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Involuntary mental imagery is elevated among people with bipolar disorder, and has been shown to shape biases in interpretation of ambiguous information. However, it is not clear whether biases in interpretation of ambiguous scenarios can be observed in those at risk for bipolar disorder, or whether involuntary imagery is related to such a bias.
In the present study, we extended a prominent model of bipolar cognition to an at-risk sample. We specifically tested whether positive interpretation bias and involuntary mental imagery are linked to a greater risk of bipolar disorder.
Young adults (N = 169) completed measures of risk for bipolar disorder (the Hypomanic Personality Scale [HPS]), interpretation bias, and involuntary mental imagery.
Higher scores on the HPS were significantly correlated with more positive interpretations of ambiguous scenarios (β = 0.29, p <. 01) and more frequent involuntary mental imagery (β = 0.22, p < .01). There was no evidence of an interaction between interpretation bias and mental imagery in predicting HPS score, β = .04, p = .62.
Further research is warranted to determine if intrusive imagery or interpretation bias influence the development of bipolar disorder over time in those at risk.
Human and animal research both operate within established standards. In the United States, criticism of the human research environment and recorded abuses of human research subjects served as the impetus for the establishment of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the resulting Belmont Report. The Belmont Report established key ethical principles to which human research should adhere: respect for autonomy, obligations to beneficence and justice, and special protections for vulnerable individuals and populations. While current guidelines appropriately aim to protect the individual interests of human participants in research, no similar, comprehensive, and principled effort has addressed the use of (nonhuman) animals in research. Although published policies regarding animal research provide relevant regulatory guidance, the lack of a fundamental effort to explore the ethical issues and principles that should guide decisions about the potential use of animals in research has led to unclear and disparate policies. Here, we explore how the ethical principles outlined in the Belmont Report could be applied consistently to animals. We describe how concepts such as respect for autonomy and obligations to beneficence and justice could be applied to animals, as well as how animals are entitled to special protections as a result of their vulnerability.
The hydrodynamic lift velocity of a neutrally buoyant fibre in a simple shear flow near a wall is determined for small, but non-zero, fibre Reynolds number, illustrating the role of non-sphericity in lift. The rotational motion and effects of fibre orientation on lift are treated for fibre positions that induce and do not induce solid-body wall contacts. When the fibre does not contact the wall its lift velocity can be obtained in terms of the Stokes flow field by using a generalized reciprocal theorem. The Stokes velocity field is determined using slender-body theory with the no-slip velocity at the wall enforced using the method of images. To leading order the lift velocity at distances large compared with the fibre length and small compared with the Oseen length is found to be
are the fibre half-length and radius,
is the density,
is the shear rate and
is the viscosity of the fluid. When the fibre is close enough to the wall to make solid-body contact during its rotational motion, a process known as pole vaulting coupled with inertially induced changes of fibre orientation determines the lift velocity. The order of magnitude of the lift in this case is larger by a factor of
than when the fibre does not contact the wall and it reaches a maximum of
for the case of a highly frictional contact and about half that value for a frictionless contact. These results are used to illustrate how particle shape can contribute to separation methods such as those in microfluidic channels or cross-flow filtration processes.
To evaluate the health status and quality of life of young patients who had cone reconstruction for Ebstein anomaly.
We reviewed all patients who had cone reconstruction from 2007 to 2016 at our institution. Prospective surveys were mailed to all eligible patients. Quality of life was assessed using the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales, including four domains: physical, emotional, social, and school functioning.
Of 116 eligible patients, 72 (62%) responded. About 96% reported their health as excellent or good, and 52% were symptom-free. Only 37% of patients were taking any medications, the most common of which was aspirin (30%). Only 19% had been hospitalised for cardiac reasons following cone reconstruction. The average self-reported quality of life was 85.3/100, whereas the average parent proxy-reported quality of life was 81.8/100. There was no difference by self or parent proxy-report in quality of life between cone reconstruction patients and healthy children; however, quality of life was significantly better compared with children with other chronic health conditions. By self-report and parent proxy-report, 15.1 and 16.7% of patients were deemed “at risk” for reduced quality of life, respectively. Socially, 63/64 (98%) patients over 5 years old were either full-time students or working full-time.
