To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
We present our results from a mid-infrared interferometric survey targeted at the planet-forming region in the circumstellar disks around low- and intermediate-mass young stars. Our sample consists of 82 objects, including T Tauri stars, Herbig Ae stars, and young eruptive stars. Our main results are: 1) Disks around T Tauri stars are similar to those around Herbig Ae stars, but are relatively more extended once we account for stellar luminosity. 2) From the distribution of the sizes of the mid-infrared emitting region we find that inner dusty disk holes may be present in roughly half of the sample. 3) Our analysis of the silicate spectral feature reveals that the dust in the inner ~1 au region of disks is generally more processed than that in the outer regions. 4) The dust in the disks of T Tauri stars typically show weaker silicate emission in the N band spectrum, compared to Herbig Ae stars, which may indicate a general difference in the disk structure. Our data products are available at VizieR, and at the following web page: http://konkoly.hu/MIDI_atlas.
The objectives of the current study were to investigate the dynamics of body calcium (Ca) and to estimate the net Ca maintenance requirements (NCam) of Saanen goats, using 45Ca as a radiotracer. Eighteen castrated male Saanen goats (25 ± 2.3 kg body weight (BW)) received a basal diet (ground ear maize, ground maize and vitamin–mineral premix). The treatments consisted of adding limestone to the basal diet to provide Ca content of 0.6, 1.7 and 3.0 g/kg dry matter (DM). The experiment lasted 45 days (i.e. 36 d of adaptation and 9 days of measurements). On day 38, 0.5 ml of 7.4 MBq 45Ca solution was administrated before feeding. From days 39 to 45, samples of faeces, blood and urine were collected, and Ca concentration determined. The Ca intake, Ca in faeces, Ca in urine, faecal endogenous Ca and true absorbed Ca increased linearly as Ca content in the diets increased, while retained Ca increased at a decreasing rate. Dry matter intake decreased at an increasing rate with increased Ca content in the diets. In contrast, Ca content in the diets did not affect biological availability of Ca, or Ca in plasma. The true biological availability of Ca from limestone in Saanen goats was 0.72. The daily NCam was 11.6 (±1.3) mg/kg BW. The current results might help to understand Ca dynamics in goats and enhance the formulation of balanced diets to best meet Ca requirements of Saanen goats.
Methiozolin is an isoxazoline herbicide being investigated for selective POST annual bluegrass control in managed turfgrass. Research was conducted to evaluate methiozolin efficacy for controlling two annual bluegrass phenotypes with target-site resistance to photosystem II (PSII) or enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS)-inhibiting herbicides (i.e., glyphosate), as well as phenotypes with multiple resistance to microtubule and EPSPS or PSII and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. All resistant phenotypes were established in glasshouse culture along with a known herbicide-susceptible control and treated with methiozolin at 0, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, or 8000 g ai ha−1. Methiozolin effectively controlled annual bluegrass with target-site resistance to inhibitors of EPSPS, PSII, as well as multiple resistance to EPSPS and microtubule inhibitors. Methiozolin rates required to reduce aboveground biomass of these resistant phenotypes 50% (GR50 values) were not significantly different from the susceptible control, ranging from 159 to 421 g ha−1. A phenotype with target-site resistance to PSII and ALS inhibitors was less sensitive to methiozolin (GR50=862 g ha−1) than a susceptible phenotype (GR50=423 g ha−1). Our findings indicate that methiozolin is an effective option for controlling select annual bluegrass phenotypes with target-site resistance to several herbicides.
The chromosphere is a complex region that acts as an intermediary between the magnetic flux emergence in the photosphere and the magnetic features seen in the corona. Large eruptions in the chromosphere of flares and filaments are often accompanied by ejections of coronal mass off the sun. Several studies have observed fast-moving progressive trains of compact bright points (called Sequential Chromospheric Brightenings or SCBs) streaming away from chromospheric flares that also produce a coronal mass ejection (CME). In this work, we review studies of SCBs and search for commonalties between them. We place these findings into a larger context with contemporary chromospheric and coronal observations. SCBs are fleeting indicators of the solar atmospheric environment as it existed before their associated eruption. Since they appear at the very outset of a flare eruption, SCBs are good early indication of a CME measured in the chromosphere.
