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Little is known about parents’ compensatory health beliefs (CHB) surrounding their children’s engagement in physical activity (PA). Our aim was to provide evidence regarding the nature of, and factors underpinning, parents’ PA-related compensatory beliefs for their children.
A qualitative descriptive approach and thematic content analysis were employed.
Parents were recruited from community sport and PA programmes.
Eighteen parents aged 32–52 years (mean age = 40·8 (sd 5·4) years; six males; twelve females).
Analyses indicated that parents compensate through ‘passive’ or ‘active’ means. Among parents who compensated, most described their provision of ‘treat’ foods/drinks and a minority described allowing extended sedentary time to their children. Parents’ reasons underpinning these beliefs related to their child’s general physical/health status and psychological characteristics, and their own motivation and mood state.
These findings provide the first evidence of unhealthy dietary and sedentary behaviour CHB that parents may hold regarding their children’s involvement in PA.
Indaziflam, a PRE herbicide option for weed management on rangeland and natural areas, provides long-term control of invasive winter annual grasses (IWAGs). Because indaziflam only provides PRE control of IWAGs, POST herbicides such as glyphosate can be mixed with indaziflam to control germinated IWAG seedlings. Field trials were conducted at three sites on the Colorado Front Range to evaluate glyphosate dose required to provide adequate POST IWAG control and compare long-term downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), Japanese brome (Bromus arvensis L.), and feral rye (Secale cereale L.) control with indaziflam and imazapic. Two of the three sites were void of desirable species, so species establishment through drill seeding was assessed, while the remnant native plant response was assessed at the third site. Herbicide applications were made March 2014 through April 2015, and two sites were drill seeded with native species 9 mo after herbicide application. Yearly visual control evaluations, biomass of all plant species, and drilled species stand counts were collected. Glyphosate at 474 g ae ha−1 reduced B. tectorum biomass to zero, while glyphosate at 631 g ae ha−1 was needed to reduce biomass to near zero at the S. cereale site. At all three sites, only indaziflam treatments had significant reductions in IWAG biomass compared with the nontreated check at 3 yr after treatment (YAT). By 3 YAT in the drill-seeded sites, cool-season grass frequency ranged from 37% to 69% within indaziflam treatments (73 and 102 g ai ha−1), while imazapic treatments ranged from 0% to 26% cool-season grass frequency. In the site with a remnant native plant community, indaziflam treatments resulted in a 3- to 4-fold increase in native grass biomass. These results indicate that the multiyear IWAG control provided by indaziflam can aid in desirable species reestablishment through drill seeding or response of the remnant plant community.
Zn is an essential nutrient for humans; however, a sensitive biomarker to assess Zn status has not been identified. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and sensitivity of Zn transporter and metallothionein (MT) genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to Zn exposure ex vivo and to habitual Zn intake in human subjects. In study 1, human PBMCs were cultured for 24 h with 0–50 µm ZnSO4 with or without 5 µm N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), and mRNA expression of SLC30A1-10, SLC39A1-14, MT1 subtypes (A, B, E, F, G, H, L, M and X), MT2A, MT3 and MT4 mRNA was determined. In study 2, fifty-four healthy male and female volunteers (31·9 (sd 13·8) years, BMI 25·7 (sd 2·9) kg/m2) completed a FFQ, blood was collected, PBMCs were isolated and mRNA expression of selected Zn transporters and MT isoforms was determined. Study 1: MT1E, MT1F, MT1G, MT1H, MT1L, MT1M, MT1X, MT2A and SLC30A1 increased with increasing concentrations of Zn and declined with the addition of TPEN. Study 2: Average daily Zn intake was 16·0 (sd 5·3) mg/d (range: 9–31 mg/d), and plasma Zn concentrations were 15·5 (SD 2·8) μmol/l (range 11–23 μmol/l). PBMC MT2A was positively correlated with dietary Zn intake (r 0·306, P = 0·03) and total Zn intake (r 0·382, P < 0·01), whereas plasma Zn was not (P > 0·05 for both). Findings suggest that MT2A mRNA in PBMCs reflects dietary Zn intake in healthy adults and may be a component in determining Zn status.
The nature and degree of cognitive impairments in schizoaffective disorder is not well established. The aim of this meta-analysis was to characterise cognitive functioning in schizoaffective disorder and compare it with cognition in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizoaffective disorder was considered both as a single category and as its two diagnostic subtypes, bipolar and depressive disorder.
