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Employing atomic-scale simulations, the response of a high-angle grain boundary (GB), the soft/hard GB, against external loading was systematically investigated. Under tensile loading close to the hard orientation, strain-induced dynamic recrystallization was observed to initiate through direct soft-to-hard grain reorientation, which was triggered by stress mismatch, inhibited by surface tension from the soft-hard GB, and proceeded by interface ledges. Such grain reorientation corresponds with expansion and contraction of the hard grain along and perpendicular to the loading direction, respectively, accompanied by local atomic shuffling, providing relatively large normal strain of 8.3% with activation energy of 0.04 eV per atom. Tensile strain and residual dislocations on the hard/soft GB facilitate the initiation of dynamic recrystallization by lowering the energy barrier and the critical stress for grain reorientation, respectively.
Imprinted genes uniquely drive and support fetoplacental growth by controlling the allocation of maternal resources to the fetus and affecting the newborn’s growth. We previously showed that alterations of the placental imprinted gene expression are associated with suboptimal perinatal growth and respond to environmental stimuli including socio-economic determinants. At the same time, maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy (MPSP) has been shown to affect fetal growth. Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that placental imprinted gene expression mediates the effects of MPSP on fetal growth in a well-characterized birth cohort, the Stress in Pregnancy (SIP) Study. We observed that mothers experiencing high MPSP deliver infants with lower birthweight (P=0.047). Among the 109 imprinted genes tested, we detected panels of placental imprinted gene expression of 23 imprinted genes associated with MPSP and 26 with birthweight. Among these genes, five imprinted genes (CPXM2, glucosidase alpha acid (GAA), GPR1, SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2 (SHANK2) and THSD7A) were common to the two panels. In multivariate analyses, controlling for maternal age and education and gestational age at birth and infant gender, two genes, GAA and SHANK2, each showed a 22% mediation of MPSP on fetal growth. These data provide new insights into the role that imprinted genes play in translating the maternal stress message into a fetoplacental growth pattern.
Harnessing the nonvolatility of magnetism and the power of electric control, magnetoelectric devices that control magnetism electrically promise to deliver next-generation electronics systems that can store and compute large amounts of information with minimal power consumption and ultrafast processing speed. We highlight progress in magnetoelectric memory and logic prototypes using the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect. First, important performance metrics of VCMA-based magnetoelectric random access memory (MeRAM) are benchmarked against embedded complementary metal oxide semiconductor and other emerging embedded nonvolatile memories. We then discuss scaling of MeRAM from the physics and materials perspectives of the VCMA effect, as well as the use of magnetoelectric logic devices and circuits to realize new computing paradigms with VCMA. Finally, challenges to realize the full potential of VCMA-based memory and logic are presented: VCMA coefficient of 1000 fJ/V-m for energy-efficient write with low errors and tunneling magnetoresistance of 1000% for high density and low noise margin readout. New approaches for deterministic switching based on VCMA are needed. We share perspectives to address these challenges using new materials and device operation schemes.
While maternal folate deficiency has been linked to poor pregnancy outcomes such as neural tube defects, anaemia and low birth weight, the relationship between folate and preterm birth (PTB) in the context of the US post-folic acid fortification era is inconclusive. We sought to explore the relationship between maternal folate status and PTB and its subtypes, i.e. spontaneous and medically indicated PTB.
Boston Birth Cohort, a predominantly urban, low-income, race/ethnic minority population at a high risk for PTB.
Mother–infant dyads (n 7675) enrolled in the Boston Birth Cohort. A sub-sample (n 2313) of these dyads had maternal plasma folate samples collected 24–72 h after delivery.
Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions revealed an inverse relationship between the frequency of multivitamin supplement intake and PTB. Compared with less frequent use, multivitamin supplement intake 3–5 times/week (adjusted OR (aOR) = 0·78; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·96) or >5 times/week (aOR = 0·77; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·93) throughout pregnancy was associated with reduced risk of PTB. Consistently, higher plasma folate levels (highest v. lowest quartile) were associated with lower risk of PTB (aOR = 0·74; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·97). The above associations were similar among spontaneous and medically indicated PTB.