Children with Ebstein anomaly following cone reconstruction have excellent quality of life comparable with healthy peers and significantly better than other children with chronic health conditions. Families of children with Ebstein anomaly can expect excellent quality of life, long-term health status, and social functioning following cone reconstruction.
Oats can be processed in a variety of ways ranging from minimally processed such as steel-cut oats (SCO), to mildly processed such as large-flake oats (old fashioned oats, OFO), moderately processed such as instant oats (IO) or highly processed in ready-to-eat oat cereals such as Honey Nut Cheerios (HNC). Although processing is believed to increase glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, the effect of oat processing in these respects is unclear. Thus, we compared the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses elicited by 628 kJ portions of SCO, OFO, IO and HNC and a portion of Cream of Rice cereal (CR) containing the same amount of available-carbohydrate (23 g) as the oatmeals. Healthy males (n 18) and females (n 12) completed this randomised, cross-over trial. Blood was taken fasting and at intervals for 3 h following test-meal consumption. Glucose and insulin peak-rises and incremental AUC (iAUC) were subjected to repeated-measures ANOVA using Tukey’s test (two-sided P<0·05) to compare individual means. Glucose peak-rise (primary endpoint, mean (sem) mmol/l) after OFO, 2·19 (sem 0·11), was significantly less than after CR, 2·61 (sem 0·13); and glucose peak-rise after SCO, 1·93 (sem 0·13), was significantly less than after CR, HNC, 2·49 (sem 0·13) and IO 2·47 (sem 0·13). Glucose iAUC was significantly lower after SCO than CR and HNC. Insulin peak rise was similar among the test meals, but insulin iAUC was significantly less after SCO than IO. Thus, the results show that oat processing affects glycaemic and insulinaemic responses with lower responses associated with less processing.
Disease surveillance in wildlife populations presents a logistical challenge, yet is critical in gaining a deeper understanding of the presence and impact of wildlife pathogens. Erinaceus coronavirus (EriCoV), a clade C Betacoronavirus, was first described in Western European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Germany. Here, our objective was to determine whether EriCoV is present, and if it is associated with disease, in Great Britain (GB). An EriCoV-specific BRYT-Green® real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to test 351 samples of faeces or distal large intestinal tract contents collected from casualty or dead hedgehogs from a wide area across GB. Viral RNA was detected in 10.8% (38) samples; however, the virus was not detected in any of the 61 samples tested from Scotland. The full genome sequence of the British EriCoV strain was determined using next generation sequencing; it shared 94% identity with a German EriCoV sequence. Multivariate statistical models using hedgehog case history data, faecal specimen descriptions and post-mortem examination findings found no significant associations indicative of disease associated with EriCoV in hedgehogs. These findings indicate that the Western European hedgehog is a reservoir host of EriCoV in the absence of apparent disease.
Recent work has implicated one type of horizontal strabismus (exotropia) as a risk factor for schizophrenia. This new insight raises questions about a potential common developmental origin of the two diseases. Seasonality of births is well established for schizophrenia. Seasonal factors such as light exposure affect eye growth and can cause vision abnormalities, but little is known about seasonality of births in strabismus. We examined birth seasonality in people with horizontal strabismus in a retrospective study in Washoe County, Nevada, and re-examined similar previously obtained data from Osaka, Japan. We then compared seasonal patterns of births between strabismus, refractive error, schizophrenia and congenital toxoplasmosis. Patients with esotropia had a significant seasonality of births, with a deficit in March, then increasing to an excess in September, while patients with exotropia had a distinctly different pattern, with an excess of births in July, gradually decreasing to a deficit in November. These seasonalities were statistically significant with either χ2 or Kolmogorov–Smirnov-type statistics. The birth seasonality of esotropia resembled that for hyperopia, with an increase in amplitude, while the seasonality for myopia involved a phase-shift. There was no correlation between seasonality of births between strabismus and congenital toxoplasmosis. The pattern of an excess of summer births for people with exotropia was remarkably similar to the well-established birth seasonality of one schizophrenia subtype, the deficit syndrome, but not schizophrenia as a whole. This suggests a testable hypothesis: that exotropia may be a risk factor primarily for the deficit type of schizophrenia.