Following a thorough literature search (468 records identified), we included 31 studies with a total of 1685 participants with schizoaffective disorder, 3357 with schizophrenia and 1095 with bipolar disorder. Meta-analyses were conducted for seven cognitive variables comparing performance between participants with schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia, and between schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder.
Participants with schizoaffective disorder performed worse than those with bipolar disorder (g = −0.30) and better than those with schizophrenia (g = 0.17). Meta-analyses of the subtypes of schizoaffective disorder showed cognitive impairments in participants with the depressive subtype are closer in severity to those seen in participants with schizophrenia (g = 0.08), whereas those with the bipolar subtype were more impaired than those with bipolar disorder (g = −0.23) and less impaired than those with schizophrenia (g = 0.29). Participants with the depressive subtype had worse performance than those with the bipolar subtype but this was not significant (g = 0.25, p = 0.05).
Cognitive impairments increase in severity from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder to schizophrenia. Differences between the subtypes of schizoaffective disorder suggest combining the subtypes of schizoaffective disorder may obscure a study's results and hamper efforts to understand the relationship between this disorder and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating rare disease that affects individuals regardless of ethnicity, gender, and age. The first-approved disease-modifying therapy for SMA, nusinursen, was approved by Health Canada, as well as by American and European regulatory agencies following positive clinical trial outcomes. The trials were conducted in a narrow pediatric population defined by age, severity, and genotype. Broad approval of therapy necessitates close follow-up of potential rare adverse events and effectiveness in the larger real-world population.
The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) undertook an iterative multi-stakeholder process to expand the existing SMA dataset to capture items relevant to patient outcomes in a post-marketing environment. The CNDR SMA expanded registry is a longitudinal, prospective, observational study of patients with SMA in Canada designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of novel therapies and provide practical information unattainable in trials.
The consensus expanded dataset includes items that address therapy effectiveness and safety and is collected in a multicenter, prospective, observational study, including SMA patients regardless of therapeutic status. The expanded dataset is aligned with global datasets to facilitate collaboration. Additionally, consensus dataset development aimed to standardize appropriate outcome measures across the network and broader Canadian community. Prospective outcome studies, data use, and analyses are independent of the funding partner.
Prospective outcome data collected will provide results on safety and effectiveness in a post-therapy approval era. These data are essential to inform improvements in care and access to therapy for all SMA patients.
Diet has direct and indirect effects on health through inflammation and the gut microbiome. We investigated total dietary inflammatory potential via the literature-derived index (Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®)) with gut microbiota diversity, composition and function. In cancer-free patient volunteers initially approached at colonoscopy and healthy volunteers recruited from the medical centre community, we assessed 16S ribosomal DNA in all subjects who provided dietary assessments and stool samples (n 101) and the gut metagenome in a subset of patients with residual fasting blood samples (n 34). Associations of energy-adjusted DII scores with microbial diversity and composition were examined using linear regression, permutational multivariate ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate associations of species and pathways with DII and circulating inflammatory markers. Across DII levels, α- and β-diversity did not significantly differ; however, Ruminococcus torques, Eubacterium nodatum, Acidaminococcus intestini and Clostridium leptum were more abundant in the most pro-inflammatory diet group, while Akkermansia muciniphila was enriched in the most anti-inflammatory diet group. With adjustment for age and BMI, R. torques, E. nodatum and A. intestini remained significantly associated with a more pro-inflammatory diet. In the metagenomic and fasting blood subset, A. intestini was correlated with circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, a pro-inflammatory marker (rho = 0·40), but no associations remained significant upon correction for multiple testing. An index reflecting overall inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with specific microbes, but not overall diversity of the gut microbiome in our study. Findings from this preliminary study warrant further research in larger samples and prospective cohorts.