Sunspots are of basic interest in the study of the Sun. Their relevance ranges from them being an activity indicator of magnetic fields to being the place where coronal mass ejections and flares erupt. They are therefore also an important ingredient of space weather. Their formation, however, is still an unresolved problem in solar physics. Observations utilize just 2D surface information near the spot, but it is debatable how to infer deep structures and properties from local helioseismology. For a long time, it was believed that flux tubes rising from the bottom of the convection zone are the origin of the bipolar sunspot structure seen on the solar surface. However, this theory has been challenged, in particular recently by new surface observation, helioseismic inversions, and numerical models of convective dynamos. In this article we discuss another theoretical approach to the formation of sunspots: the negative effective magnetic pressure instability. This is a large-scale instability, in which the total (kinetic plus magnetic) turbulent pressure can be suppressed in the presence of a weak large-scale magnetic field, leading to a converging downflow, which eventually concentrates the magnetic field within it. Numerical simulations of forced stratified turbulence have been able to produce strong super-equipartition flux concentrations, similar to sunspots at the solar surface. In this framework, sunspots would only form close to the surface due to the instability constraints on stratification and rotation. Additionally, we present some ideas from local helioseismology, where we plan to use the Hankel analysis to study the pre-emergence phase of a sunspot and to constrain its deep structure and formation mechanism.
A new generation of solar instruments provides improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, thus facilitating a better understanding of dynamic processes on the Sun. High-resolution observations often reveal multiple-component spectral line profiles, e.g., in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å triplet, which provides information about the chromospheric velocity and magnetic fine structure. We observed an emerging flux region, including two small pores and an arch filament system, on 2015 April 17 with the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) situated at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We discuss this method of obtaining fast (one per minute) spectral scans of the solar surface and its potential to follow dynamic processes on the Sun. We demonstrate the performance of the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ by tracking chromospheric high-velocity features in the arch filament system.
The intensification of livestock have increased the emission of pollutants to the environment, leading to a growing interest in seeking strategies that minimise these emissions. Studies have shown that it is possible to manipulate diets by reducing CP levels and thus reducing nitrogen (N) excretion, without compromising performance. However, there is no knowledge of any study that has focused on reducing N excretion and relating this reduction to individual amino acids. This study investigated the effect of dietary methionine+cysteine (MC) and threonine (THR), the two most limiting amino acids for broiler production, on nitrogen excretion (NE) and nitrogen deposition (ND) and determined the efficiency of utilisation of both amino acids for protein deposition. Six trials were conducted to measure the NE and ND in broiler chickens during three rearing phases in response to dietary amino acid. The efficiency of utilisation of the amino acids was calculated by linear regression of body protein deposition and the amino acid intake. Despite the differences between sexes and phases, the efficiency of utilisation was the same, being 0.60 and 0.59 for MC and THR, respectively. The rate of NE behaved exponentially, increasing with amino acid intake, and can exceed 50% of N intake, being higher than ND. On average, for a reduction in intake of each unit of MC or THR (mg) there is a reduction of 0.5% of NE. Although this reduction seems low, considering that it corresponds to changes in one amino acid only, the impact on a large scale would be significant. Knowledge of how animals respond to NE and ND/protein deposition according to amino acid dietary content may represent new efforts towards reducing the impact on environment.
We have completed a kinematical analysis of 184 selected Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC) (Planck Collaboration, 2015) in order to understand better the stability of molecular clouds and the induced star formations. Most of our clumps are in the second quadrant of the Galaxy. For the investigation we used 12CO, 13CO, C18O line observations which covered the 184 PGCC fully or partially. The majority of the data were observed with the Osaka 1.85 m telescope in Japan (Nishimura et al. 2015) and we also have some observations with the KOSMA 3 m telescope, from Switzerland (Kramer et al. 2000) and with the IRAM 30 m telescope, Spain (www.iram-institute.org).
