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The Wisconsin Twin Project comprises multiple longitudinal studies that span infancy to early adulthood. We summarize recent papers that show how twin designs with deep phenotyping, including biological measures, can inform questions about phenotypic structure, etiology, comorbidity, heterogeneity, and gene–environment interplay of temperamental constructs and mental and physical health conditions of children and adolescents. The general framework for investigations begins with rich characterization of early temperament and follows with study of experiences and exposures across childhood and adolescence. Many studies incorporate neuroimaging and hormone assays.
The youngest low-mass protostars are known to be chemically rich, accreting matter most vigorously, and producing the most powerful outflows. Molecules are unique tracers of these phenomena. We use ALMA to study several outflow sources in the Serpens Main region. The most luminous source, Ser-SMM1, shows the richest chemical composition, but some complex molecules are also present in S68N. No emission from complex organics is detected toward Ser-emb 8N, which is the least luminous in the sample. We discuss whether these differences reflect an evolutionary effect or whether they are due to different physical structures. We also analyze the outflow structure from these young protostars by comparing emission of CO and SiO. EHV molecular jets originating from SMM1-a,b and Ser-emb 8N contrast with no such activity from S68N, which on the other hand presents a complex outflow structure.
The current study was aiming to report the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status among schoolchildren in Greece and investigate the role of sex, urbanisation and seasonality on vitamin D status. A sample of 2386 schoolchildren (9–13 years old) from four distinct prefectures was examined. The prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <30 and <50 nmol/l (vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively) was 5·2 and 52·5 %, respectively. Girls had a higher prevalence of 25(OH)D<30 (7·2 v. 3·2 %) and 50 nmol/l (57·0 v. 48·0 %) than boys (P<0·001). The highest prevalence rates of 25(OH)D<30 and 50 nmol/l (9·1 and 73·1 %, respectively) were observed during spring (April to June), whereas the lowest (1·5 and 31·9 %, respectively) during autumn (October to December). The prevalence of 25(OH)D<50 nmol/l was higher in urban/semi-urban than rural regions, particularly during spring months (74·6 v. 47·2 %; P<0·001). Female sex, urban/semi-urban region of residence and spring months were found to increase the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, with the highest OR observed for spring months (7·47; 95 % CI 3·23, 17·3 and 5·14; 95 % CI 3·84, 6·89 for 25(OH)D<30 and 50 nmol/l respectively). In conclusion, despite the southerly latitude, the prevalence of low vitamin D status among primary schoolchildren in Greece is comparable to or exceeds the prevalence reported among children and adolescents on a European level. Sub-populations at highest risk are girls in urban/semi-urban areas during spring months, thus indicating the need for effective initiatives to support adequate vitamin D status in these population groups.
Although the military is considered to be a stressful occupation, there are remarkably few studies that compare the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD) between the military and the general population. This study examined the prevalence of probable CMD in a serving UK military sample compared to a general population sample of employed individuals.
Data for the general population was from the 2003 and 2008 collections for the Health Survey for England (HSE) and for the serving military from phases 1 (2004–2006) and 2 (2007–2009) of the King's Centre for Military Health Research (KCMHR) cohort study. Probable CMD was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The datasets were appended to calculate the odds of CMD in the military compared to the general population.
The odds of probable CMD was approximately double in the military, when comparing phase 1 of the military study to the 2003 HSE [odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1–2.7], and phase 2 to the 2008 HSE (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.0–2.6) after adjustment for sex, age, social class, education and marital status.
Serving military personnel are more likely to endorse symptoms of CMD compared to those selected from a general population study as employed in other occupations, even after accounting for demographic characteristics. This difference may be partly explained by the context of the military study, with evidence from previous research for higher reports of symptoms from the GHQ in occupational compared to population studies, in addition to the role of predisposing characteristics.
Heteroepitaxy of SiGe alloys on Si (001) under certain growth conditions has previously been shown to cause self-assembly of nanostructures called Quantum Dot Molecules, QDMs, where pyramidal pits and 3D islands cooperatively form. QDMs have potential applications to nanologic device architectures such as Quantum Cellular Automata that relies on localization of charges inside islands to create bi-stable logic states. In order to determine the applicability of QDMs to such structures it is necessary to understand the nano-scale chemistry of QDMs because the chemistry affects local bandgap which in turn affects a QDM’s charge confinement property. We investigate the nanoscale chemistry of QDMs in the Si0.7Ge0.3/Si (100) system using Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Our AES analysis indicates that compressively strained QDM pit bases are the most Ge rich regions in a QDM. The segregation of Ge to these locations cannot be explained by strain energy minimization.
Recent excavations at two sites located along the coastal margin of the Los Angeles basin revealed three features created as a result of communal mourning ritual during the Intermediate Period (ca. 3000–1000 cal B.P.). Detailed analysis of constituents, structure, and context indicates that formation of these dense concentrations of ground stone implements, unmodified cobbles, other artifacts, and cremated human remains involved deliberate equipment production, sequential implement fragmentation and treatment including burning and pigmentation of items, and secondary interment of incomplete objects and bodies in pits within locales often used for this purpose over many generations. The large size and evident manipulation of objects as part of communal mourning ritual indicates that actions would have been readily visible to a gathered assembly. Thus, while the meaning and significance of these practices remains to be thoroughly explored, the data suggest that communal mourning ritual may have played a significant role in community-building and the maintenance of identity within a region with a dynamic population history.
