 ± 0.7 ng/ml, respectively). Stimulated rams had significantly higher testosterone concentrations than ISO rams from April to the end of the experiment. Stimulated rams performed more (P < 0.05) mountings with intromission (3.0 ± 0.4) than did ISO rams (1.5 ± 0.5). In conclusion, after 3 months in the continuous presence of ewes in estrus in spring, rams had higher TV and some testicular echogenic parameters were modified than isolated rams. Although exposed rams also had higher levels of testosterone after 2 months in the presence of estrous ewes, their LH pulsatility at the end of the study was not modified.
Oil-jet lubrication and cooling of high-speed gears is frequently employed in aeronautical systems, such as novel high-bypass civil aero engines based on the geared turbofan technology. Using such oil-jet system, practitioners aim to achieve high cooling rates on the flanks of the highly thermally loaded gears with minimum oil usage. Thus, for an optimal design, detailed knowledge about the flow processes is desired. These involve the oil exiting the nozzle, the oil impacting on the gear teeth, the oil spreading on the flanks, the subsequent oil fling-off, as well as the effect of the design parameters on the oil flow. Better understanding of these processes will improve the nozzle design phase, e.g. regarding the nozzle positioning and orientation, as well as the nozzle sizing and operation.
Most related studies focus on the impingement depth to characterize the two-phase flow. However, the level of information of this scalar value is rather low for a complete description of the highly dynamic three-dimensional flow. Motivated by the advancements in numerical methods and the computational resources available nowadays, the investigation of the oil-jet gear interaction by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has come into focus lately.
In this work, a numerical setup based on the volume-of-fluid method is presented and employed to investigate the two-phase flow phenomena occurring in the vicinity of the gear teeth. The setup consists of a single oil-jet impinging on a single rotating spur gear. By introducing new metrics for characterizing the flow phenomena, extensive use of the possibilities of modern CFD is made, allowing a detailed transient and spatially resolved flow analysis. Thus, not only the impingement depth, but also the temporal and spatial evolution of wetted areas on the gear flanks, as well as the evolution of the oil volume in contact with the gear flanks are extracted from the simulation data and compared in a CFD study.
The study consists of 21 different simulation cases, whereby the effect of varying the jet velocity, the jet inclination angle, the jet diameter, and the gear speed are examined. Consistent results compared to a simplified analytical approach for the impinging depth are obtained and the results for the newly introduced metrics are presented.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Vaginal ring delivery of antiretroviral drugs may provide protection against acquisition of HIV-1 when used as pre-exposure prophylaxis. As part of a randomized placebo-controlled safety trial of a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) intravaginal ring (IVR), we assessed product acceptability through surveys of 17 women after continuous ring use. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Sexually active, HIV negative women between the ages of 18 and 45 were enrolled to investigate the safety and pharmacokinetics of three months of continuous TDF IVR use. The study was designed to include 40 US participants randomly assigned (3:1) to a TDF or placebo IVR. Twelve were randomized to TDF and five were assigned to the placebo group before the study was electively discontinued due to development of vaginal ulcerations in eight women in the TDF group. Acceptability data regarding TDF and placebo ring use was gathered via self-administered, computer-based questionnaires at the one- and three-month study visits. Participants were asked about overall attitudes and feelings regarding the TDF and placebo IVR, vaginal changes associated with ring use, and their experiences with ring use during menses and with sex. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 30 years (range 18 - 42). Sixteen of 17 (94%) participants completed all study questions at both visits. When asked about ring likeability at one-month, 12 of 16 (75%) women reported overall liking the ring, including 5 of 8 (63%) who developed ulcerations. Vaginal changes described during ring use included 8 participants who indicated that the “vagina was wetter” and 2 who reported that the “vagina was drier.” Additionally, 10 of 12 (83%) who had their period during the first month of the study were not bothered by ring use during menses, and 11 of 16 (69%) stated that the ring was not bothersome with use during sex. When asked at the three-month visit, most reported that they would prefer to wear the ring rather than use a condom during sex, however, condom use was low at baseline in this population. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Despite unanticipated ulcers, the IVRs were acceptable, especially when used with menses and during sex. Regardless of the group assigned or vaginal changes experienced, and even amongst those who developed ulcerations, the women had positive attitudes towards the ring, which is promising for future use of vaginal rings as a method for HIV prevention.