If confirmed by future studies, our findings raise the possibility that optimizing maternal folate levels across pregnancy may help to reduce the risk of PTB among the most vulnerable US population in the post-folic acid fortification era.
In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
We present a novel distributed-memory parallel implementation of the concurrent atomistic-continuum (CAC) method. Written mostly in Fortran 2008 and wrapped with a Python scripting interface, the CAC simulator in PyCAC runs in parallel using Message Passing Interface with a spatial decomposition algorithm. Built upon the underlying Fortran code, the Python interface provides a robust and versatile way for users to build system configurations, run CAC simulations, and analyze results. In this paper, following a brief introduction to the theoretical background of the CAC method, we discuss the serial algorithms of dynamic, quasistatic, and hybrid CAC, along with some programming techniques used in the code. We then illustrate the parallel algorithm, quantify the parallel scalability, and discuss some software specifications of PyCAC; more information can be found in the PyCAC user’s manual that is hosted on www.pycac.org.
The B type star 53 Persei was discovered in 1977 by Smith (1977) as the prototype of a separate group of B-type variables showing light and line profile variability. The physical cause of the variability was thought to be nonradial pulsation (NRP) (see, e.g. Smith et al. 1984). However, the NRP model for this star has been questioned by Balona (1986) who suggested the rotational modulation (RM) model to explain the variability. In order to resolve the long lasting debate about 53 Persei, a campaign was initiated to organize coordinated optical photometry and spectroscopy from the ground, and Far-UV photometry from Voyager in 1991 January. This paper presents the results of period analysis on the groundbased UBV data. In another paper, Smith & Huang (1994) report the new identification of pulsation modes using Voyager Far-UV photometry combined with the results from optical observations. Some preliminary results from APT uvby observations taken at a single site are also cited for comparison.
Omicron Andromedae is a multiple system of at least four stars: a B ↔Be star (component A), a spectroscopic binary (components B1–B2) and a close companion (component a). According to several studies (see Hill et al. 1988, 1989):
-the distance between A and the B1–B2 system decreased from 0.39″ in 1975 to 0.25″ in 1987 (McAlister and Hartkopf 1988)
-the few previous speckle measurements of component a have shown the possibility of a 3.7 years orbit around A, according to the 1975 to 1984 observations (mean distance 0.05″). The calculations with this 3.7 yr orbit lead to the prediction of a maximum distance of 0.77″ at 1992.738, i.e. at the end of september 1992, with a North-South orientation.
ET And is a binary system with a B9 Si star as the main component (Porb = 48.308d, e=0.46). Controversial claims in the literature concerning pulsation with periods ranging from few minutes to few hours and with variable amplitudes indicated a challenging target and motivated us to organize several photometric and spectroscopic observing campaigns. The problem with pulsation of ET And is that Teff and log g put this star in the cool domain of Slowly Pulsating B-type (SPB) stars, but the pulsation periods would be too short by a factor of about four, relatively to the shortest hitherto known periods for SPB stars.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused public health concerns worldwide. We aimed to investigate the effect of meteorological factors on the HFMD epidemic in Qingdao, a port city in China. A total of 78641 cases were reported in Qingdao between January 2007 and December 2014. Of those, 71084 (90·39%) occurred in children aged 0–5 years, with an incidence of 1691·2/100000. The incidence increased from early spring, peaked between spring and summer, and decreased in late summer. Aetiological agents in all severe cases and selected mild cases were characterized by examining throat swabs. Except for enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), other EVs caused >50% of the HFMD cases between 2011 and 2014. EV71 was more frequent in the off-peak months than in the peak months and prone to causing more severe cases compared to CA16 (χ2 = 46·3, P < 0·001). CA10 caused more severe HFMD than did CA6 (χ2 = 20·49, P < 0·001) and all non-CA10 EVs (χ2 = 41·01, P < 0·001). Community-derived HFMD cases accounted for 65·11%. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that HFMD incidence in children aged 0–5 years was positively correlated with atmospheric temperature (rs = 0·77, P < 0·001), relative humidity (rs = 0·507, P < 0·001), and precipitation (rs = 0·328, P < 0·001). Climate changes and CA10 surveillance in communities should be integrated into the current prophylactic programme.