Residual strain in electrodeposited Li films may affect safety and performance in Li metal battery anodes, so it is important to understand how to detect residual strain in electrodeposited Li and the conditions under which it arises. To explore this Li films, electrodeposited onto Cu metal substrates, were prepared under an applied pressure of either 10 or 1000 kPa and subsequently tested for the presence or absence of residual strain via sin2(ψ) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of Li films required preparation and examination within an inert environment; hence, a Be-dome sample holder was employed during XRD characterization. Results show that the Li film grown under 1000 kPa displayed a detectable presence of in-plane compressive strain (−0.066%), whereas the Li film grown under 10 kPa displayed no detectable in-plane strain. The underlying Cu substrate revealed an in-plane residual strain near zero. Texture analysis via pole figure determination was also performed for both Li and Cu and revealed a mild fiber texture for Li metal and a strong bi-axial texture of the Cu substrate. Experimental details concerning sample preparation, alignment, and analysis of the particularly air-sensitive Li films have also been detailed. This work shows that Li metal exhibits residual strain when electrodeposited under compressive stress and that XRD can be used to quantify that strain.
This study examined the relationship between patient performance on multiple memory measures and regional brain volumes using an FDA-cleared quantitative volumetric analysis program – Neuroreader™.
Ninety-two patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by a clinical neuropsychologist completed cognitive evaluations and underwent MR Neuroreader™ within 1 year of testing. Select brain regions were correlated with three widely used memory tests. Regression analyses were conducted to determine if using more than one memory measures would better predict hippocampal z-scores and to explore the added value of recognition memory to prediction models.
Memory performances were most strongly correlated with hippocampal volumes than other brain regions. After controlling for encoding/Immediate Recall standard scores, statistically significant correlations emerged between Delayed Recall and hippocampal volumes (rs ranging from .348 to .490). Regression analysis revealed that evaluating memory performance across multiple memory measures is a better predictor of hippocampal volume than individual memory performances. Recognition memory did not add further predictive utility to regression analyses.
This study provides support for use of MR Neuroreader™ hippocampal volumes as a clinically informative biomarker associated with memory performance, which is a critical diagnostic feature of MCI phenotype.
The Nutrition Society's 1st Annual Nutrition and Cancer Networking Conference brought together scientists from the fields of Nutrition, Epidemiology, Public Health, Medical Oncology and Surgery with representatives of the public, cancer survivors and cancer charities. Speakers representing these different groups presented the challenges to collaboration, how the needs of patients and the public can be met, and the most promising routes for future research. The conference programme promoted debate on these issues to highlight current gaps in understanding and barriers to generating and implementing evidence-based nutrition advice. The main conclusions were that the fundamental biology of how nutrition influences the complex cancer risk profiles of diverse populations needs to be better understood. Individual and population level genetics interact with the environment over a lifespan to dictate cancer risk. Large charities and government have a role to play in diminishing our current potently obesogenic environment and exploiting nutrition to reduce cancer deaths. Understanding how best to communicate, advise and support individuals wishing to make dietary and lifestyle changes, can reduce cancer risk, enhance recovery and improve the lives of those living with and beyond cancer.
Given the common view that pre-exercise nutrition/breakfast is important for performance, the present study investigated whether breakfast influences resistance exercise performance via a physiological or psychological effect. Twenty-two resistance-trained, breakfast-consuming men completed three experimental trials, consuming water-only (WAT), or semi-solid breakfasts containing 0 g/kg (PLA) or 1·5 g/kg (CHO) maltodextrin. PLA and CHO meals contained xanthan gum and low-energy flavouring (approximately 122 kJ), and subjects were told both ‘contained energy’. At 2 h post-meal, subjects completed four sets of back squat and bench press to failure at 90 % ten repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken pre-meal, 45 min and 105 min post-meal to measure serum/plasma glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations. Subjective hunger/fullness was also measured. Total back squat repetitions were greater in CHO (44 (sd 10) repetitions) and PLA (43 (sd 10) repetitions) than WAT (38 (sd 10) repetitions; P < 0·001). Total bench press repetitions were similar between trials (WAT 37 (sd 7) repetitions; CHO 39 (sd 7) repetitions; PLA 38 (sd 7) repetitions; P = 0·130). Performance was similar between CHO and PLA trials. Hunger was suppressed and fullness increased similarly in PLA and CHO, relative to WAT (P < 0·001). During CHO, plasma glucose was elevated at 45 min (P < 0·05), whilst serum insulin was elevated (P < 0·05) and plasma ghrelin suppressed at 45 and 105 min (P < 0·05). These results suggest that breakfast/pre-exercise nutrition enhances resistance exercise performance via a psychological effect, although a potential mediating role of hunger cannot be discounted.