The KIBRA rs17070145 “CC” and the CLSTN2 rs6439886 “TT” genotypes have been associated with poor episodic memory performance in healthy persons. Episodic memory is also impaired in depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that depressed persons with the “CC/TT” genotype combination would perform worse in comparison to other KIBRA and CLSTN2 combinations.
To examine the effects of KIBRA and CLSTN2 on episodic memory performance in nondepressed and depressed elderly persons (60+).
Genotyping from peripheral blood samples and episodic memory testing were performed in the population-based SNAC-K study. All non-demented participants (n = 2332) were categorized according to depression status (nondepressed/depressed) following ICD-10 criteria. Dichotomous variables were used for KIBRA (any T/CC) and CLSTN2 (any C/TT).
A three-factor MANCOVA revealed no main effects, but two significant interaction effects for episodic memory performance. Post hoc test for KIBRA × CLSTN2 revealed that persons with the “CC/TT” genotype exhibited poorer performance on free recall and recognition. Further, the three-way interaction (KIBRA × CLSTN2 × depression) showed that the negative effect of the “CC/TT” genotype was most pronounced among depressed persons Depressed “CC/TT” consistently performed at the lowest level.
The combination of the KIBRA “CC” and the CLSTN2 “TT” genotypes was associated with poorer episodic memory performance in both nondepressed and depressed persons. Depression in combination with the “CC/TT” genotype was especially disadvantageous for episodic memory performance. This supports the view that effects of specific SNPs on performance may be most easily disclosed at suboptimal levels of cognitive ability, e.g. in depression.
Recent evidences of clinical overlap, familial co-aggregation, and shared genetic alterations support a neurodevelopmental deviation to represent a probable common vulnerability factor not only for the psychiatric disorders included in the meta-structure of neurodevelopmental disorders, but also for other major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia.
The present paper reviews the literature to identify (1) positive and negative implications of the increasing enlargement of the group of neurodevelopmental disorders and (2) most useful clinical aspect for re-defining diagnostic boundaries between syndromic groups.
The search purpose was reached through a systematic mapping of literature.
The last years’ trend to increasingly enlarge the number of psychiatric features comprised in the autism spectrum should be better evaluated for potential negative impact on research and clinical resources for those autistic syndromes more reliable with Kanner's descriptions or associated with lower personal functioning profiles and different level of ID.
Crucial clinical aspects for the differentiation resulted to be age of onset, interest towards others, main positive symptoms, and anatomical anomalies of the central nervous system.
While on one hand the neurodevelopmental perspective might contribute to a better understanding of the multifactorial aetiopathogenetic mechanisms underlying many psychiatric disorders and provide new intervention strategies, on the other hand it might determine a premature abandonment of the traditional nosology and the appearance of very broad spectrum conditions covering all the range of current psychopathology.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) history have high rates of performance validity test (PVT) failure. The study aimed to determine whether those with scores in the invalid versus valid range on PVTs show similar benefit from psychotherapy and if psychotherapy improves PVT performance.
Veterans (N = 100) with PTSD, mild-to-moderate TBI history, and cognitive complaints underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month post-treatment. Veterans were randomly assigned to cognitive processing therapy (CPT) or a novel hybrid intervention integrating CPT with TBI psychoeducation and cognitive rehabilitation strategies from Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART). Performance below standard cutoffs on any PVT trial across three different PVT measures was considered invalid (PVT-Fail), whereas performance above cutoffs on all measures was considered valid (PVT-Pass).
Although both PVT groups exhibited clinically significant improvement in PTSD symptoms, the PVT-Pass group demonstrated greater symptom reduction than the PVT-Fail group. Measures of post-concussive and depressive symptoms improved to a similar degree across groups. Treatment condition did not moderate these results. Rate of valid test performance increased from baseline to follow-up across conditions, with a stronger effect in the SMART-CPT compared to CPT condition.
Both PVT groups experienced improved psychological symptoms following treatment. Veterans who failed PVTs at baseline demonstrated better test engagement following treatment, resulting in higher rates of valid PVTs at follow-up. Veterans with invalid PVTs should be enrolled in trauma-focused treatment and may benefit from neuropsychological assessment after, rather than before, treatment.
