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A quarter of Australian children are overweight or obese. Research conducted in 2010 found that fast-food children’s meals were energy-dense and nutrient-poor. Since then, menu labelling and self-regulation of marketing have been introduced in Australia. The present study aimed to: (i) investigate the nutrient composition of children’s meals offered at fast-food chains; (ii) compare these with children’s daily requirements and recommendations and the food industry’s own criteria for healthier children’s meals; and (iii) determine whether results have changed since last investigated in 2010.
An audit of nutrition information for fast-food children’s meals was conducted. Meals were compared with 30 % (recommended contribution for a meal) and 100 % of children’s daily recommendations and requirements. A comparative analysis was conducted to determine if the proportion of meals that exceeded meal requirements and recommendations, and compliance with the food industry’s own criteria, changed between 2010 and 2016.
Large Australian fast-food chains.
All possible children’s meal combinations.
Overall, 289 children’s meals were included. Most exceeded 30 % of daily recommendations and requirements for a 4-year-old’s energy, saturated fat, sugars and Na. Results were also substantial for 8- and 13-year-olds, particularly for Na. When compared with mean energy and nutrient contents from 2010, there were minimal changes overall.
Children’s meals can provide excess energy, saturated fat, sugar and Na to children’s diets. Systematic reformulation of energy, saturated fat, sugars and Na would improve the nutrient composition of the meals.
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth are frequent co-morbidities, both are independent risks for brain injury. However, few studies have examined the mechanisms by which preterm FGR increases the risk of adverse neurological outcomes. We aimed to determine the effects of prematurity and mechanical ventilation (VENT) on the brain of FGR and appropriately grown (AG, control) lambs. We hypothesized that FGR preterm lambs are more vulnerable to ventilation-induced acute brain injury. FGR was surgically induced in fetal sheep (0.7 gestation) by ligation of a single umbilical artery. After 4 weeks, preterm lambs were euthanized at delivery or delivered and ventilated for 2 h before euthanasia. Brains and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected for analysis of molecular and structural indices of early brain injury. FGRVENT lambs had increased oxidative cell damage and brain injury marker S100B levels compared with all other groups. Mechanical ventilation increased inflammatory marker IL-8 within the brain of FGRVENT and AGVENT lambs. Abnormalities in the neurovascular unit and increased blood–brain barrier permeability were observed in FGRVENT lambs, as well as an altered density of vascular tight junctions markers. FGR and AG preterm lambs have different responses to acute injurious mechanical ventilation, changes which appear to have been developmentally programmed in utero.
The degree to which prehispanic societies in the northern upland Southwest were hierarchical or egalitarian is still debated and seems likely to have changed through time. This paper examines the plausibility of village-spanning polities in the northern Southwest by simulating the coevolution of hierarchy and warfare using extensions to the Village Ecodynamics Project's agent-based model. We additionally compile empirical data on the population size distribution of habitations and ritual spaces (kivas) and the social groups that used them in three large regions of the Pueblo Southwest and analyze these through time. All lines of evidence refute an “autonomous village” model during the Pueblo II period (A.D. 890–1145); rather, they support the existence of village-spanning polities during the Pueblo II and probably into the Pueblo III period (A.D. 1145–1285) in some areas. One or more polities connecting the northern Southwest, with tribute flowing to an apex in Chaco Canyon, appears plausible during Pueblo II for the areas we examine. During Pueblo III, more local organizations likely held sway until depopulation in the late thirteenth century.
Magnetic resonance imaging studies of maltreated children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that maltreatment-related PTSD is associated with adverse brain development. Maltreated youth resilient to chronic PTSD were not previously investigated and may elucidate neuromechanisms of the stress diathesis that leads to resilience to chronic PTSD. In this cross-sectional study, anatomical volumetric and corpus callosum diffusion tensor imaging measures were examined using magnetic resonance imaging in maltreated youth with chronic PTSD (N = 38), without PTSD (N = 35), and nonmaltreated participants (n = 59). Groups were sociodemographically similar. Participants underwent assessments for strict inclusion/exclusion criteria and psychopathology. Maltreated youth with PTSD were psychobiologically different from maltreated youth without PTSD and nonmaltreated controls. Maltreated youth with PTSD had smaller posterior cerebral and cerebellar gray matter volumes than did maltreated youth without PTSD and nonmaltreated participants. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter volumes inversely correlated with PTSD symptoms. Posterior corpus callosum microstructure in pediatric maltreatment-related PTSD differed compared to maltreated youth without PTSD and controls. The group differences remained significant when controlling for psychopathology, numbers of Axis I disorders, and trauma load. Alterations of these posterior brain structures may result from a shared trauma-related mechanism or an inherent vulnerability that mediates the pathway from chronic PTSD to comorbidity.
Despite published catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention guidelines, inappropriate catheter use is common. We surveyed housestaff about their knowledge of catheter-associated urinary tract infections at a teaching hospital and found most are aware of prevention guidelines; however, their application to clinical scenarios and catheter practices fall short of national goals.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1355–1357
Integral field spectroscopy and radio interferometry are very powerful tools for studying the interplay between AGN and star formation (SF) in galaxies. We introduce a sample of SDSS galaxies with selection criteria designed to maximize our chances of catching both processes in action. The galaxies are post-starburst, potentially contain radio AGN, and are allowed, but not required, to have ongoing star formation. The resulting sample includes objects classified as traditional post-starbursts and ones that would have been classified as Seyferts based on their emission line properties alone. The systems span a range of merger phases from initial interaction to fully merged, providing snapshots throughout the entire sequence. We are compiling a multi-wavelength data set, including spatially resolved optical spectra from IFUs on WIYN and continuum radio maps from the VLA and GMRT. Here we present initial results on J0754+1648, an interacting system with a post-starburst region near a radio AGN surrounded by highly ionized gas. This object may be an example of SF truncated by AGN feedback.
