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Almost nothing is known about the potential negative effects of Internet-based psychological treatments for depression. This study aims at investigating deterioration and its moderators within randomized trials on Internet-based guided self-help for adult depression, using an individual patient data meta-analyses (IPDMA) approach.
Studies were identified through systematic searches (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library). Deterioration in participants was defined as a significant symptom increase according to the reliable change index (i.e. 7.68 points in the CES-D; 7.63 points in the BDI). Two-step IPDMA procedures, with a random-effects model were used to pool data.
A total of 18 studies (21 comparisons, 2079 participants) contributed data to the analysis. The risk for a reliable deterioration from baseline to post-treatment was significantly lower in the intervention v. control conditions (3.36 v. 7.60; relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.75). Education moderated effects on deterioration, with patients with low education displaying a higher risk for deterioration than patients with higher education. Deterioration rates for patients with low education did not differ statistically significantly between intervention and control groups. The benefit–risk ratio for patients with low education indicated that 9.38 patients achieve a treatment response for each patient experiencing a symptom deterioration.
Internet-based guided self-help is associated with a mean reduced risk for a symptom deterioration compared to controls. Treatment and symptom progress of patients with low education should be closely monitored, as some patients might face an increased risk for symptom deterioration. Future studies should examine predictors of deterioration in patients with low education.
The Parkes 64-m radio telescope equipped with a 3 GHz maser on loan from the Onsala Space Observatory has been used to observe the three ground-state transitions of CH (at 3264, 3335 and 3349 MHz) towards a total of 74 HII regions, mostly at southern declinations. In this paper the regions and related characteristics are listed, and the CH spectra displayed.
In 2010, a marked increase in listeriosis incidence was observed in Finland. Listeria monocytogenes PFGE profile 96 was responsible for one-fifth of the reported cases and a cluster of PFGE profile 62 was also detected. Investigations revealed two fishery production plants with persistent Listeria contamination. It appears likely that the plants were at least partly responsible for the increase of listeriosis. Epidemiological investigation revealed that 57% (31/54) of cases with underlying immunosuppressive condition or medication reported eating gravad or cold-smoked fish. Two public notices were issued by THL and Evira informing which groups were most at risk from the effects of listeriosis and should therefore be cautious in consuming certain products. Systematic sampling of foods and adequate epidemiological investigation methods are required to identify the sources of Listeria infections. Continuous control measures at fishery production plants producing risk products are essential.
Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes (n = 932) isolated in Sweden during 1958–2010 from human patients with invasive listeriosis were characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (AscI). Of the 932 isolates, 183 different PFGE types were identified, of which 83 were each represented by only one isolate. In all, 483 serovar 1/2a isolates were distributed over 114 PFGE types; 90 serovar 1/2b isolates gave 32 PFGE types; 21 serovar 1/2c isolates gave nine PFGE types; three serovar 3b isolates gave one PFGE type; and, 335 serovar 4b isolates gave 31 PFGE types. During the 1980s in Sweden, several serovar 4b cases were associated with the consumption of European raw soft cheese. However, as cheese-production hygiene has improved, the number of 4b cases has decreased. Since 1996, serovar 1/2a has been the dominant L. monocytogenes serovar in human listeriosis in Sweden. Therefore, based on current serovars and PFGE types, an association between human cases of listeriosis and the consumption of vacuum-packed gravad and cold-smoked salmon is suggested.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that may have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer in experimental studies. To date, limited data exist on the quantitative intake of phenolic acids. We estimated the intake of phenolic acids and their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Phenolic acid intakes were estimated for 36 037 subjects aged 35–74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000 in ten European countries using a standardised 24 h recall software (EPIC-Soft), and their food sources were identified. Dietary data were linked to the Phenol-Explorer database, which contains data on forty-five aglycones of phenolic acids in 452 foods. The total phenolic acid intake was highest in Aarhus, Denmark (1265·5 and 980·7 mg/d in men and women, respectively), while the intake was lowest in Greece (213·2 and 158·6 mg/d in men and women, respectively). The hydroxycinnamic acid subclass was the main contributor to the total phenolic acid intake, accounting for 84·6–95·3 % of intake depending on the region. Hydroxybenzoic acids accounted for 4·6–14·4 %, hydroxyphenylacetic acids 0·1–0·8 % and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids ≤ 0·1 % for all regions. An increasing south–north gradient of consumption was also found. Coffee was the main food source of phenolic acids and accounted for 55·3–80·7 % of the total phenolic acid intake, followed by fruits, vegetables and nuts. A high heterogeneity in phenolic acid intake was observed across the European countries in the EPIC cohort, which will allow further exploration of the associations with the risk of diseases.
The Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) group is a consortium of eight longitudinal twin studies established to explore the nature of social context effects and gene-environment interplay in late-life functioning. The resulting analysis of the combined data from over 17,500 participants aged 25–102 at baseline (including nearly 2,600 monogygotic and 4,300 dizygotic twin pairs and over 1,700 family members) aims to understand why early life adversity, and social factors such as isolation and loneliness, are associated with diverse outcomes including mortality, physical functioning (health, functional ability), and psychological functioning (well-being, cognition), particularly in later life.
Objective: Mental fatigue occurring after a stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in difficulties returning to work and pursuing social activities. No effective treatment of this condition is available today. In this study, we have tested a novel pharmacological strategy using the monoaminergic stabiliser (−)-OSU6162.
Methods: (−)-OSU6162 was given orally for 4 weeks in doses increasing from 15 to 45 mg b.i.d. to 12 patients suffering from mental fatigue, following upon stroke (n=6) or TBI (n=6). (−)-OSU6162 was compared with placebo using a double-blind, randomised cross-over design. Patients included were well rehabilitated physically with no gross impairment in cognitive functions other than those related to the mental fatigue.
Results: (−)-OSU6162 caused a remarkable improvement in mental stamina, as evaluated by a self-assessment scale on mental fatigue. Statistical significance was reached on the primary endpoint (Mental Fatigue Scale). There was a trend towards improvement in the secondary endpoints processing speed and attention. Principal component analysis showed an overall positive treatment effect in 7 of 12 patients. Beneficial responses were seen already during the first few days of active drug treatment. Increasing dosage caused no further improvement. Adverse reactions consisted of short-lasting mild nausea and attenuated appetite. These side effects disappeared upon dose reduction.
Conclusion: The monoaminergic stabiliser (−)-OSU6162 offers promise as a candidate for treatment of mental fatigue after a stroke or TBI.
Life is but a continuous process of energy conversion and transformation. The accomplishments of civilization have largely been achieved through the increasingly efficient and extensive harnessing of various forms of energy to extend human capabilities and ingenuity. Energy is similarly indispensable for continued human development and economic growth. Providing adequate, affordable energy is a necessary (even if by itself insufficient) prerequisite for eradicating poverty, improving human welfare, and raising living standards worldwide. Without economic growth, it will also be difficult to address social and environmental challenges, especially those associated with poverty. Without continued institutional, social, and technological innovation, it will be impossible to address planetary challenges such as climate change. Energy extraction, conversion, and use always generate undesirable by-products and emissions – at a minimum in the form of dissipated heat. Energy cannot be created or destroyed – it can only be converted from one form to another, along a one-way street from higher to lower grades (qualities) of energy. Although it is common to discuss energy “consumption,” energy is actually transformed rather than consumed.
This Energy Primer 1 aims at a basic-level introduction to fundamental concepts and data that help to understand energy systems holistically and to provide a common conceptual and terminological framework before examining in greater detail the various aspects of energy systems from challenges and options to integrated solutions, as done in the different chapters of the Global Energy Assessment (GEA).
Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344 757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5·0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5·70 (95 % CI 4·35, 7·06), 2·23 (95 % CI 0·16, 4·31) and 11·12 (95 % CI 8·17, 14·08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), 1·01 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·02) and 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.