Environmental factors such as sunshine hours, temperature and UV radiation (UVR) are known to influence seasonal fluctuations in vitamin D concentrations. However, currently there is poor understanding regarding the environmental factors or individual characteristics that best predict neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aims of this study were to (1) identify environmental and individual determinants of 25(OH)D concentrations in newborns and (2) investigate whether environmental factors and individual characteristics could be used as proxy measures for neonatal 25(OH)D concentrations. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) was measured from neonatal dried blood spots (DBS) of 1182 individuals born between 1993 and 2002. Monthly aggregated data on daily number of sunshine hours, temperature and UVR, available from 1993, were retrieved from the Danish Meteorological Institute. The individual predictors were obtained from the Danish National Birth register, and Statistics Denmark. The optimal model to predict 25(OH)D3 concentrations from neonatal DBS was the one including the following variables: UVR, temperature, maternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational age at birth and parity. This model explained 30 % of the variation of 25(OH)D3 in the neonatal DBS. Ambient UVR in the month before the birth month was the best single-item predictor of neonatal 25(OH)D3, accounting for 24 % of its variance. Although this prediction model cannot substitute for actual blood measurements, it might prove useful in cohort studies ranking individuals in groups according to 25(OH)D3 status.
The exposure of adult, female, Mediterranean goats during anoestrus to males with induced sexual activity via photostimulation, induces a very high percentage of ovulations. The present work examines the ability of photostimulated bucks to improve the male effect-induced reproductive response of young does over that induced by non-stimulated bucks. A 2×2 factorial experiment was designed, consisting of doe age and buck photoperiod treatments. During seasonal anoestrus, 41 does aged 7 (n=19) or 10 (n=22) months were subjected to the male effect on 10 April; half of each group was exposed to males rendered sexually active by prior exposure to 3 months of long days (16 h of light/day) from 31 October (PHOTO bucks), and half to males maintained under the natural photoperiod (CONTROL bucks). Oestrous activity was recorded daily by direct visual observation of the marks left by male-worn marking harnesses over the 32 days following the bringing of the sexes together (introduction). Doe body weight and body condition were determined weekly. Ovulation was detected by measuring plasma progesterone concentrations twice per week over the 3 weeks after introduction. The ovulation rate was assessed by transrectal ultrasonography. Fecundity, fertility, prolificacy and productivity were also determined. The interaction doe age × buck photoperiod treatment had no effect on any outcome. The percentage of females showing ovulation or oestrus was higher in the does exposed to PHOTO bucks (85% v. 43% for those exposed to CONTROL bucks) they also showed higher fertility (75% v. 43%) and productivity (1.05±0.17 v. 0.57±0.16 kids born per doe serviced) (all P values at least P<0.05). The 10-month-old group showed higher percentage of females showing ovulation, oestrus, fertility and productivity than the 7-month-old does after the male effect (females showing ovulation: 82% v. 42%; showing oestrus: 73% v. 42%; fertility: 73% v. 42% and productivity: 1.09±0.17 v. 0.47±0.14 goat kids born per doe serviced; respectively, all P values at least P<0.05). The present results show that the use of photostimulated males improves the reproductive performance of 7- and 10-month-old does, and may contribute towards increasing their productivity and lifetime reproductive performance.
In this systematic evaluation of fluorescent gel markers (FGM) applied to high-touch surfaces with a metered applicator (MA) made for the purpose versus a generic cotton swab (CS), removal rates were 60.5% (476 of 787) for the MA and 64.3% (506 of 787) for the CS. MA-FGM removal interpretation was more consistent, 83% versus 50% not removed, possibly due to less varied application and more adhesive gel.
The chemistry within the outflow of an AGB star is determined by its elemental C/O abundance ratio. Thanks to the advent of high angular resolution observations, it is clear that most outflows do not have a smooth density distribution, but are inhomogeneous or “clumpy”. We have developed a chemical model that takes into account the effect of a clumpy outflow on its gas-phase chemistry by using a theoretical porosity formalism. The clumpiness of the model increases the inner wind abundances of all so-called unexpected species, i.e. species that are not predicted to be present assuming an initial thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry. By applying the model to the distribution of cyanopolyynes and hydrocarbon radicals within the outflow of IRC+10216, we find that the chemistry traces the underlying density distribution.
