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Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
The increasing tropospheric ozone concentration [O3] strongly affects plant growth. However, the response of belowground processes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems to higher O3 is not well understood. The grain production, belowground biomass partitioning, root morphology and activity of rice (cv. Shanyou 63) were investigated in a free-air O3 enrichment platform at four key growth stages. Elevated O3 (EO3, 50% above the ambient O3) significantly decreased the grain yield and total biomass at the grain milky mature stage, root biomass at the tillering stage and root to shoot ratios (RRS) at the flowering and grain filling stages. The effects of EO3 on root morphology and activity varied among rice growth stage. EO3 significantly decreased root length, density, area, diameter and volume at the flowering stage, but EO3 significantly decreased various root morphological indices at the tillering, grain filling and milky mature stages. EO3 significantly increased the specific root respiration rate (root activity) and root respiration rate (autotrophic respiration) at grain filling and milky mature stages. Higher root autotrophic respiration and lower RRS in response to EO3 would reduce allocation of assimilated carbon to root growth, adversely affecting rice productivity. Our findings are critical for understanding the O3-induced impairment of belowground processes and carbon cycling in rice cropping systems and breeding of O3-tolerant cultivars under higher [O3] scenarios.
Diarrhea is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the incidence of diarrhea in the world has changed little over the past four decades. To assess the prevalence of and healthcare practices for diarrhea, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Pudong, Shanghai, China. In October 2014, a total of 5324 community residents were interviewed. Respondents were asked if they had experienced diarrhea (defined as ⩾3 passages of watery, loose, bloody, or mucoid stools within a 24-h period) in the previous month prior to the interview. The monthly prevalence of diarrhea was 4·1% (95% CI: 3·3–4·8), corresponding to an incidence rate of 0·54 episodes per person-year. The proportion of individuals with diarrhea who sought healthcare was 21·2% (95% CI: 13·4–29·0). Diarrhea continues to impose a considerable burden on the community and healthcare system in Pudong. Young age and travel were identified as predictors of increased diarrhea occurrence.
The collision between aqueous drops in air typically leads to coalescence after impact. Rebounding of the droplets with similar sizes at atmospheric conditions is not generated, unless with significantly large pressure or high impact parameters exhibiting near-grazing collision. Here we demonstrate experimentally the creation of a non-coalescent regime through addition of a small amount of water-soluble surfactant. We perform a direct simulation to account for the continuum and short-range flow dynamics of the approaching interfaces, as affected by the soluble surfactant. Based on the immersed-boundary formulation, a conservative scheme is developed for solving the coupled surface-bulk convection–diffusion concentration equations, which presents excellent mass preservation in the solvent as well as conservation of total surfactant mass. We show that the Marangoni effect, caused by non-uniform distributions of surfactant on the droplet surface and surface tension, induces stresses that oppose the draining of gas in the interstitial gap, and hence prohibits merging of the interfaces. In such gas–liquid systems, the repulsion caused by the addition of surfactant, as frequently observed in liquid–liquid systems such as emulsions in the form of an electric double-layer force, was found to be too weak to dominate in the attainable range of interfacial separation distances. These results thus identify the key mechanisms governing the impact dynamics of surfactant-coated droplets in air and imply the potential of using a small amount of surfactant to manipulate impact outcomes, for example, to prevent coalescence between droplets or interfaces in gases.
We undertook a national paediatric seroprevalence survey of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) in Singapore to assess the impact of the national childhood immunization programme against these three diseases after introduction of the trivalent MMR vaccine in 1990. The survey involved 1200 residual sera of Singapore residents aged 1–17 years collected from two hospitals between 2008 and 2010. The overall prevalence of antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella was 83·1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 80·9–85·1], 71·8% (95% CI 69·1–74·2) and 88·5% (95% CI 86·6–90·2), respectively. For all three diseases, the lowest prevalence was in children aged 1 year (47·8–62·3%). The seroprevalence of the vaccinated children declined over time. The national MMR immunization programme is effective in raising the herd immunity of the childhood population, although certain age groups are more susceptible to infection, in particular, those who are not eligible for vaccination at age <15 months.