A classic example of microbiome function is its role in nutrient assimilation in both plants and animals, but other less obvious roles are becoming more apparent, particularly in terms of driving infectious and non-infectious disease outcomes and influencing host behaviour. However, numerous biotic and abiotic factors influence the composition of these communities, and host microbiomes can be susceptible to environmental change. How microbial communities will be altered by, and mitigate, the rapid environmental change we can expect in the next few decades remain to be seen. That said, given the enormous range of functional diversity conferred by microbes, there is currently something of a revolution in microbial bioengineering and biotechnology in order to address real-world problems including human and wildlife disease and crop and biofuel production. All of these concepts are explored in further detail throughout the book.
The objective of this paper was to examine the implementation and effectiveness of a community-based intervention for hoarding disorder (HD) using Cognitive Rehabilitation and Exposure/Sorting Therapy (CREST).
This was a mixed-method, pre-post quasi-experimental study informed by the Practical, Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model for implementation science.
Program activities took place in San Diego County, mainly within clients’ homes or community, with some activities in-office.
Participants were aged 60 years or older, met eligibility for Medi-Cal or were uninsured, and met criteria for HD.
A manualized, mobile protocol that incorporated CREST was utilized.
The Clutter Image Rating and Hoarding Rating Scale were used as effectiveness outcomes. An investigator-created staff questionnaire was used to evaluate implementation.
Thirty-seven clients were reached and enrolled in treatment and 15 completed treatment during the initial 2 years of the program. There were significant changes in hoarding severity and clutter volume. Based on the initial 2 years of the program, funding was provided for expansion to cover additional San Diego County regions and hire more staff clinicians in year three.
Preliminary data suggest that the CREST intervention can be successfully implemented in a community setting with positive results for older adults with HD.
Vitamin D deficiency has been commonly reported in elite athletes, but the vitamin D status of UK university athletes in different training environments remains unknown. The present study aimed to determine any seasonal changes in vitamin D status among indoor and outdoor athletes, and whether there was any relationship between vitamin D status and indices of physical performance and bone health. A group of forty-seven university athletes (indoor n 22, outdoor n 25) were tested during autumn and spring for serum vitamin D status, bone health and physical performance parameters. Blood samples were analysed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) status. Peak isometric knee extensor torque using an isokinetic dynamometer and jump height was assessed using an Optojump. Aerobic capacity was estimated using the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans measured radial bone mineral density. Statistical analyses were performed using appropriate parametric/non-parametric testing depending on the normality of the data. s-25(OH)D significantly fell between autumn (52·8 (sd 22·0) nmol/l) and spring (31·0 (sd 16·5) nmol/l; P < 0·001). In spring, 34 % of participants were considered to be vitamin D deficient (<25 nmol/l) according to the revised 2016 UK guidelines. These data suggest that UK university athletes are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Thus, further research is warranted to investigate the concomitant effects of low vitamin D status on health and performance outcomes in university athletes residing at northern latitudes.
In New York City, a multi-disciplinary Mass Casualty Consultation team is proposed to support prioritization of patients for coordinated inter-facility transfer after a large-scale mass casualty event. This study examines factors that influence consultation team prioritization decisions.
As part of a multi-hospital functional exercise, 2 teams prioritized the same set of 69 patient profiles. Prioritization decisions were compared between teams. Agreement between teams was assessed based on patient profile demographics and injury severity. An investigator interviewed team leaders to determine reasons for discordant transfer decisions.
The 2 teams differed significantly in the total number of transfers recommended (49 vs 36; P = 0.003). However, there was substantial agreement when recommending transfer to burn centers, with 85.5% agreement and inter-rater reliability of 0.67 (confidence interval: 0.49–0.85). There was better agreement for patients with a higher acuity of injuries. Based on interviews, the most common reason for discordance was insider knowledge of the local community hospital and its capabilities.
A multi-disciplinary Mass Casualty Consultation team was able to rapidly prioritize patients for coordinated secondary transfer using limited clinical information. Training for consultation teams should emphasize guidelines for transfer based on existing services at sending and receiving hospitals, as knowledge of local community hospital capabilities influence physician decision-making.
Healthcare personnel who perform invasive procedures and are living with HIV or hepatitis B have been required to self-notify the NC state health department since 1992. State coordinated review of HCP utilizes a panel of experts to evaluate transmission risk and recommend infection prevention measures. We describe how this practice balances HCP privacy and patient safety and health.
Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are a key contributor to liver fibrosis and drive the progression to advanced disease for many liver conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Previous studies suggest vitamin D may reduce inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic activity of HSCs in vitro. However, the mechanisms underpinning the effects of vitamin D in HSCs are not fully understood. The overall aim of these experiments was to mimic a lipid loading model on immortalised HSCs to test their responses to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3). Two different human immortalised cell lines: HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and LX-2, hepatic stellate cells; were cultured using standard methods. Cell viability in different treatment vehicles (2% DMSO and/or 0.1% ethanol) under serum free conditions was measured by MTT assay after 6 and 24 h. Cells were cultured with increasing concentrations of fatty acids (0–500μM, 1:1 oleic acid: palmitic acid) or vitamin D. Nile red, a neutral lipophilic fluorescent dye, was used to measure total intracellular lipid and quantified relative to vehicle. CYP24A1 mRNA expression was measured by qPCR in response to 1000nM 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment in both cell lines for 24 h using TaqMan® gene expression assays and normalised to 18S rRNA. Cell viability in response to vehicle was examined at 6 h and 24 h to determine the optimal experimental time points. Whereas, HepG2 cells remained unaffected at 24 h in response to either or both vehicles combined (n = 4; combined vehicles, P = 0.3187), LX-2 cells showed reduced viability even at 6 h (n = 5; combined vehicles, P = 0.0050). Fatty acid treatment led to intracellular lipid accumulation in both cell lines. In response to 500μM fatty acid treatment, intracellular lipid increased by 1.7-fold in LX-2 cells at 6 h (n = 5, P = 0.00174) and 3.9-fold in HepG2 cells after 24 h (n = 4, P = 0.00184). Notably, CYP24A1 mRNA expression was markedly induced by vitamin D treatment in LX-2 cells (136 ± 7.64-fold, n = 3, P = 0.0010) in comparison to HepG2 cells (22 ± 0.78-fold, n = 3, P < 0.0001). In summary, the cell viability data suggested optimal time points for both fatty acid and vitamin D treatments may be 6 h for LX-2 cells, and 24 h for HepG2 cells. While intracellular lipid accumulation differed between the cell lines in response to fatty acid treatment, both cell lines produced a dose-dependent increase in intracellular lipid. Lastly, CYP24A1 mRNA expression confirmed the responsiveness of both cell types to vitamin D treatment. Ongoing experiments are examining microRNA expression in HSCs in response to both vitamin D and lipid loading.
Lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are promising for applications in light emitting devices owing to a strong emission spectrum that is tunable throughout the visible region by altering halide composition. However, in mixed-halide perovskite systems photoinduced migration drives formation of halide-segregated domains, altering the emission spectrum. The mechanism by which this segregation occurs is currently the subject of intense investigation. Processes involving the perovskite surface are expected to be of enhanced prevalence in NCs due to their large surface area to volume ratio. In this work, we use transient absorption spectroscopy to probe the excited-state dynamics of NCs before and after halide segregation. Comparison of global fit spectra of the measured signals suggests the accumulation of iodide at the surface, resulting in a redshifted emission spectrum.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
Reliable diagnosis of human helminth infection(s) is essential for ongoing disease surveillance and disease elimination. Current WHO-recommended diagnostic assays are unreliable in low-endemic near-elimination settings and typically involve the invasive, onerous and potentially hazardous sampling of bodily fluids such as stool and blood, as well as tissue via biopsy. In contrast, diagnosis by use of non-invasive urine sampling is generally painless, more convenient and low risk. It negates the need for specialist staff, can usually be obtained immediately upon request and is better accepted by patients. In some instances, urine-based diagnostic assays have also been shown to provide a more reliable diagnosis of infection when compared to traditional methods that require alternative and more invasive bodily samples, particularly in low-endemicity settings. Given these relative benefits, we identify and review current research literature to evaluate whether non-invasive urine sampling is currently exploited to its full potential in the development of diagnostic tools for human helminthiases. Though further development, assessment and validation are needed before their routine use in control programmes, low-cost, rapid and reliable assays capable of detecting transrenal helminth-derived antigens and cell-free DNA show excellent promise for future use at the point-of-care in high-, medium- and even low-endemicity elimination settings.