We present the initial results of an integral field spectroscopic survey of E+A galaxies in the field, which combined with radio continuum measurements and multi-wavelength photometry and imaging provides significant insight into the dynamical and star formation histories of these transitioning post-starburst systems. We focus on the E+A galaxy known as G515 (z = 0.088), a massive merger remnant that began its star formation quenching process ∼ 1.0 Gyr ago. Its relatively young stellar population contrasts with its light profile and kinematics, which are more consistent with a slowly-rotating, early-type galaxy.
Two new integral field units (IFUs) were installed recently on the WIYN Observatory's 3.5-meter telescope at Kitt Peak. These unique IFUs contain fibers of different sizes in the same head. This design allows smaller fibers to sample regions of higher surface brightness, providing higher spatial resolution while maintaining adequate signal-to-noise (S/N). Conversely, larger fibers maintain S/N at the expense of spatial resolution in the lower surface brightness regions of galaxies. The new IFUs were built with funds from NSF award ATI-0804576.
Most previous attempts to determine the psychological cost of military deployment have been limited by reliance on convenience samples, lack of pre-deployment data or confidentiality and cross-sectional designs.
This study addressed these limitations using a population-based, prospective cohort of US military personnel deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
The sample consisted of US military service members in all branches including active duty, reserve and national guard who deployed once (n = 3393) or multiple times (n = 4394). Self-reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress were obtained prior to deployment and at two follow-ups spaced 3 years apart. Data were examined for longitudinal trajectories using latent growth mixture modelling.
Each analysis revealed remarkably similar post-traumatic stress trajectories across time. The most common pattern was low–stable post-traumatic stress or resilience (83.1% single deployers, 84.9% multiple deployers), moderate–improving (8.0%, 8.5%), then worsening–chronic posttraumatic stress (6.7%, 4.5%), high–stable (2.2% single deployers only) and high–improving (2.2% multiple deployers only). Covariates associated with each trajectory were identified.
The final models exhibited similar types of trajectories for single and multiple deployers; most notably, the stable trajectory of low post-traumatic stress pre- to post-deployment, or resilience, was exceptionally high. Several factors predicting trajectories were identified, which we hope will assist in future research aimed at decreasing the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder among deployers.
The structural and optical properties of InGaN quantum dots grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been characterised using atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Z-contrast scanning TEM, micro-photoluminescence (PL), temperature dependent PL and time-resolved PL. The uncapped InGaN nano-islands have densities of ∼1.5 × 1011 cm−2, heights of (1.7 ± 1.0) nm and diameters of (10 ± 4) nm. These parameters are not substantially changed during overgrowth of a GaN cap and the resulting quantum dots have a composition of In0.15Ga0.85N. The observation of narrow luminescence peaks in micro-PL measurements proves light emission from discrete energy states and the optical properties indicate strong confinement of carriers in the quantum dots and an unusually weak impact of piezoelectric field effects.
The use of the methylene blue test for the examination of cows milk was investigated in an inter-laboratory survey. A poor relationship was found between results of these tests and total viable counts. Coliforms were detected in a large number of pasteurized milks, indicating frequent post-pasteurization contamination. No relationship was found between the results of the methylene blue test and the presence of coliforms.
Results from this survey highlight the need for reappraisal of the methylene blue test as a statutory method for the examination of milk. A total viable count and coliform test are suggested for providing information regarding dairy hygiene and the quality of the product at the point of retail sale.
In an inter-laboratory survey, 148 samples of cooked prawns and shrimps were obtained at the point of sale to the consumer. Salmonellae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were not detected. Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from three samples. Results for total viable count and presence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus complied well with available guidelines for imported cooked prawns, suggesting that the risk of food poisoning from retail samples of these foods in the South of England is minimal.
In an inter-laboratory survey, the pour plate, surface spread, agar droplet and spiral plate methods were used in parallel with the surface drop method for enumeration of micro-organisms in foods. Good agreement was obtained between all surface methods of enumeration, but there was poor agreement between molten agar methods and the surface drop method.
A total of 1143 samples of food that were ready for consumption at the point of retail sale were examined. Eight types of food products were chosen: meat pasties, sausage rolls, real-cream slices, synthetic-cream slices, mayonnaise-based coleslaws, faggots, patés and continental sausages. The results of this survey suggest that the upper limit for an acceptable viable count should vary according to the food product. Salmonellae were not isolated on any occasion. Potentially harmful organisms were not isolated at levels expected to constitute a public health hazard.
Information concerning the nature of the product, the total viable count, the presence or absence of pathogenic, toxigenic or indicator organisms, the spectrum of the bacterial flora and the relative predominance of each organism must all be considered when assessing the microbiological acceptability of retail ‘ready to eat’ products.
Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1, serotype O.10K was isolated from 19 patients in the paediatric wards of a district general hospital over a period of 3 months. Fifteen cases were patients on the medical ward. Shortly afterwards. Y. enterocolitica biotype 1, serotype 0.6,30 was isolated from a further 17 patients on this ward in 1 month. The same serotypes of Y. enterocolitica were isolated from the pasteurized milk supplied to the ward. Epidemiological evidence indicated that contaminated pasteurized milk was the source of the yersinia organisms exereted by the patients.