In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) model as a new module of LAP3D code is presented to study the crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET) process. This model is not limited by the paraxial approximation and can be used to deal with a large crossing angle case. Besides, this model is also appropriate for the multi-ion species conditions and even multi-beams problems, which will be very helpful in relevant experiment analysis and the target design. In our 3D simulations, we take the overlapped beams with a 60° crossing angle as an example, and observe obvious energy transfer process, which indicates CBET process might occur between the incident laser beams with a large crossing angle when the matching condition is satisfied. This large crossing angle CBET process also can change the spatial shape of the beam spot, and may have some potential important influence on other laser–plasma interaction instabilities and the energy symmetry in hohlraum.
Titanium oxide photoelectrodes have been used for water splitting for a few decades, but have low solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies. Perovskite halides (e.g., CH3NH3PbI3) have recently emerged as an efficient light absorber system. We try to combine the two materials to create new photoelectrodes to achieve a higher efficiency for hydrogen production. The photoelectrodes are investigated for water-splitting hydrogen production under Xe light irradiation by photoelectrochemical (PEC) reaction. Since perovskite halides are favorable light harvesters under UV and visible light irradiation, the composite films of titania and perovskite halide would achieve efficient water splitting. The hydrogen production rate using the composite films is higher than that using anatase TiO2 electrode. However, the composite films are not stable in water under light irradiation and the perovskite halide gradually decomposes into lead halide.
In this study, we investigate the charge-transport behavior in a disordered one-dimensional (1D) chain of metallic islands using the newly developed multi-island transport simulator (MITS) based on semi-classical tunneling theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The 1D chain is parameterized to model the experimentally-realized devices studied by Lee et al. [Advanced Materials25, 4544-4548 (2013)], which consists of nano-meter-sized gold islands randomly deposited on an insulating boron-nitride nanotube. These devices show semiconductorlike behavior without having semiconductor materials. The effects of disorder, device length, temperature, and source-drain bias voltage (VSD) on the current are examined. Preliminary results of random assemblies of gold nano-islands in two dimensions (2D) are also examined in light of the 1D results.
At T = 0 K and low source-drain bias voltages, the disordered 1D-chain device shows charge-transport characteristics with a well-defined Coulomb blockade (CB) and Coulomb staircase (CS) features that are manifestations of the nanometer size of the islands and their separations. In agreement with experimental observations, the CB and the blockade threshold voltage (Vth) at which the device begins to conduct increases linearly with increasing chain length. The CS structures are more pronounced in longer chains, but disappear at high VSD. Due to tunneling barrier suppression at high bias, the current-voltage characteristics for VSD > Vth follow a non-linear relationship. Smaller islands have a dominant effect on the CB and Vth due to capacitive effects. On the other hand, the wider junctions with their large tunneling resistances predominantly determine the overall device current. This study indicates that smaller islands with smaller inter-island spacings are better suited for practical applications. Temperature has minimal effects on high-bias current behavior, but the CB is diminished as Vth decreases with increasing temperature.
In 2D systems with sufficient disorder, our studies demonstrate the existence of a dominant conducting path (DCP) along which most of the current is conveyed, making the device effectively quasi-1-dimensional. The existence of a DCP is sensitive to the device structure, but can be robust with respect to changes in VSD.
