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The intensities of x-rays scattered by amorphous Fe80P13C7 and Fe40Ni40P14B6 samples have been measured as a function of photon energies E at fixed scattering angles 2θi using a Li-drifted Si detector and polychromatic x-rays generated by a 50KV full-wave rectified generator. The coherently scattered intensity per atom was calculated for free-standing samples as well as samples contained in a Be or pyrolytic graphite cell, after the evaluation of the energy dependence of the primary beam spectrum by an iterative process. The interference functions were then calculated from the data obtained in transmission and reflection, and compared with those measured with the conventional variable 2θ technique. Good agreement between energy-dispersive diffraction (also called variable wavelength technique) and variable 2θ diffraction was observed in all cases.
The Fourier analysis of the broadened profiles in a powder pattern allows the determination of the effective particle or domain size and the microstrains within each domain in polycrystalline materials. In order to apply this method to the diffraction patterns of thin films and coatings, deposited on crystalline or amorphous substrates, special diffraction techniques must be employed for the registration of the relatively weak intensities. The fitting of the experimental profiles to pseudo-Voigt functions permits the recovery of the peak tails and a precise determination of the background. The positions of the peak maxima or centroids yield information about any compositional variations, and about the occurrence of stacking faults and residual stresses in thin films and coatings.
Environmental factors such as sunshine hours, temperature and UV radiation (UVR) are known to influence seasonal fluctuations in vitamin D concentrations. However, currently there is poor understanding regarding the environmental factors or individual characteristics that best predict neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The aims of this study were to (1) identify environmental and individual determinants of 25(OH)D concentrations in newborns and (2) investigate whether environmental factors and individual characteristics could be used as proxy measures for neonatal 25(OH)D concentrations. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) was measured from neonatal dried blood spots (DBS) of 1182 individuals born between 1993 and 2002. Monthly aggregated data on daily number of sunshine hours, temperature and UVR, available from 1993, were retrieved from the Danish Meteorological Institute. The individual predictors were obtained from the Danish National Birth register, and Statistics Denmark. The optimal model to predict 25(OH)D3 concentrations from neonatal DBS was the one including the following variables: UVR, temperature, maternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational age at birth and parity. This model explained 30 % of the variation of 25(OH)D3 in the neonatal DBS. Ambient UVR in the month before the birth month was the best single-item predictor of neonatal 25(OH)D3, accounting for 24 % of its variance. Although this prediction model cannot substitute for actual blood measurements, it might prove useful in cohort studies ranking individuals in groups according to 25(OH)D3 status.
The exposure of adult, female, Mediterranean goats during anoestrus to males with induced sexual activity via photostimulation, induces a very high percentage of ovulations. The present work examines the ability of photostimulated bucks to improve the male effect-induced reproductive response of young does over that induced by non-stimulated bucks. A 2×2 factorial experiment was designed, consisting of doe age and buck photoperiod treatments. During seasonal anoestrus, 41 does aged 7 (n=19) or 10 (n=22) months were subjected to the male effect on 10 April; half of each group was exposed to males rendered sexually active by prior exposure to 3 months of long days (16 h of light/day) from 31 October (PHOTO bucks), and half to males maintained under the natural photoperiod (CONTROL bucks). Oestrous activity was recorded daily by direct visual observation of the marks left by male-worn marking harnesses over the 32 days following the bringing of the sexes together (introduction). Doe body weight and body condition were determined weekly. Ovulation was detected by measuring plasma progesterone concentrations twice per week over the 3 weeks after introduction. The ovulation rate was assessed by transrectal ultrasonography. Fecundity, fertility, prolificacy and productivity were also determined. The interaction doe age × buck photoperiod treatment had no effect on any outcome. The percentage of females showing ovulation or oestrus was higher in the does exposed to PHOTO bucks (85% v. 43% for those exposed to CONTROL bucks) they also showed higher fertility (75% v. 43%) and productivity (1.05±0.17 v. 0.57±0.16 kids born per doe serviced) (all P values at least P<0.05). The 10-month-old group showed higher percentage of females showing ovulation, oestrus, fertility and productivity than the 7-month-old does after the male effect (females showing ovulation: 82% v. 42%; showing oestrus: 73% v. 42%; fertility: 73% v. 42% and productivity: 1.09±0.17 v. 0.47±0.14 goat kids born per doe serviced; respectively, all P values at least P<0.05). The present results show that the use of photostimulated males improves the reproductive performance of 7- and 10-month-old does, and may contribute towards increasing their productivity and lifetime reproductive performance.