This study investigated the effects of pelvic suspension and slaughter age on longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) from 40 heifers with at least 75% Angus breeding. A total of 20 heifers were slaughtered directly from pasture at 18 months of age, and carcass sides were hung either by the Achilles tendon or the pelvic bone. The other 20 heifers were assigned to an additional winter housing period and slaughtered at 22 months of age; carcass sides were hung only by Achilles suspension. All carcasses were electrically stimulated and assessed according to the EUROP carcass classification system. In addition, the LTL muscles were aged for 7 or 14 days before meat quality was evaluated for intramuscular fat (IMF), drip loss, colour, shear force, compression and sensory analysis. The 22-month-old heifers were heavier, fatter and had more IMF than 18-month-old heifers. Conformation scores (muscling) did not differ between the two slaughter groups. Pelvic suspension reduced both between- and within-animal variation for peak force, total energy and compression peak force. For the 18-month-old heifers, pelvic suspension also decreased peak force, total energy and compression variables for the LTL muscles from both ageing periods, whereas Achilles-suspended samples had lower shear force values only at day 14. Sensory analysis showed that pelvic-suspended sides had greater tenderness, lower bite resistance, less threadiness, higher juiciness and meat flavour and less visible marbling than meat from Achilles-suspended sides. Pelvic-suspended sides at 18 months of age were similar in peak force and total energy values to the 22-month-old heifers. The importance of ageing the Achilles-suspended sides was more obvious for samples from 18-month-old heifers than from the 22-month-old animals. The correlations between the different instrumental measurements and sensory tenderness were considerably higher for carcasses suspended by the Achilles tendon (r = −0.55 to 0.20) than for those hung by the pelvic bone (r = −0.25 to 0.19). More correlations between sensory-evaluated tenderness and shear variables were significant after 7 days (n = 6) of ageing than after 14 days (n = 4) of ageing. This study clearly shows the benefits of pelvic suspension, which reduces the need for additional feeding after pasture.
Four Class I maser sources were detected at 44, 84, and 95 GHz toward chemically rich outflows in the regions of low-mass star formation NGC 1333I4A, NGC 1333I2A, HH25, and L1157. One more maser was found at 36 GHz toward a similar outflow, NGC 2023. Flux densities of the newly detected masers are no more than 18 Jy, being much lower than those of strong masers in regions of high-mass star formation. The brightness temperatures of the strongest peaks in NGC 1333I4A, HH25, and L1157 at 44 GHz are higher than 2000 K, whereas that of the peak in NGC 1333I2A is only 176 K. However, a rotational diagram analysis showed that the latter source is also a maser. The main properties of the newly detected masers are similar to those of Class I methanol masers in regions of massive star formation. The former masers are likely to be an extension of the latter maser population toward low luminosities of both the masers and the corresponding YSOs.
Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.
The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term effects of a high-energy-dense diet, supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) or Escherichiacoli (Ec), on weight gain, fattening and the gut microbiota in rats. Since the mother's dietary habits can influence offspring physiology, dietary regimens started with the dams at pregnancy and throughout lactation and continued with the offspring for 6 months. The weight gain of group Lp was lower than that of groups C (control) and Ec (P = 0·086). More retroperitoneal adipose tissue (P = 0·030) and higher plasma leptin (P = 0·035) were observed in group Ec compared with group Lp. The viable count of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in group Ec than in group Lp (P = 0·019), and when all animals were compared, Enterobacteriaceae correlated positively with body weight (r 0·428, P = 0·029). Bacterial diversity was lower in group Ec than in groups C (P ≤ 0·05) and Lp (P ≤ 0·05). Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia dominated in all groups, but Bacteroidetes were more prevalent in group C than in groups Lp (P = 0·036) and Ec (P = 0·056). The same five bacterial families dominated the microbiota of groups Ec and C, and four of these were also present in group Lp. The other five families dominating in group Lp were not found in any of the other groups. Multivariate data analysis pointed in the same directions as the univariate statistics. The present results suggest that supplementation of L. plantarum or E. coli can have long-term effects on the composition of the intestinal microbiota, as well as on weight gain and fattening.