With extremely disordered atomic structures, a glass possesses a thermal conductivity k that approaches the theoretical minimum of its composition, known as the Einstein’s limit.1 Depending on the material composition and the extent of disorder, the thermal conductivity of some glasses can be down to 0.1-0.3 W/m∙K at room temperature,2,3 representing some of the lowest k values among existing solids. Such a low k can be further reduced by the interfacial phonon scattering within a nanocomposite that can be used for thermal insulation applications. In this work, nanocomposites hot pressed from the mixture of glass nanopowder (GeSe4 or Ge20Te70Se10) and commercial SiO2 nanoparticles, or pure glass nanopowder, are investigated for the potential k reduction. It is found that adding SiO2 nanoparticles will instead increase k if the measured k values for usually porous nanocomposites are converted into those for the corresponding solid (kSolid) with Eucken’s formula. In contrast, pure glass nano-samples always show kSolid data significantly reduced from that for the starting glass. For a pure GeSe4 nano-sample, kSolid would beat the Einstein’s limit for its composition.
The influence of Zn on the adsorption and desorption of Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on palygorskite and montmorillonite was studied. The adsorption of the toxin gradually increased with increasing Zn concentration from 0 to 1.0 mmol L–1, and then decreased with further increase in Zn concentration. The adsorption isotherms of the toxin in the absence and presence of Zn were well described by the Langmuir equation (R2 > 0.9810–0.9991). The separation factor (RL) decreased with increase of Zn concentration, suggesting that the irreversibility of the adsorption increases. The XRD results showed that the treatment by Tris buffer or Zn(NO3)2 solution caused an expansion of the interlayer space of montmorillonite but did not affect palygorskite. The IR spectra suggest that Zn was likely to be combined with amino groups on the surface of the toxin. The presence of Zn during the adsorption of the toxin decreased desorption, suggesting that the residual risk of toxin would be exacerbated if soil is polluted by zinc.
4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) end-capped with mimics of adhesive moiety found in mussel adhesive protein, dopamine, was combined with a biocompatible nano-silicate, Laponite, in creating a nanocomposite hydrogel with improved materials and adhesive properties. Dopamine’s ability to form both irreversible covalent (cohesive and interfacial) and reversible physical (with Laponite) crosslinks was exploited in creating an injectable tissue adhesive. Incorporation of Laponite did not interfere with the curing of the adhesive. In some instances, increasing Laponite content reduced gelation time as dopamine-Laponite bond reduced the required number of covalent bonds needed for network formation. Incorporation of Laponite also increased compressive materials properties (e.g., max strength, energy to failure, etc.) of the nanocomposite without compromising its compliance as strain at failure was also increased. From lap shear adhesion test using wetted pericardium as the substrate, incorporating Laponite increased work of adhesion by 5 fold over that of control. Strong, physical bonds formed between dopamine and Laponite increased bulk materials properties, which contributed to the enhanced adhesive properties.
In this paper, we discuss the competition between the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) instabilities under the strong damping condition. Based on a five-wave interaction model, relations of the stationary backscattering reflectivity between SRS and SBS are deduced in the case of homogeneous plasmas. Developments of the two coexistent instabilities are simulated with different parameters. The density and the temperature of plasma are found to be important in determining which instability dominates the backscattering in the regime of competition. Furthermore, the influence of inhomogeneous condition to the pattern of competition is analyzed. Numerical results consist with our theoretical results.
Mid-Infrared optofluidics based silicon sensor platforms are demonstrated. Silicon is a great candidate for mid-infrared optofluidics for the following reasons: (1) Silicon has a broad transmission window up to 7 um (2) Silicon offers CMOS compatible and monolithic fabrication (3) Silicon has high chemical resistance that can withstand high temperature, acid/base solution and organic solvents. (4) Silicon is a non-toxic environmentally friendly material. The fabricated mid-infrared optofluidic sensor can replace bulky instruments, such as FTIR, with a lab-on-a-chip system, while achieving much higher sensitivity.