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the theoretical basis and experimental techniques for application of the referenee intensity method to quantitative, multi-component analysis by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Detailed descriptions of the technique and formal error analysis are discussed by Davis (1978, 1980, 1981a, 1981b, 1981c).
Synchrotron radiation was used to obtain a high-resolution powder diffraction pattern of the high-density form of BeH2, a material whose unit-cell dimensions have not previously been determined. The observed d-spacing values were presented to three different computer indexing programs. All three programs returned as best solution a body-centered orthorhombic unit cell with a = 9.082, b = 4.160, c = 7.707 Å and V = 292 Å3. Interpretation of the three-dimensional Patterson led to 12 BeH2 molecules per unit cell; thus, the theoretical density is 0.755 g/cm3. The molecular structure is based on a network of corner-sharing BeH4 tetrahedra rather than flat, infinite chains with hydrogen bridges previously assumed.
The MAGNEQUENCH process for making high energy product (> 10 MG•Oe) permanent magnet alloys of Nd2Fe14B has been described. To advance further the commercial application of these alloys, a better understanding of the microstructure and crystallography is required.
The crystal system and unit cell parameters can be determined from the angular positions of the x-ray diffraction peaks, provided the data have been collected with a 2θ accuracy error of <0,02°. Computer based methods are available for handling the large number of calculations required. This paper describes the experimental problems encountered and solved during the determination of the cell parameters for this alloy.
The physical and mechanical properties of many industrially important polymers are profoundly influenced by their degree of crystallinity; such properties include flex modulus, tensile strength, percent elongation, and impact strength. Commonly used polymers influenced by their crystallinity level include polyethlene, polypropylene, polyesters, and nylons. Many of these materials are above their glass transition temperature at room temperature and would be useless were it not for their crystalline phase which typically has a melting point far above room temperature. The crystalline ‘ regions (domains) in these materials are frequently very small, typically in the nanometer range in diameter. These crystalline domains act as reinforcing fillers (in somewhat the same manner as carbon black In rubber) and give strength to the polymer.
As a result of interest stemming from shock wave studies carried out at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, we have developed a capability to conduct x-ray diffraction studies in submicrosecond time intervals. This involves the use of a low impedance flash x-ray device. While there are many applications to which these techniques can be put, our first experiments deal with samples undergoing shock wave compression. These particular experiments are conducted by synchronizing a 40 to 50 nsec flash x-ray device to a shock front which is produced by the detonation of a high explosive placed in contact with a sample. Diffracted radiation is usually recorded on very sensitive film protected by a blast cassette. Thus far we have subjected lithium fluoride, aluminum, and carbon to pressures in the range of 100 to 300 kbar. Either powder or single crystal samples can be used. The principal difficulties of this experiment are the lack of sufficient intensity and the synchronization of the x-ray pulse to the shock front.
Information about the conditions and reactions in a foundry cupola is essential to understand the thermochemistry of a cupola and thus improve its efficiency. A potential source of such information is coke taken from inside an operating cupola. In the region of the cupola that extends from the melt zone to the taphole, coke is directly involved in important chemical processes such as combustion, gasification, slag formation, iron sulfurization, carbon pickup, and oxide reduction. Coke is also suspected of being involved in the transport of silicon to the liquid iron. Each of these processes produces characteristic physical and/or chemical changes in the coke, making it possible to extract information about the processes from an examination of coke pieces taken from within an operating cupola. A program to study such coke samples is in progress. To effectively interpret these data it is necessary to know the temperature history of the coke being examined, especially the maximum temperature attained by the coke piece in the cupola.