Stainless steels are among the most important engineering materials, finding their principal scope in industry, specifically in cutlery, food production, storage, architecture, medical equipment, etc. Austenitic stainless steels form the largest sub-category of stainless steels having as the main building blocks the paramagnetic substitutional disordered Fe-Cr-Ni-based alloys. Because of that, austenitic steels represent the primary choice for non-magnetic engineering materials. The presence of the chemical and magnetic disorder hindered any previous attempt to calculate the fundamental electronic, structural and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels from first-principles theories. Our ability to reach an ab initio atomistic level approach in this exciting field has become possible by the Exact Muffin-Tin Orbitals (EMTO) method. This method, in combination with the coherent potential approximation, has proved an accurate tool in the description of the concentrated random alloys. Using the EMTO method, we presented an insight to the electronic and magnetic structure, and micromechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel alloys. In the present contribution, we will discuss the role of magnetism on the stacking fault energies and elastic properties of paramagnetic Fe-based alloys.
A resistance sensor for use in diesel exhaust is reported. Several soot deposition mechanisms contribute to collection on the sensing electrodes. The sensor is designed to enhance the temperature difference between the electrode surface and the ambient. The resulting thermophoretic force on nanoparticles enhances soot deposition. Exhaust soot concentrations were shown to correlate with resistance decreases and the effect of thermophoresis was studied.
Switched systems are described by a set of continuous state-space models together with conditions that decide which model of this set is valid for the current continuous state. As an extension of the classical linear or affine state-space representations of dynamical systems, this modelling formalism has been thoroughly investigated, as this chapter shows. The identification of the model parameters, observability, and stability analysis as well as methods for stabilization and control of switched systems are surveyed. As shown in the last section, many analysis and design problems for switched systems have a high computational complexity or are even undecidable.
Definition of the system class
Switched systems represent a type of model of hybrid systems that has been studied extensively. The reason for this research activity is given by the fact that this class of systems is very close to “non-hybrid” systems and an extension of the theory of continuous systems towards hybrid systems is, therefore, rather straightforward. Nevertheless, this system class already exhibits several important phenomena of hybrid dynamical systems.
The basic representation format is the state-space model
which describes the dynamical behavior of the system for the input u ∈ ℝm and the operation mode q ∈ Q. The vector field f and the output function g are assumed to be Lipschitz continuous with respect to x and u so that for a fixed operation mode q solutions to the state-space model exist.
Automotive systems offer a rich opportunity for hybrid models, controls, and tools. Beyond the traditional use of hybrid models for representing the behavior of the composition of discrete controller and continuous plants, automotive mechanical systems exhibit hybrid behavior as demonstrated in this chapter. In addition, hybrid systems can be used to capture system specifications at the highest level of abstraction and to model implementation architectures thus enabling a rich design space exploration.
This chapter presents an application of hybrid systems that is of significant industrial interest: power-train modeling and control for automobiles.
Engine control is a challenging problem that involves many functional and non functional requirements. The problem is to develop control algorithms and their implementation with guaranteed properties that can substantially reduce emissions and gas consumption with increased performance.
The introduction of hybrid system modeling and control was motivated by the need for verifying closed-loop systems where the plant to be controlled are continuous-time systems and the controller is a digital system. However, hybrid models are general enough to be useful in other areas of design. In particular, engine control offers a rich set of application of hybrid systems:
The power-train itself can be represented as a hybrid system. In fact, an accurate model of a four-stroke gasoline engine has a “natural” hybrid representation:
Each cylinder in the engine has four discrete modes of operation corresponding to the stroke it is in (hence, its behavior is well represented by a finite state machine (FSM)). […]
Lichen cover and diversity were analysed on the dwarf shrub Helianthemum oelandicum (L.) Dum.Cours. at one site in the calcareous grassland of the area known as the ‘Great Alvar’ on the Island of Öland, Sweden. The age of 22 phorophytes was determined by ring counting and varied from 8 to 41 years and was accurately predicted by the root diameter. A total of 18 lichen species was found, with a range between 0 and 13 species per phorophyte. The number of lichen species on living H. oelandicum were correlated with the phorophyte age. The number of lichen species and their coverage were greater on dead compared with living phorophytes. The species number was also higher on thin branches compared with thick branches and roots and some of the species showed preferences for dead phorophytes, and for thin branches. This study of lichen colonization and growth on dwarf shrubs in relation to phorophyte age is a new application of herbchronology.