We present our approach of visibility modeling of disks around low-mass (< 2 M⊙) young stellar objects (YSOs). We compiled an atlas based on mid-infrared interferometric observations from the MIDI instrument at the VLTI. We use three different models to fit the data. These models allow us to determine overall sizes (and the extent of the inner gaps) of the modeled circumstellar disks.
Mesotrione, a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide, is labeled for PRE and POST crabgrass control. It has enhanced efficacy on smooth and large crabgrass when applied in conjunction with soil-applied nitrogen (N). The objectives of this study, using crabgrass as the weed species, were to (1) determine the influence of N rate and tissue N concentration on mesotrione activity, (2) determine the influence of N source on mesotrione activity, and (3) determine the influence of N application timing on mesotrione activity. Large crabgrass plants that received 12 kg N ha−1 or more before mesotrione application had more bleached and necrotic leaves compared with plants that received 0 kg N ha−1 7 d after treatment (DAT) in the greenhouse. Although N application rates as high as 98 kg N ha−1 were tested, 90% leaf bleaching and necrosis were observed with rates of 8.9 or 10.1 kg N ha−1 in Tennessee and Indiana, respectively. Nitrogen concentration in large crabgrass leaf and stem tissue on the day of the mesotrione application was closely related to the bleaching and necrosis symptoms observed 7 DAT. Although N rate influenced mesotrione activity, N source did not. Nitrogen application timing was also important, with N applications 3, 1, and 0 d before a mesotrione application having the highest percentage of bleached and necrotic leaves in greenhouse experiments. Both greenhouse and field trials support the finding that N applications in proximity to the mesotrione application enhance herbicide activity. Thus, practitioners can pair N and POST mesotrione applications together or in proximity to enhance crabgrass control.
Common pharmacological treatments of mood disorders aim to modulate serotonergic neurotransmission and enhance serotonin levels in the brain. Brain serotonin levels are dependent on the availability of its food-derived precursor essential amino acid tryptophan (Trp). We tested the hypothesis that delivery of Trp via food may serve as an alternative treatment, and examined the effects of a Trp-rich, bioavailable dietary supplement from egg protein hydrolysate on cognitive and emotional functions, mood state, and sleep quality. In a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel trial, fifty-nine mentally and physically healthy women aged 45–65 years received placebo (n 30) or the supplement (n 29) (both as 0·5 g twice per d) for 19 d. Emotional processing was significantly changed by supplementation, exhibiting a shift in bias away from negative stimuli. The results for the Affective Go/No-Go Task exhibited a slowing of responses to negative words, suggesting reduced attention to negative emotional stimuli. The results for the Facial Emotional Expression Rating Task also supported a shift away from attention to negative emotions and a bias towards happiness. An increase in arousal-like symptoms, labelled ‘high energy’, shorter reaction times and a slight benefit to sustained attention were observed in the treated subjects. Finally, when the supplement was taken 60–90 min before bedtime, a feeling of happiness before going to bed was consistently reported. In summary, daily consumption of a low-dose supplement containing bioavailable Trp may have beneficial effects on emotional and cognitive functions.
In Ontario, Canada, the number of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) cases increased over the years 2005–2010. A population-based case-control study was undertaken from January to August 2011 for the purpose of identifying risk factors for acquiring illness due to SE within Ontario. A total of 199 cases and 241 controls were enrolled. After adjustment for confounders, consuming any poultry meat [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·31–3·83], processed chicken (aOR 3·32, 95% CI 1·26–8·76) and not washing hands following handling of raw eggs (OR 2·82, 95% CI 1·48–5·37) were significantly associated with SE infection. The population attributable fraction was 46% for any poultry meat consumption and 10% for processed chicken. Poultry meat continues to be identified as a risk factor for SE illness. Control of SE at source, as well as proper food handling practices, are required to reduce the number of SE cases.