In this systematic evaluation of fluorescent gel markers (FGM) applied to high-touch surfaces with a metered applicator (MA) made for the purpose versus a generic cotton swab (CS), removal rates were 60.5% (476 of 787) for the MA and 64.3% (506 of 787) for the CS. MA-FGM removal interpretation was more consistent, 83% versus 50% not removed, possibly due to less varied application and more adhesive gel.
Studies have suggested that vitamin D status at birth may be associated with a range of neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the association between neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentration and gestational age, birth weight, Ponderal Index and size for gestational age. Neonatal capillary blood stored as dried blood spots was used to assess 25(OH)D3 concentrations among 2686 subjects selected from a random population sub-sample of individuals, born in Denmark from 1 May 1981 to 31 December 2002. There was an inverse association between 25(OH)D3 concentration and gestational age at birth of −0·006 (95 % CI −0·009, −0·003, P<0·001) weeks of gestation per 1 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D3 concentration. An inverted U-shaped association between 25(OH)D3 and birth weight and Ponderal Index (P=0·04) was found, but no association with size for gestational age was shown. This study suggests that neonatal 25(OH)D3 concentration is associated with anthropometric measures at birth known to be correlated with many subsequent health outcomes such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Brittle ice, which occurs in all intermediate-depth and deep ice cores retrieved from high-latitude regions, presents a challenge for high-resolution measurements of water isotopes, gases, ions and other quantities conducted with continuous flow analysis (CFA). We present a novel method of preserving brittle ice for CFA stable water isotope measurements using data from a new ice core recovered by the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project. Modest modification of the drilling technique and the accommodation of non-horizontal fractures (‘slanted breaks’) in processing led to a substantial improvement in the percentage of brittle ice analyzed with CFA (87.8%). Whereas traditional processing methods remove entire fragmented pieces of ice, our method allowed the incorporation of a total of 3 m of ice (1% of the 261 m of brittle ice and ~1300 years of climate history) that otherwise would not have been available for CFA. Using the RICE stable water isotope CFA dataset, we demonstrate the effect of slanted breaks and analyze the resulting smoothing of the data with real and simulated examples. Our results suggest that retaining slanted breaks are a promising technique for preserving brittle ice material for CFA stable water isotope measurements.
The abundances of Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, P, Cu, K, Na, Ga, Ge, Se, Zn, S, Br, and C were measured in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected from the Earth's stratosphere. All elements with nebular condensation temperatures lower than Mn, except S, were enriched relative to the most volatile-rich type of meteorite while the refractory elements Cr and Ni were present at chondritic abundances. This element abundance pattern is consistent with nebular condensation, suggesting the IDPs condensed at either a different location or time in the evolving solar nebula than do the meteorites. The enrichments of the major elements C, Na, P, and K exclude the possibility that the volatile enrichment in IDPs results from a minor amount of contamination.
Over 100 individual and cluster interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) have been analyzed for bulk abundances of 15 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni). In general, IDPs have chondritic major element abundances, within a factor of 2 of the CI chondrites, and have carbon contents which average ~2-3 times higher than that of the most primitive, carbon-rich, carbonaceous meteorites (CI). The C-rich material is largely amorphous and is distributed throughout the particle as a matrix surrounding individual grains. The carbonaceous material has either smooth or vesicular texture; the latter texture suggests that volatiles could have been lost by particle heating which occurs during entry through the Earth's atmosphere.
All extraterrestrial particles are heated during their passage through the Earth's atmosphere. The mineral assemblages that form during entry heating can be used to constrain the maximum temperature attained which, in turn, places limits on their entry velocity Entry velocity can be used to discriminate typical cometary IDPs from asteroidal particles.
A common feature of heated IDPs is the presence of magnetite (Mt) rims on the particle surface. These rims range from thin, discontinuous Mt layers on lobes or on small constituent grains within lightly heated IDPs, to thick, continuous, polycrystalline rims that completely surround many strongly heated particles. Petrographic evidence indicates that Mt rims form directly from individual phases in IDPs via oxidation of Fe from the host phases. Our data indicate that the temperature of magnetite formation can range from a minimum of ~600°C (by decarbonation of Fe-bearing carbonates and the breakdown of phyllosilicates) to T > 850°C (decomposition of laihunite). In extreme cases, μm-sized Mt plates armor the surface of partly melted chondritic IDPs. Magnetite rims are more well-developed on hydrated IDPs than on anhydrous particles. The development of magnetite rims correlates with other independent indicators of heating including loss of volatile trace elements and sulfur depletions.