Studies have suggested that vitamin D status at birth may be associated with a range of neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the association between neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentration and gestational age, birth weight, Ponderal Index and size for gestational age. Neonatal capillary blood stored as dried blood spots was used to assess 25(OH)D3 concentrations among 2686 subjects selected from a random population sub-sample of individuals, born in Denmark from 1 May 1981 to 31 December 2002. There was an inverse association between 25(OH)D3 concentration and gestational age at birth of −0·006 (95 % CI −0·009, −0·003, P<0·001) weeks of gestation per 1 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D3 concentration. An inverted U-shaped association between 25(OH)D3 and birth weight and Ponderal Index (P=0·04) was found, but no association with size for gestational age was shown. This study suggests that neonatal 25(OH)D3 concentration is associated with anthropometric measures at birth known to be correlated with many subsequent health outcomes such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Brittle ice, which occurs in all intermediate-depth and deep ice cores retrieved from high-latitude regions, presents a challenge for high-resolution measurements of water isotopes, gases, ions and other quantities conducted with continuous flow analysis (CFA). We present a novel method of preserving brittle ice for CFA stable water isotope measurements using data from a new ice core recovered by the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project. Modest modification of the drilling technique and the accommodation of non-horizontal fractures (‘slanted breaks’) in processing led to a substantial improvement in the percentage of brittle ice analyzed with CFA (87.8%). Whereas traditional processing methods remove entire fragmented pieces of ice, our method allowed the incorporation of a total of 3 m of ice (1% of the 261 m of brittle ice and ~1300 years of climate history) that otherwise would not have been available for CFA. Using the RICE stable water isotope CFA dataset, we demonstrate the effect of slanted breaks and analyze the resulting smoothing of the data with real and simulated examples. Our results suggest that retaining slanted breaks are a promising technique for preserving brittle ice material for CFA stable water isotope measurements.
To test an obesity prevention strategy derived from behavioural economics (optimal defaults plus delay), focused on changing the college dining hall service method.
After a uniform pre-load, participants attended an experimental lunch in groups randomized to one of three conditions: a nutrient-dense, lower-fat/energy lunch as an optimal default (OD); a less-nutrient-dense, higher-fat/energy lunch as a suboptimal default (SD); or a free array (FA) lunch. In the OD condition, students were presented a menu depicting healthier vegetarian and omnivore foods as default, with opt-out alternatives (SD menu) available on request with a 15 min wait. In the SD condition, the same menu format was used with the positioning of food items switched. In the FA condition, all choices were presented in uniform fonts and were available immediately.
Private rooms designed to provide a small version of a college dining hall, on two campuses of a Northeastern US university.
First-year college students (n 129).
There was a significant main effect for condition on percentage of optimal choices selected, with 94 % of food choices in the OD condition optimal, 47 % in the FA condition optimal and none in the SD condition optimal. Similarly, energy intake for those in the SD condition significantly exceeded that in the FA condition, which exceeded that in the OD condition.
Presenting menu items as optimal defaults with a delay had a significant impact on choice and consumption, suggesting that further research into its long-term applicability is warranted.
Social media presents an important means for social interaction, especially among adolescents, with Instagram being the most popular platform in this age-group. Pictures and communication about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) can frequently be found on the internet.
During 4 weeks in April 2016, n = 2826 (from n = 1154 accounts) pictures which directly depicted wounds on Instagram were investigated. Those pictures, associated comments, and user accounts were independently rated for content. Associations between characteristics of pictures and comments as well as weekly and daily trends of posting behavior were analyzed.
Most commonly, pictures depicted wounds caused by cutting on arms or legs and were rated as mild or moderate injuries. Pictures with increasing wound grades and those depicting multiple methods of NSSI generated elevated amounts of comments. While most comments were neutral or empathic with some offering help, few comments were hostile. Pictures were mainly posted in the evening hours, with a small peak in the early morning. While there was a slight peak of pictures being posted on Sundays, postings were rather evenly spread across the week.
Pictures of NSSI are frequently posted on Instagram. Social reinforcement might play a role in the posting of more severe NSSI pictures. Social media platforms need to take appropriate measures for preventing online social contagion.