Luminescence nanocrystals or quantum dots give grate potential for bio-analysis as well as optoelectronics. Here we report an effective and non-expensive fabrication method of silicon carbide nanocrystals, with diameter below 10 nm, based on electroless wet chemical etching. Our samples show strong violet-blue emission in the 410-450 nm region depending on the used solvents and particle size. Raman and infrared measurements suggest the varied nature of surfaces of silicon carbide nanocrystals which elucidate the behavior of the silicon carbide colloid solvents and also give opportunity to modify the surface easily for specific biological, medical or other application.
Here we study the effect of radiation-induced point defect distributions on the optical reflectivity signal in GaAs using coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the presence of point defects significantly modifies the optical response, allowing estimation of the depth-dependent defect distribution in a nondestructive and noninvasive manner. We show that the observed changes are dependent on defect-induced changes to the electronic structure, namely defect-induced band tailing of the direct 1.43eV band edge. This provides a method for subsurface investigations on the complex interaction between different defects species and optoelectronic structure.
The loss calculation in soft magnetic materials, used in the manufacturing
industry, is still ruled by Steinmetz's simple law. It has remained
unchallenged for more than a century, unproven but successfully used by
designers of magnetic components. Based on experiments carried out on soft
NO Fe–Si and Mn–Zn ferrite samples, in this paper we present a model of
Steinmetz's approximation, based on the hyperbolic model. We also make
suggestions for the formula's possible extension to a wider range of
coercivity, possibly covering not only soft iron but also other groups of
magnetic materials as well, used in industry.
Al85Gd8Ni5Co2 metallic glass was subjected to partial devitrification by high-pressure torsion, continuous heat treatment, and isothermal annealing. The fully amorphous alloy exhibits a well-defined transition in its first devitrification product during isothermal heat treatments from τm + α-Al phase mixture to primary α-Al by increasing the annealing temperature above 555 K. This thermal sensitivity predestinates the composition to identify the controversial thermal contribution of the plastic deformation in metallic glasses. Thermal stability and structure of the partially devitrified samples were systematically analyzed and compared by calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. It seems that the effect of severe deformation cannot be singled out by a simple isothermal heat treatment; i.e., high-pressure torsion acts as a spectrum of heat treatments performed at different annealing temperatures.
Thermal stability and crystallization kinetics of the melt-quenched amorphous Al85Ce5Ni8Co2 alloy were investigated by x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The glass transition was followed by a supercooled liquid region (21 °C) and then by a two-step crystallization process. The final microstructure contained Al3Ce, α–Al, Al3Ni, and Al9Co2 phases. Isothermal annealing of the as-quenched samples in the range of 275–285 °C showed that both crystallization reactions occurred through a nucleation and growth process. Continuous heating DSC measurements following pre-anneals for different times were also carried out to study the crystallization kinetics and the stability of the material. The Avrami analysis of the isothermal DSC-curves revealed that the 3-dimensional nucleation and growth process became more dominant with increasing annealing temperature. The average specific grain boundary energy corresponded to high-angle grain boundaries and indicated independent nucleation events.
1. The resistance of the hop-mildew (Sphaerotheca Humuli (DC.) Burr.) to polysulphide solutions varies according to its stage of development. The earliest stages after infection and antecedent to the production of conidiophores are the most resistant, requiring approximately a solution of double the concentration lethal for the “powdery” conidial stage. The “powdery” conidial stage occurring on young leaves is more resistant than the same stage on older leaves.
2. Conclusive proof has been obtained that with polysulphide solutions neither the total sulphur content nor the sulphide sulphur content gives an index of their fungicidal value.
3. The percentage of polysulphide sulphur in polysulphide solutions appears to be the factor determining their fungicidal value.
4. The fungicidal value of such solutions does not depend upon the nature of the polysulphides present.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.