Weekly (August 2003–December 2008) numbers of five common paediatric diseases and the incidence of respiratory viruses were obtained from a children's hospital in Singapore and correlated with climate data using multivariate time-series techniques. Upper respiratory tract infections were positively correlated with the incidences of influenza A, B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza viruses (types 1–3 combined). Lower respiratory tract infections were positively correlated with only the incidence of RSV. Both upper and lower respiratory tract infections were negatively correlated with relative humidity. Asthma admissions were negatively correlated with maximum temperature and positively correlated with the incidence of influenza B and increasing hours of sunshine. Although sporadic cases of adenovirus infection were identified, not enough cases were available for a more detailed analysis. Gastroenteritis and urinary tract infections, included as control diseases, were not correlated significantly with any climate parameters. These correlations are compatible with current understanding of respiratory virus survival under certain climate conditions and may assist the prediction of disease burdens and hospital resource planning in such tropical environments.
Taiwan Photon Source is a new 3-GeV ring with characteristics of great brightness and small emittance, at present under construction at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) site in Taiwan and due to be commissioned in 2013. The positioning of the magnets is highly sensitive to alignment errors, and the entire building will be constructed half underground at depth 12 m relative to Taiwan Light Source (TLS) for stability reasons; for these reasons the survey and alignment work is confined and difficult. To position magnets precisely and quickly, a highly accurate auto-tuning girder system combined with a survey network was designed to accomplish the alignment tasks. The survey network includes a preliminary Global Positioning System (GPS) network and a laser-tracking network. The position data from the survey network define a basis for the system of motorized girders to auto-tune and improve the accuracy. The detailed survey and alignment design, simulation and preliminary data are described in this paper.
A precise laser positioning system had been preliminarily developed for the girder system of the Taiwan Photon Source. This laser positioning system, a part of a girder auto-alignment scheme, will be installed on the girders located at both sides of each straight section of the storage ring. The system is composed of a laser and four sets of a position sensing device (PSD). The laser, held on one girder, propagates 13 m along the girder and plays the role of a reference line of girders of the straight section. Based on the laser linear characteristics, the other girder can be adjusted and aligned by a cam mover according to PSD data. To achieve superior precision, the whole laser positioning system should be constructed stably. After making some improvements to eliminate the unstable terms, the precision of the laser positioning system can achieve 2 µm at 13 m propagating distance every 4 h.
Taiwan Photon Source is now under construction at NSRRC Taiwan. In order to maintain the Taiwan Light Source (TLS) for normal operation, a hydrostatic levelling system and precision inclination sensor (Leica Nivel 220) were installed both in the storage ring and beamlines to monitor ground deformation arising. This paper presents the monitoring system setup and the circumstances of ground deformation including vertical settlement and floor inclination during the ground breaking period to provide a criterion for TLS operation.
Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), a new 3 GeV synchrotron ring, is under construction at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC). To discover problems of design, manufacture and installation, a mockup of 1/24 section (one cell) of TPS was installed at NSRRC. A modified, precise, six-axis, prototype girder system of this mockup composed of three girders was fabricated. We discuss both the installation of the girder system and its diagnostics, and present the results including measurement of the dimensions of the components of the girder system and the vibration tests.
To present a patient with a frontal sinus keratoma removed solely via endoscopic sinus surgery, including presentation of characteristic computed tomography and magnetic resonance images; to discuss the differential diagnosis of this condition; and to report the current knowledge on and treatment of frontal sinus keratoma.
A 53-year-old man presented to our department with a 10-month history of rhinorrhoea and postnasal drip. After computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies, the patient underwent surgery utilising a modified Lothrop procedure. An extensive soft tissue lesion was removed from the frontal sinus. Histological examination revealed a lamellated cluster of keratinous material. The pathological diagnosis was keratoma of the frontal sinus. There was no recurrence of keratoma over a two-year follow-up period.
Following review of the English language literature, we believe this case report to represent the first successful application of a modified endoscopic Lothrop procedure for resection of an extensive frontal sinus keratoma. Thus, the applications of endoscopic sinus surgery may be expanded to include frontal sinus keratoma removal.