The Wisconsin Twin Research Program comprises multiple longitudinal studies that utilize a panel recruited from statewide birth records for the years 1989 through 2004. Our research foci are the etiology and developmental course of early emotions, temperament, childhood anxiety and impulsivity, autism, sensory over-responsivity, and related topics. A signature feature of this research program is the breadth and depth of assessment during key periods of development. The assessments include extensive home- and laboratory-based behavioral batteries, recorded sibling and caregiver interactions, structured psychiatric interviews with caregivers and adolescents, observer ratings of child behavior, child self-report, cognitive testing, neuroendocrine measures, medical records, dermatoglyphics, genotyping, and neuroimaging. Across the various studies, testing occasions occurred between 3 months and 18 years of age. Data collection for some aspects of the research program has concluded and, for other aspects, longitudinal follow-ups are in progress.
In previous studies an association between deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan and an overall increased risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in UK armed forces has not been found. The lack of a deployment effect might be explained by including, in the comparison group, personnel deployed on other operations or who have experienced traumatic stressors unrelated to deployment.
The sample comprised 8261 regular UK armed forces personnel who deployed to Iraq, Afghanistan or other operational areas or were not deployed. Participants completed the PTSD CheckList – Civilian Version (PCL-C) and provided information about deployment history, demographic and service factors, serious accidents and childhood experiences.
Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan [odds ratio (OR) 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6–2.2] or elsewhere (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.6–2.0) was unrelated to PTSD although holding a combat role was associated with PTSD if deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.9–3.9). Childhood adversity (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.1–5.0), having left service (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.9–4.0) and serious accident (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.0) were associated with PTSD whereas higher rank was protective (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.12–0.76).
For the majority of UK armed forces personnel, deployment whether to Iraq, Afghanistan or elsewhere confers no greater risk for PTSD than service in the armed forces per se but holding a combat role in those deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is associated with PTSD. Vulnerability factors such as lower rank, childhood adversity and leaving service, and having had a serious accident, may be at least as important as holding a combat role in predicting PTSD in UK armed forces personnel.
There is growing concern about an alleged rise in violent behaviour amongst military personnel returning from deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of violence in a sample of UK military personnel following homecoming from deployment in Iraq and to examine the impact of deployment-related experiences, such as combat trauma, on violence, and the role of sociodemographics and pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour.
This study used baseline data from a cohort study of a large randomly selected sample of UK Armed Forces personnel in service at the time of the Iraq war (2003). Regular personnel (n=4928) who had been deployed to Iraq were included. Data, collected by questionnaire, included information on deployment experiences, sociodemographic and military characteristics, pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour, post-deployment health outcomes and a self-report measure of physical violence in the weeks following return from deployment.
Prevalence of violence was 12.6%. This was strongly associated with pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9–4.4]. After controlling for pre-enlistment antisocial behaviour, sociodemographics and military factors, violence was still strongly associated with holding a combat role (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6–2.5) and having experienced multiple traumatic events on deployment (aOR for four or more traumatic events 3.7, 95% CI 2.5–5.5). Violence on homecoming was also associated with mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (aOR 4.8, 95% CI 3.2–7.2) and alcohol misuse (aOR 3.1, 95% CI 2.5–3.9).
Experiences of combat and trauma during deployment were significantly associated with violent behaviour following homecoming in UK military personnel. Post-deployment mental health problems and alcohol misuse are also associated with increased violence.
Engagement of indigenous people in the enterprise of European colonialism in the Americas is usually conceived as part of a process that transpired wholly within the sphere of direct interaction between native and nonnative people. Yet anthropological focus on economic relationships with fur traders, native labor in the fields and mines of a world system, or voluntary or forced participation of indigenous people in religious missions may overlook potentially profound social effects elsewhere. Native social change initiated by the colonial venture also occurred within traditional indigenous communities located in areas at great distances from colonists and in situations that entailed little or no direct interaction with Europeans. In addition, the changes in these settings involved not only economic, political, or ideological shifts but also likely encompassed diverse social interactions within groups, including challenges to, or changes in, the intimate relationships and sexual practices of indigenous people.
Such shifts may be anticipated, in part, because of native catastrophic depopulation brought about by down-the-line transmission of introduced Old World diseases and resultant fatal epidemics. That is, sexual practices may have been altered to respond to the reproductive priorities supported by such liaisons. Still, the renegotiation of sexual roles, mores, and practices within native communities of the colonial hinterland remains unexplored, even as the sexual and reproductive consequences of colonialism in institutional settings or across landscapes that were physically or socially dominated by European interlopers have been at least initially examined by anthropological archaeologists, especially with respect to intermarriage (e.g., Deagan 1983; Lightfoot et al. 1998; Voss 2008; Woodhouse-Beyer 1999). Given the scale of population decline within native communities during the colonial era and, especially, the initiation of such processes in areas beyond the view of literate observers, it is important for archaeologists to turn their attention to this arena of the colonial “encounter” as well and explore the social and cultural consequences that such events may have precipitated. To understand the subsequent course of native cultural resistance or change expressed in sexual encounters with European people, we must first appreciate the challenges already faced and modifications already underway within these communities before face-to-face interaction.
In this work, SiGe films on low temperature Si buffer layers were grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by atomic force microscope, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Effects of the growth temperature and the thickness of the low temperature Si buffer were studied. It was demonstrated that using proper growth conditions of the low temperature Si buffer, the Si buffer became tensily strained and gave rise to the compliant effect. High-quality SiGe films with low threading dislocation density have been obtained.