To test an obesity prevention strategy derived from behavioural economics (optimal defaults plus delay), focused on changing the college dining hall service method.
After a uniform pre-load, participants attended an experimental lunch in groups randomized to one of three conditions: a nutrient-dense, lower-fat/energy lunch as an optimal default (OD); a less-nutrient-dense, higher-fat/energy lunch as a suboptimal default (SD); or a free array (FA) lunch. In the OD condition, students were presented a menu depicting healthier vegetarian and omnivore foods as default, with opt-out alternatives (SD menu) available on request with a 15 min wait. In the SD condition, the same menu format was used with the positioning of food items switched. In the FA condition, all choices were presented in uniform fonts and were available immediately.
Private rooms designed to provide a small version of a college dining hall, on two campuses of a Northeastern US university.
First-year college students (n 129).
There was a significant main effect for condition on percentage of optimal choices selected, with 94 % of food choices in the OD condition optimal, 47 % in the FA condition optimal and none in the SD condition optimal. Similarly, energy intake for those in the SD condition significantly exceeded that in the FA condition, which exceeded that in the OD condition.
Presenting menu items as optimal defaults with a delay had a significant impact on choice and consumption, suggesting that further research into its long-term applicability is warranted.
Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), ∼ 10μm particles from comets and asteroids, have been collected by NASA from the Earth's stratosphere. We compared carbon X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectra of anhydrous and hydrated interplanetary dust particles and found that anhydrous and hydrated IDPs have similar types and abundances of organic carbon. This is different from results on meteorites, which show that hydrated carbonaceous meteorites contain abundant organic matter, while anhydrous carbonaceous meteorites contain less carbon mostly in elemental form. But all anhydrous carbonaceous meteorites are depleted in moderately volatile and volatile elements in a pattern that suggested they experienced temperatures in excess of 1200°C, a temperature sufficient to destroy any organic matter they originally contained, while many anhydrous IDPs show no evidence of severe heating. These IDP results indicate that the bulk of the pre-biotic organic matter in extraterrestrial materials formed before aqueous processing, possibly by irradiation of C-bearing ices or by a Fisher-Tropsch type process operating in the gas phase of the nebula or in the interstellar medium.
Social media presents an important means for social interaction, especially among adolescents, with Instagram being the most popular platform in this age-group. Pictures and communication about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) can frequently be found on the internet.
During 4 weeks in April 2016, n = 2826 (from n = 1154 accounts) pictures which directly depicted wounds on Instagram were investigated. Those pictures, associated comments, and user accounts were independently rated for content. Associations between characteristics of pictures and comments as well as weekly and daily trends of posting behavior were analyzed.
Most commonly, pictures depicted wounds caused by cutting on arms or legs and were rated as mild or moderate injuries. Pictures with increasing wound grades and those depicting multiple methods of NSSI generated elevated amounts of comments. While most comments were neutral or empathic with some offering help, few comments were hostile. Pictures were mainly posted in the evening hours, with a small peak in the early morning. While there was a slight peak of pictures being posted on Sundays, postings were rather evenly spread across the week.
Pictures of NSSI are frequently posted on Instagram. Social reinforcement might play a role in the posting of more severe NSSI pictures. Social media platforms need to take appropriate measures for preventing online social contagion.
Children and adolescents are a vulnerable group to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms after natural or man-made disasters. In the light of increasing numbers of refugees under the age of 18 years worldwide, there is a significant need for effective treatments. This meta-analytic review investigates specific psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters. In a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, as well as hand-searching existing reviews and contacting professional associations, 36 studies were identified. Random- and mixed-effects models were applied to test for average effect sizes and moderating variables. Overall, treatments showed high effect sizes in pre–post comparisons (Hedges' g = 1.34) and medium effect sizes as compared with control conditions (Hedges' g = 0.43). Treatments investigated by at least two studies were cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy for children (KIDNET) and classroom-based interventions, which showed similar effect sizes. However, studies were very heterogenic with regard to their outcomes. Effects were moderated by type of profession (higher level of training leading to higher effect sizes). A number of effective psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent survivors of disasters exist. CBT, EMDR, KIDNET and classroom-based interventions can be equally recommended. Although disasters require immediate reactions and improvisation, future studies with larger sample sizes and rigorous methodology are needed.